What You Must Know About Vitamins, Minerals, Herbs and So Much More—SECOND EDITION

Choosing the Nutrients That Are Right for You

IBPA logo  APSS logo
What You Must Know About Vitamins, Minerals, Herbs and So Much More—SECOND EDITION
Available
09/24/2019
Square One Publishers

WORLD ***

6.0 X 9.0 in
512 pg



HEALTH & FITNESS / Diet & Nutrition / Vitamins

9780757004711
$16.95 Paperback (Trade paperback (US))
New Release
Buy From Amazon Buy From Barnes & Noble

What You Must Know About Vitamins, Minerals, Herbs and So Much More—SECOND EDITION

By  Pamela Wartian Smith

AwardandPrize

Description

Almost 75 percent of your health and life expectancy is based on lifestyle, environment, and nutrition. Yet even if you follow a healthful diet, you are probably not getting all the nutrients you need to prevent disease. In What You Must Know About Vitamins, Minerals, Herbs and So Much More, Second Edition, Dr. Pamela Smith explains how you can restore and maintain health through the wise use of nutrients.

Part 1 of this easy-to-use guide provides the individual nutrients necessary for good health, including vitamins, minerals, herbs, fatty acids, amino acids, and beneficial substances such as CBD oil and cocoa. Part 2 then offers personalized nutritional programs for people with a wide variety of illnesses and disorders. Whether you want to maintain good health or you are trying to overcome a medical condition, What You Must Know About Vitamins, Minerals, Herbs and So Much More can help you make the best choices for the health and well-being of you and your family.

● Explains the need for and benefits of proper nutrition in easy-to-understand language

● Thoroughly describes the function and cautions of each recommended nutrient

● Offers the latest nutritional information for your most common health disorders

● Suggests optimum dosages and most effective supplement forms where appropriate

● Provides tips for increasing the body’s absorption of vitamins and minerals

● Includes practical and helpful advice for dealing with a variety of medical situations

Reviews

Author Biography

Pamela Wartian Smith, MD, MPH, MS, is a diplomate of the American Academy of Anti-Aging Physicians and co-director of the Master's Program in Medical Sciences, with a concentration in Metabolic and Nutritional Medicine, at the Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida. An authority on the subjects of wellness and personalized medicine, Dr. Smith is also the founder of the Fellowship in Anti-Aging, Regenerative, and Functional Medicine. Currently, she is the owner and director of the Center for Personalized Medicine, with locations in Michigan and Florida.

References

References

 

Introduction

Alexander, D., et al., “A systematic review of multivitamin-multimineral use and cardiovascular disease and cancer incidence and total mortality, “ Jour Amer Coll Nutr 2013; 32(5):359-54.

Fletcher, R., et al., “Vitamins for chronic disease prevention in adults,” JAMA 2002; 287(23):3116.

Hardy, M., et al., “Multivitamin/multimineral supplements for cancer prevention: implications for primary care practice,” Postgrad Med 2015; 127(1):107-16.

Hu, F., et al., “Diet, lifestyle, and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women,” JAMA 2001; 345(11):790–97.

Murray, C., et al., “Alternative projections of mortality and disability by cause 1990–2020: global burden of disease study,” Lancet 1997; 349:1498–1504.

Vita, A., et al., “Aging, health risks, and cumulative disability,” NEJM 1998; 338:1035–41.

 

The Purpose of This Book

Angelo, G., et al., “Efficacy of multivitamin/mineral supplementation to reduce chronic disease risk: A critical review of the evidence from observational studies and randomized controlled trials,” Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2015; 55(14):1968-91.

Bender, D., Introduction to Nutrition and Metabolism. 5th Ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2014.

Bland, J., “Oxidants and antioxidants in clinical medicine: past, present, and future potential,” Jour Environ Med 1995; 5:255–80.

Challem, J., Syndrome X. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2000.

Colgan, M., The New Nutrition. Vancouver, BC: Apple Publishing, 1995.

Galland, L., “Person-centered diagnosis and chronic fatigue,” Metabolic Energy, Messenger Molecules, and Chronic Illness: The Functional Perspective. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 2000.

Lieberman, S., The Real Vitamin and Mineral Book. New York, NY: Avery Publishing Group, 1997.

Nord, E., et al., “Addressing nutritional gaps with multivitamin and mineral supplements,” Nutr Jour 2014; July 15; 13:72.

 

Mixing Supplements, Drugs, and Food

Colgan, M., The New Nutrition.Vancouver, BC: Apple Publishing, 1995.

Fuhr, U., et al. “Drug interactions with grapefruit juice, extent, probable mechanism, and clinical relevance,” Drug Sci 1998; 18:251–72.

Lieberman, S., The Real Vitamin and Mineral Book. New York, NY: Avery Publishing Group, 1997.

Meletis, C., Interactions Between Drugs and Natural Medicines. Sandy, OR: Electric Medical Publications, 1999.

Sinatra, D., and Houston, M., Nutritional Integrative Strategies in Cardiovascular Health. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2015.

Taylor, L., The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers, 2005.

Ulene, A., Dr. Art Ulene’s Complete Guide to Vitamins, Minerals, and Herbs. New York, NY: Avery Publishing Group, 2000.

 

PART 1: NUTRIENTS

 

CHAPTER 1: VITAMINS

Bateman, J., “Possible toxicity of herbal remedies,” Scot Med Jour 1998; 4:7–15.

Bender, D., Introduction to Nutrition and Metabolism. 5th Ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2014.

Colgan, M., The New Nutrition.Vancouver, BC: Apple Publishing, 1995.

Hart, C., The Insulin-Resistance Diet. Chicago, IL: Contemporary Books, 2001.

Lieberman, S., The Real Vitamin and Mineral Book. New York, NY: Avery Publishing Group, 1997.

 

Vitamin A and the Carotenoids

Allen, L., et al., “Iron supplements: scientific issues concerning efficacy and implications for research and programs,” Jour Nutr 2002; 132 (4 Suppl):813S-819S.

Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group, The, “The effect of vitamin E and β-carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers,” NEJM 1994; 330(15):1029-35.

Aune, D., et al., “Dietary compared with blood concentrations of carotenoids and breast cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2012; 96(2):356-73.

Bellemere, G., et al., “Amazing actions of retinol from molecular to clinical,” Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2009; 22(4):200-09.

Berson, E., et al., “A randomized trial of vitamin A and vitamin E supplementation for retinitis pigmentosa,”Arch Ophthalmol 1993; 111(6):761-72.  

Bitteto, D., et al., “Vitamin A deficiency is associated with hepatitis C virus chronic infection and with unresponsiveness to interferon-based antiviral therapy,” Hepatology 2013; 57(3):925-33.

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.

Booij, M., et al., “Acitretin revisited in the era of biologics,” Jour Dermatol Treat 2011; 22(2):86-9.

Boucheron-Houston, C., et al., “Long-term vitamin A deficiency induces alteration of adult mouse spermatogenesis and spermatogonial differentiation: direct effect on spermatogonial gene expression and indirect effects via somatic cells,” Jour Nutr Biochem 2013; 24(6):1123-35.

Braun, L., and Cohen, M., (Eds.) Herbs and Natural Supplements. 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

Brownstein, D., The Miracle of Natural Hormones. West Bloomfield, MI: Medical Alternatives Press, 1999.

Cerhan, J., et al., “A cohort study of diet and prostate cancer risk,” Cancer Epidem Biomark Preven 1998; 7:175.

Chew, E., et al, “Secondary analyses of the effects of lutein/zeaxanthin on age-related macular degeneration progression: AREDS2 report No. 3,” JAMA Ophthalmol 2014; 132(2):142-49. 

Chew, E., et al., “Effect of omega-3 fatty acids, lutein/zeaxanthin, or other nutrient supplementation on cognitive function: the AREDS2 randomized clinical trial,” JAMA 2015; 314:791-801.

Cho, E., et al., “Prospective study of intake of fruits, vegetables, vitamins, and carotenoids and risk of age-related maculopathy,” Arch Ophthalmol 2004; 122(6):883-92.

Christen, W., et al., “A randomized trial of β-carotene and age-related cataract in US physicians,” Arch Ophthalmol 2003; 121(3):372-78. 

Christian, P., et al., “Interactions between zinc and vitamin A: an update,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1998; 68(2 Suppl):435S-441S.

Clinton, S., et al., “Cis-trans isomers of lycopene in the human prostate: a role in cancer prevention?” FASEB Jour 1995; 9:A442.

Crook, T., The Memory Cure. New York, NY: Pocket Books, 1998.

Dai, Z., et al., “Protective effects of dietary carotenoids on risk of hip fracture in men: the Singapore Chinese Health Study,” Jour Bone Miner Res 2014; 29(2):408-17.

D'Odorico, A., et al., “High plasma levels of alpha- and β-carotene are associated with a lower risk of atherosclerosis: results from the Bruneck study,” Atherosclerosis 2000; 153(1):231-39. 

Durairajanayagam, D., et al., “Lycopene and male infertility,” Asian Jour Androl 2014; 16(3):420–25.

Dwyer, J., et al., “Progression of carotid intima-media thickness and plasma antioxidants: The Los Angeles Atherosclerosis Study,” Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2004; 24(2):313-19. 

Eliassen, A., et al., “Circulating carotenoids and risk of breast cancer: pooled analysis of eight prospective studies,” Jour Natl Cancer Inst 2012; 104(24):1905-16. 

Evans, J., “Antioxidant supplements to prevent or slow down the progression of AMD: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Eye 2008; 22(6):751-60.

Feskanich, D., et al. “Vitamin A intake and hip fracture among postmenopausal woman,” JAMA 2002; 287(1):47–54.

Friedman, L., “Saffron improves vision in aging humans,” Life Extension July 2016, p. 24-31.

Gale, C., et al., “Lutein and zeaxanthin status and risk of age-related macular degeneration,” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2003; 44(6):2461-65. 

Gann, P., et al., “A phase II randomized trial of lycopene-rich tomato extract among men with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia,” Nutr Cancer 2015; 67(7):1104-12. 

Gey, K., et al., “Low plasma retinol predicts coronary events in healthy middle-aged men: The PRIME Study,” Atherosclerosis 2010; 208(1):270-74.

Gontero, P., et al., “A randomized double-blind placebo controlled phase I-II study on clinical and molecular effects of dietary supplements in men with precancerous prostatic lesions,” Chemoprevention or "chemopromotion"? Prostate 2015; 75(11):1177-86.

Huk, D., et al., “Increased dietary intake of vitamin A promotes aortic valve calcifications in vivo,” Artherioscler Thromb Vas Biol 2013; 33(2):285-93.

Ito, Y., et al., “A population-based follow-up study on mortality from cancer or cardiovascular disease and serum carotenoids, retinol and tocopherols in Japanese inhabitants,” Asian Pac Jour Cancer Prev 2006; 136(7):533-46.

Jang, J., et al., “Kinetic analysis shows that iron deficiency decreases liver vitamin A mobilization in rats,” Jour Nutr 2000; 130(5):1291-96.

Johansson, S., et al., “Vitamin A antagonizes calcium response to vitamin D in man,” Jour Bone Miner Res 2001; 16(10):1899-1905.

Johnson, E., et al., “The role of carotenoids in human health,” Nutr Clin Care 2002; 5(2):56-65.

Kabat, G., et al., “Intake of antioxidant nutrients and risk of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in the women’s Health Initative,” Nutr Cancer 2012; 64(2):245-54.

Key, T., et al.  “Carotenoids, retinol, tocopherols, and prostate cancer risk: pooled analysis of 15 studies,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2015; 102(5):1142-57. 

Kim, E., et al., “A comparison of vitamin A and cyclosporine A 0.05% eye drops for treatment of dry eye syndrome,” Amer Jour Ophthamol 2009; 147(2):206-13.

Krinsky, N., et al., “Carotenoid actions and their relation to health and diseases,” Mol Aspects Med 2005; 26(6):459-516.

Krinsky, N., Vitamin A. Oregon: Linus Pauling Institute, 2002.

Kritchevsky, S., “β-Carotene, carotenoids and the prevention of coronary heart disease,” Jour Nutr 1999; 129(1):5-8. 

Kumar, N., et al., “Results of a randomized clinical trial of the action of several doses of lycopene in localized prostate cancer: administration prior to radical prostatectomy,” Clin Med Urol 2008; 1:1-14.

Leenders, M., et al., “Plasma and dietary carotenoids and vitamins A, C and E and risk of colon and rectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition,” Int Jour Cancer 2014; 135(12):2930-39. 

Leoncini, E., et al., “Carotenoid intake from natural sources and head and neck cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies,” Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2015; 24(7):1003-11.

Li, C., et al., “Serum alpha-carotene concentrations and risk of death among US adults: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Follow-up Study,” Arch Inter Med 2011; 171(6):507-15.

Li, Y., et al., “Lycopene, smoking and lung cancer,” Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 1997; 38:113.

Lieber, C., “Relationships between nutrition, alcohol use, and liver disease,” Alcohol Res Health 2003; 27(3):220-31.

Lieberman, S., The Real Vitamin and Mineral Book. New York, NY: Avery Publishing Group, 1997.

Liu, R., et al., “Lutein and zeaxanthin supplementation and association with visual function in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2015; 56(1):252-58.

Lo-Coco, F., et al., “Retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide for acute promyelocytic leukemia,” NEJM 2013; 369(2):111-21.

Ma, I., et al., “Effect of lutein and zeaxanthin on macular pigment and visual function in patients with early age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmolgy 2012; 119(11):2290-97.

Ma, I., et al., “Improvement of retinal function in early age-related macular degeneration after lutein and zeaxanthin supplementation: a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial,” Amer Jour Ophthalmol 2012; 154(4):625-34.

Ma, l., et al., “Effect of lutein and zeaxanthin on macular pigment and visual function in patients with early age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 2012; 119(11):2290-97.

Mares-Perlman, J., et al., “The body of evidence to support a protective role for lutein and zeaxanthin in delaying chronic disease. Overview,” Jour Nutr 2002; 132(3):518S-524S. 

Mason, J., “Vitamins, trace minerals, and other micronutrients.” Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th Ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders; 2011.

Min, K., et al., “Association between leukocyte telomere length and serum carotenoid in US adults,” Eur Jour Nutr 2016.

Mizuno, Y., et al., “Serum vitamin A concentrations in asthmatic children in Japan,” Pediatr Int 2006; 48(3):261-64.

Morris, M., et al., “Associations of vegetable and fruit consumption with age-related cognitive change,” Neurology 2006; 67(8):1370-76. 

Mu, L., et al., “Effects of lutein and zeaxanthin on aspects of eye health,” Jour Sci Food Agric 2010; 90(1):2-12.

Murray, I., et al., “Lutein supplementation over a one-year period in early AMD might have a mild beneficial effect on visual acuity: the CLEAR study,” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2013; 54(3):1781-88.

Neuhouser, M., et al., “Olestra is associated with slight reductions in serum carotenoids but does not markedly influence serum fat-soluble vitamin concentrations,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2006; 83(3):624-31.

Orfanos, C., et al., “Oral retinoids in the treatment of seborrhoea and acne,” Dermatology 1998; 196(1):140-47.

Osganian, S., et al., “Dietary carotenoids and risk of coronary artery disease in women,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2003; 77(6):1390-99.

Paran, E., et al., “Effect of lycopene on blood pressure, serum lipoproteins, plasma homocysteine, and oxidative stress markers in grade I hypertensive patients,” Amer Jour Hyperten 2001; 140–141A, Abstract P-333.

Paran, E., et al., “Effect of lycopene, an oral natural antioxidant, on blood pressure,” Jour Hyperten 2001; 19:S74, Abstract P-1.204.

Pietrizk, K., et al., “Antioxidant, vitamins, cancer, and cardiovascular disease,” NEJM Letter to the Editor 1996; 335(14):1065–66.

Pongeharosen, S., et al., “Protective effect of silk lutein on ultraviolet B-irradiated human keratinocytes,” Biol Res 2013; 46(1):39-45.

Qu, M., et al., “Lycopene prevents amyloid (beta)-Induced mitochondrial oxidative stress and dysfunctions in cultured rat cortical neurons,” Neurochem Res 2016; 41(6):1354-64.

Qu, M., et al., “Protective effects of lycopene against methylmercury-induced neurotoxicity in cultured rat cerebellar granule neurons,” Brain Res 2013; 1540:92-102.

Rao, A., et al., “Role of lycopene as antioxidant carotenoid in the prevention of chronic diseases: a review,” Nutri Res 1999; 19:305-23.

Richer, S., et al., “Double-masked place-controlled, randomized trial of lutein and antioxidant supplementation in the intervention of atrophic age-related macular degeneration: the Veterans LAST study (Lutein Antioxidant Supplementation Trial),” Optometry 2004; 75(4):216-30.

Rissanen, T., et al., “Low plasma lycopene concentration is associated with increased intima-media thickness of the carotid artery wall,” Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2000; 20(12):2677-81. 

Roberts, J., et al., “The photobiology of lutein and zeaxanthin in the eye,” Jour Ophthalmol 2015; 2015:687173.

Ross, A., “Vitamin A.” Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 11th Ed: Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2014, p.260-277.

Russell, R., “The vitamin A spectrum: from deficiency to toxicity,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2000; 71(4):878-84.

Sahni, S., et al., “Protective effect of total carotenoid and lycopene intake on the risk of hip fracture: a 17-year follow-up from the Framingham Osteoporosis Study,” Jour Bone Miner Res 2009; 24(6):1086-94. 

Sasamoto, Y., et al., “Effect of 1-year lutein supplementation on macular pigment optical density and visual function,” Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2011; 249(12):1847-54.

Semba, R., et al. “Vitamin A and immunity to viral, bacterial, and protozoan infections,” Proc Nutr Soc 1999; 58(3):719–27.

Semba, R., et al., “The anemia of vitamin A deficiency: epidemiology and pathogenesis,” Eur Jour Clin Nutr 2002; 56(4):271-81.

Sesso, H., et al., “Plasma lycopene, other carotenoids, and retinol and the risk of cardiovascular disease in women,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2004; 79(1):47-53.

Sibulesky, L., et al., “Safety of <7500 RE (<25000 IU) vitamin A daily in adults with retinitis pigmentosa,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1999; 69(4):656-63.

Sies, H., et al., “Vitamins E, C, beta-carotene, and other carotenoids as antioxidants,” Amer Jour Nutr 995; 62 (6 Supple):1315S-1321S.

Solomons, N. “Vitamin A.” Present Knowledge in Nutrition. 10th Ed, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2012, p.149-84. 

Sugiura, M., et al., “High serum carotenoids associated with lower risk for bone loss and osteoporosis in post-menopausal Japanese female subjects: prospective cohort study,” PLoS One 2012; 7(12):e52643.

Suharno, D., et al., “Supplementation with vitamin A and iron for nutritional anaemia in pregnant women in West Java, Indonesia,” Lancet 1993; 342(8883):1325-28.

Thielitz, A., et al., “Topical retinoids in acne vulgaris: update on efficacy and safety,” Amer Jour Clin Dermatol 2008; 9(6):369-81.

Tyrer, L., “Nutrition and the pill,” Jour Reprod Med 1984; 29(7):S547-S550.

Underwood, B., et al., “The contribution of vitamin A to public health,” Faseb Jour 1996; 10(9):1040-48.

van Poppel, G., et al., “Effect of β-carotene on immunological indexes in healthy male smokers,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1993; 57(3):402-07. 

Voutilainen, S., et al., “Carotenoids and cardiovascular health,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2006; 83(6):1265-71. 

Weigert, G., et al., “Effects of lutein supplementation on macular pigment optical density and visual acuity in patients with age-related macular degeneration,” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2011; 52(11):8174-78.

Wu, J., et al., “Intakes of lutein, zeaxanthin, and other carotenoids and age-related macular degeneration during 2 decades of prospective follow-up,” JAMA Ophthalmol 205; 133(12):1415-24.

Yang, H., et al., “Vitamin A for treating measles in children,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011; 2005.

Yilmaz, A., et al., “Adjuvant effect of vitamin A on recurrent lower urinary tract infections,” Pediatr Int 2007; 49(3):3110-13.

 

Vitamin D

Al Faraj, S., et al., “Vitamin D deficiency and chronic low back pain in Saudi Arabia,” Spine 2003; 28(2):177-9.

Ali, F., et al., “Loss of seizure control due to anticonvulsant-induced hypocalcemia,” Am Pharmacother 2004; 38(6):1002-5.

Armas, L., et al., “Vitamin D2 is much less effective than vitamin D3 in humans,” Jour Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004; 89:5387-391.

Ashtari, F., et al., “The relation between vitamin D status with fatigue and depressive symptoms of multiple sclerosis,” Jour Res Med Sci 2013; 18(3):193-97.

Baird, D., et al., “Vitamin D and risk of uterine fibroids,” Epidemiology 2013; 24(3):447-53.

Bischoff-Ferrari, H., et al., “Fracture prevention with vitamin D supplementation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials,” JAMA, 2005; 293(18):2257-64.

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.

Borissova, A., et al., “The effect of vitamin D3 on insulin secretion and peripheral insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients,” Int J. Clin Pract 2003; 57(4):258-61.

Borkar, V. et al., “Low levels of vitamin D in North Indian children with newly diagnosed type I diabetes,” Horm Metab Res 2005; 37:680-83.

Bouilon, R., et al., “Vitamin D as potential baseline therapy for blood pressure control,” Amer Jour Hypertens 2009; 22:816.

Braun, L., et al., Herbs & Natural Supplements: An Evidence-Based Guide. 4th Ed. Volume 2. New York: Elsevier, 2015.

Busse, B., et al., “Vitamin D deficiency induces early signs of aging in human bone, increasing the risk of fracture,” Science Transl Med 2013; 5(192):ra88.

Cao, Y., et al., “Association between serum levels of 25(OH) vitamin D and osteoarthritis: a systemic review,” Rheumatology 2013; 52(7):1323-34.

Chiu, K., et al., “Hypovitaminosis D is associated with insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2004; 79:820–25.

Christiansen, C., et al., “Anticonvulsant action of vitamin D in epileptic patients? A controlled pilot study,” Br. Med J. 1974; 2(913):258-9.

Collins, J., What’s Your Menopause Type? Roseville, CA: Prima Publishing, 2000.

Dawson-Hughes, B., et al., “Effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone density in men and women 65 years of age or older,” NEJM 1997; 337(10):670–76.

Dawson-Hughes, B., et al., “Effect of vitamin D supplementation on wintertime and overall bone loss in healthy postmenopausal women,” Ann Intern Med 1991; 115(7):505–12.

de Boer, I., et al., “25-hydroxyvitamin D levels inversely associated with risk for developing coronary artery calcification,” Jour Amer Soc Nephrol 2009; 20:1805-12.

Gagnon, C., et al., “Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, calcium intake, and risk of type 2 diabetes after 5 years: results from a national, population-based prospective study (the Australian Diabetes, Obesity, and Lifestyle study),” Diabetes Care 2011; 34:1133-38.

Garcia-Bailo, B., et al., “Plasma vitamin D and biomarkers of cardiometabolic disease risk in adult Canadians, 2007-2009,” Prev Chronic Dis 2013; June 6, 10:E91.

Garland, C., et al., “What is the dose-response relationship between vitamin D and cancer risk? Nutrition Reviews 2007; 65(8):S91-S95.

Ginde, A., et al., “Demographic differences and trends of vitamin D insufficiency in the U.S. population, 1988-2004,” Arch Intern Med 2008; 169(6):626-32.

Glendenning, P., et al., “Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in vitamin D-insufficient hip fracture patients after supplementation with ergocalciferol and cholecalciferol,” Bone 2009; 45(5):870-75.

Goldberg, P., et al., “Multiple sclerosis: decreased relapse rate through dietary supplementation with calcium, magnesium and vitamin D,” Med Hypotheses, 1986: 21(2):193-200.

Grant, W., et al., “An estimate of premature cancer mortality in the U.S. due to inadequate doses of solar ultraviolet-B radiation,” Cancer 2002; 94(6):1867-75. 

Heaney R., et al., “Vitamin D(3): is more potent than vitamin D(2) in humans,” Jour Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001; 96(3):E447-52.

Holick, M., et al., “Vitamin D and bone health,” Jour Nutr 1996; 126:1159S–1164S.

Holick, M., et al., “Calcium and vitamin D. Diagnostics and therapeutics,” Clin Lab Med 2000; 20(3):569-90. 

Huisman, A., et al., “Vitamin D levels in women with systemic lupus erythematosus and fibromyalgia,” J. Rheumatol 2001; 28(11)2535-9.

Kini, S., et al., “A reversible form of cardiomyopathy,” J. Postgrad Med 2003; 49(1):85-7. 

Lansdown, A., et al., “Vitamin D3 enhances mood in healthy subjects during winter,” Psychopharm 1998; 135(4):319-23.

Lee, J., et al., “Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in patients with acute myocardial infarction,” Amer Jour Cardiol 2011; 107:1636-38.

Leroith, D., “How vitamin D works on bone,” Endocrinol and Metabol Clinics of North Amer 2012; 41(3):567-69.

Littorin, B., et al., “Lower levels of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D among young adults at diagnosis of autoimmune type I diabetes compared with control subjects: results from the nationwide Diabetes Incidence Study in Sweden (DISS),” Diabetologia 22006; 49:2847-52.

Llewellyn, D., et al., “Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentration and cognitive impairment,” Jour Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 2009; 22(3):188-95.

Llewellyn, D., et al., “Vitamin D and cognitive impairment in the elderly U.S. population,” Jour Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2011; 66A(1):59-65.

Maddock, J., et al., “Vitamin D and common mental disorders in mid-life: cross-sectional and prospective findings,” Clin Nutr 2013; 32(5):758-64.

Matsuoka, L., et al., “Chronic sunscreen use decreases the concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D: a preliminary study,” Arch Dermatol 1988; 124:1802-804.

McAlindon., T., et al., “Relation of dietary intake and serum levels of vitamin D to progression of osteoarthritis of the knee among participants in the Framingham study,” Ann Int Med 1996; 125(5):353-9.

Papadimitropoulos, E., et al., “Meta-analyses of therapies for postmenopausal osteoporosis. VIII: Meta-analysis of the efficacy of vitamin D treatment in preventing osteoporosis in postmenopausal women,” Endocrine Rev 2002; 23(4):560-60.

Pelton, R. and LaValle, J., The Nutritional Cost of Drugs. 2nd Ed. Englewood, CO: Morton Publishing Company, 2004.

Pittas, A., et al., “The role of vitamin D and calcium in type 2 diabetes. A systematic review and meta-analysis.” Jour Cllin Endocrino Metab 2007; 92:2017-29.

Plotnikoff, G., et al., “Prevalence of severe hypovitaminosis D in patients with persistent, nonspecific musculoskeletal pain,” May Clin Proc 2003; 78(12):1463-70.

Romagnoli, E., et al., “Short and long-term variations in serum calciotropic hormones after a single very large dose of ergocalaciferol (vitamin D2) or cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) in the elderly,” Jour Clin Endocrinol Metabol 2008; 93(8):3015-20.

Sabry, M., et al., “Serum vitamin D3 level inversely correlates with uterine fibroid volume in different ethnic groups: a cross-sectional observational study,” Int Jour Women’s Health 2013; 5:93-100.

Schottker, B., et al., “Strong association of 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentrations with all-cause, cardiovascular, cancer, and respiratory disease mortality in a large cohort study,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2013; 97(4):782-93.

Scragg, R., et al., “Myocardial infarction is inversely associated with plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels: a community-based study,” Int J. Epidemiol 1990; 19(3):559-63.

Shahbeigi, S., et al., “Vitamin D3 concentration correlates with the severity of multiple sclerosis,” Int Jour Prev Med 2013; 4(5):585-91.

Sorensen, O., et al., “Myopathy in bone loss of ageing improvement by treatment with 1 alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol and calcium,” Clin Sci (London) 1979; 56(2):157-61.

Thomas, G., et al., “Vitamin D levels predict all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in subjects with the metabolic syndrome: the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) study,” Diabetes Care 2012; 35:1158-64.

Thys-Jacob S., Vitamin D and calcium in menstrual migraine,” Headache 1994; 34(9):544-6. 

Thys-Jacobs, S., et al., “Vitamin D and calcium dysregulation in the polycystic ovarian syndrome,” Steroids 1999; 64(6):430-5.

Toffanello, E., et al., “Vitamin D deficiency predicts cognitive decline in older men and women: The Pro.V.A. Study,” Neurology 2014; 83(24):2292-98.

Trang, H., et al., “Evidence that vitamin D3 increases serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D more efficiently than does vitamin D2.” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1998; 68:854-58.

Van de Berge, G., et a., “Bone turnover in prolonged critical illness: effect of vitamin D,” J. Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003; 88(10):4623-32. 

Vasquez, A., et al., “The clinical importance of vitamin D (cholecalciferol): a paradigm shift with implications for all healthcare providers,” Alternative Therapies 2004; 10(5):35.

Woeckel, V., et al., “1alpha,25(OH)2D3 acts in the early phase of osteoblast differentiation to enhance mineralization via accelerated production of mature matrix vesicles,” Jour Cell Physiol 2010; 225(2):593-600.

Wolden-Kirk, H., et al., “Extraskeletal Effects of Vitamin D.” Osteoporosis: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics 2012; 41(3):571-94.

Yoshida, T., et al., “How Vitamin D Works on Bone.” Osteoporosis: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics 2012; 41(3):557-69.

Yousef, F., et al., “Vitamin D status and breast cancer in Saudi Arabian Women: case control study,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2013; 9(1):105-10.

Zempleni, J., et al. Handbook of Vitamins, 5th Edition. New York: CRC Press, 2014.

Zittermann, A., et al., “Low vitamin D status: a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of congestive heart failure?” J. Am Coll Cardiol, 2003; 41:105-12.

 

Vitamin E

Age-Related Eye Disease Study Research Group. “A randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of high-dose supplementation with vitamins C and E, beta carotene, and zinc for age-related macular degeneration and vision loss: AREDS report no. 8.,” Arch Ophthalmol 2001; 119:1417-36.

Behl, C., et al., “Vitamin E protects nerve cell from amyloid and protein toxicity,” Biochem Biophysiol Jour Res Commun 1992; 18692:944-50.

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.

 

Braun, L., and Cohen, M., Herbs & Natural Supplements: An Evidenced-Based Guide. 4th Ed, Volume 2. New York: Elsevier, 2015.

Chan, A., et al., “Vitamin E and atherosclerosis,” Jour Nutr 1998; 128(10):1593-96.

Cherubini, A., et al., “Vitamin E levels, cognitive impairment and dementia in older persons: the InCHIANTI study,” Neuro Biol Aging 2005; 26(7):987-94.

Cheung, M., et al., “Antioxidant supplements block the response of HDL to simvastatin-niacin therapy in patients with coronary artery disease and low HDL,” Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2001; 21:1320-26.

Chong, E., et al., “Dietary antioxidants and primary prevention of age-related macular degeneration: systematic review and meta-analysis,” BMJ 2007; 335:755.

Crook, T., The Memory Cure. New York, NY: Pocket Books, 1998.

Fahn, S., “A pilot trial of high-dose alpha-tocopherol and ascorbate in early Parkinson’s disease,” Ann Neurol 1992; 32(Suppl):S128-S132.

Fillion, M., Natureal Prostate Healers. Paramus, NJ: Prentice Hall Press, 1999.

Freedman, F., et al.., “Alpha-tocopherol inhibits aggregation of human platelets by a protein kinase C-dependent mechanism,” Circulation 1996; 94(10):2434-40.

Gaby, A., Nutritional Therapy in Medical Practice. Carlisle, PA: Nutrition Seminars, 2003.

Illison, V., et al., “The relationship between plasma alpha-tocopherol concentration and vitamin E intake in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Int Jour Vit Nutr Res 2011; 81(1):12-20.

Kleijnen, J., et al., “Vitamin E for intermittent claudication,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000; 2:CD000987.

Knekt, P., et al., “Antioxidant vitamin intake and coronary mortality in a longitudinal population study,” Amer Jour Epidemiol 1994; 139:1180-89.

Kowdley, K., et al., “Vitamin E deficiency and impaired cellular immunity related to intestinal fat malabsorption,” Gastroenterology 1992; 102:2139-42.

Lethem, R., et al., “Antioxidants and dementia,” Lancet 1997; 348:1189.

Lin, J., et al., “UV photoprotection by combination topical antioxidants vitamin C and vitamin E,” Jour Amer Acad Dermatol 2003; 4896):866-74.

Meydani, S., et al., “Vitamin E supplementation and in vivo immune response in healthy elderly subjects,” JAMA 1997; 277:1380-86.

Munteanu, A., et al., “Anti-atherosclerotic effects of vitamin E: myth or reality?” Jour Cell Mol Med 2004; 8(1):59-76.

Packer, L., The Antioxidant Miracle. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1999.

Paolisso, G., et al., “Vitamin E improves the action of insulin,” Diabetes Care 1989; 12265-69.

Qureshi, A., et al., “Lowering of serum cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic humans by tocotrienols (palmvite),” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1991; 53(4):Suppl:1021S-1026S.

Qureshi, A., et al., “Response of hypercholesterolemic subjects to administration of toccotrienols,” Lipids 1995; 30(12):1171-77.

Rizvi, S., et al., “The role of vitamin E in human health and some diseases,” Sultan Quaboos Univ Med Jour 2014; 14(2):E157-E165.

Seno, M., et al., “A controlled trial of selegiline, alpha-tocopherol, or both as treatment for Alzheimer’s disease. The Alzheimer’s disease cooperative study,” NEJM 1997; 336:1216-22.

Stampfer, M., et al., “Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary disease in women,” NEJM 1993; 328:1444-49.

Tomeo, A., et al., “Antioxidant effects of tocotrienols in patients with hyperlipidemia and carotid stenosis,” Lipids 1995; 30(12):1179-83.

Traber, M., et al., “Effect of vitamin E and beta-carotene on DNA strand breakage induced by tobacco-specific nitrosamines and stimulated human phagocytes,” Jour Exp Clin Cancer Res 1997; 16:11-4.

Wolf, S., et al., “Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy: prevention and treatment strategies,” Eur Jour Cancer 2008; 44(11):1507-15.

Ziaei, S., et al., “A randomized controlled trial of vitamin E in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea,” Brit Jour Obstet Gynecol 2005; 12(4):466-69.

 

Vitamin K

Berkner, K., “The physiology of vitamin K nutriture and vitamin K-dependent protein function in atherosclerosis,” Jour Throm Haemost 2004; 2(12):2118-132.

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.

Bonjour, J., et al., “Nutritional aspects of hip fractures,” Bone 1996; 18(3 Suppl):139S-44S.

Booth, S., et al., “Skeletal functions of vitamin K-dependent proteins: not just for clotting anymore,” Nutr Rev 1997; 55:282–84.

Booth, S., et al., “Warfarin use and fracture risk,” Nutr Rev 2000; 58(1):20–2.

Booth, S., et al., “Effects of a hydrogenated form of vitamin K on bone formation and resorption,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2001; 74(6):783-90.

Collins, J., What’s Your Menopause Type? Roseville, CA: Prima Publishing, 2000.

Demer, L., et al., “Novel mechanisms in accelerated vascular calcification in renal disease patients,” Curr Opin Nephrol Hyperten 2002; 11(4):437-43.

Feskanich, D., et al., “Vitamin K intake and hip fracture in women: a prospective study,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1999; 69:74–9.

Geleijnse, J., “Dietary intake of menaquinone is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease: the Rotterdam Study.,” Jour Nutr 2004; 134(11):3100-1005.

Goepp, J., “Vitamin K’s delicate balancing act,” Life Extension 2006; April, p. 59-67.

Graci, S., The Bone-Building Solution. Mississauga, Ontario, Canada: John Wiley & Sons Canada Ltd, 2006.

Habu, D., et al., “Role of vitamin K2 in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in women with viral cirrhosis of the liver,” JAMA 2004; 21; 292(3):358-61.

Hansen, L., et al., “Prevention and treatment of nonpostmenopausal osteoporosis,” Amer Jour Health Syst Pharm 2004; 61(24):2637–54.

Hidaka, T., “Treatment for patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis who have been placed on HRT and show a decrease in bone mineral density: Effects of concomitant administration of vitamin K,” Jour Bone Miner Metab 2002; 20(4):235–39.

Israels, L., et al., “The riddle of vitamin K1 deficit in the newborn,” Semin Perinatol 1997; 21(1):90-6.

Janein, B., et al., “Low vitamin K linked to coronary calcification risk: nutritional intervention might be possible.” Family Practice News 2002; 32(1):1–2.

Kakizaki, S., et al., “Preventive effects of vitamin K on recurrent disease in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma arising from hepatitis C viral infection,” Jour Gastroenterol Hepatol 2007; 22(4):518-22.

Kaneki, M., et al., “Vitamin K2 as a protector of bone health and beyond,” Clin Calcium 2005; 15(4):605-10.

Miggiano, G., et al., “Vitamin K and diet: problems and prospects,” Clin Ther 2005; 156(1-2):41-6.

Mizuta, T., et al., “The effect of menatetrenone, a vitamin K2 analog on disease recurrence and survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma after curative treatment: a pilot study,” Cancer 2006; 106(4):867-72.

Neogi, T., et al., “Low vitamin K status is associated with osteoarthritis in the hand and knee,” Arthritis Rheum 2006; 54(4):1255-61.

Oka, H., et al., “Association of low dietary vitamin K with radiographic knee osteoarthritis in the Japanese elderly population: dietary survey in a population-based cohort of the ROAD study,” Jour Orthop Sci 2009; 14(6):687-92.

Okano, T., “Vitamin D, K and bone mineral density,” Clin Calcium 2005; 15(9):1489-494. 

Philip, W., et al., “Decreased axial and peripheral bone density in patients taking long-term warfarin,” QJM 1995; 88(9):635–40.

Plaza, S., et al., “Vitamin K<->2<-> in bone metabolism and osteoporosis.” Altern Med Rev 2005; 10(1):24–35.

Plaza, S., et al., “The anticancer effects of vitamin K,” Alt Med Rev 2003; 8(3):303-18.

Presse, N., et al., “Vitamin D status and cognitive function in healthy older patients,” Neurobiol Aging 2013; 34(12):2777-83.

Reese, A., et al., “Low-dose vitamin K to augment anticoagulation control,” Pharmacotherapy 2005; 25(12):1746-751.

Ryan-Harshman, M., et al., “Bone health. New role for vitamin K?” Can Fam Physician 2004; 50:993-97.

Schurgers, L., et al., “Novel conformation-specific antibodies against matrix gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) protein: undercarboxylated matrix Gla protein as marker for vascular calcification,” Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2005; 25(8):1629-633.

Shiraki, M., et al., “Vitamin K2 (menatetrenone) effectively prevents fractures and sustains lumbar bone mineral density in osteoporosis,” Jour Bone Miner Res 2000; 15(3):515-21.

Shoji, S., et al., “Vitamin K and vascular calcification,” Clin Calcium 2002; 12(8):1123-128.

Tsaiouri, K., “Vitamin K-dependent proteins in the developing and aging nervous system,” Nutr Rev 1999; 57(8):231-40.

Vermeer, C., et al., “A comprehensive review of vitamin K and vitamin K antagonist,” Hematol Oncol Clin North Amer 2000; 14(2):339–53.

Weber, P., “The role of vitamins in the prevention of osteoporosis—a brief status report,” Int Jour Vitam Nutr Res 1999; 69(3):194-97.

Witteman, J., et al., “Aortic calcified plaque and cardiovascular disease (the Framingham study),” Amer Jour Cardiol 1990; 66:1060–64.

 

Vitamin B Complex

Albert, M., et al., “Vitamin B12 synthesis by human small intestinal bacteria,” Nature 1980 283(5749):781-82.

Benjamin, J., et al., “Double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of inositol treatment for panic disorder.,” Amer Jour Psychiatry 1995; 152:1084–86.

Berkson, B., The Alpha Lipoic Acid Breakthrough. Rocklin, CA: Prima Publishing, 1998. 

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.

Bland, J. “Disorders of the Brain: Emerging Therapies in Complex Neurologic and Psychiatric Conditions,” Conference, 2002.

Bland, J. “Nutrients as Biological Response Modifiers,” Applying Functional Medicine in Clinical Practice. Gig Harbor, WA: Functional Medicine Institute, 2002.

Boltiglieri, T., et al., “Folate, vitamin B12, neuropsychiatric disorders.” Nutr Rev 1996; 54(2):138–42.

Butterworth, C., et al., “Folate deficiency and cervical dysplasia,” JAMA 1992; 267(4):528–33.

Chan, P., et al., “Randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the safety and efficacy of vitamin B complex in the treatment of nocturnal leg cramps in elderly patients with hypertension,” Jour Clin Pharm 1998; 38(12):1151–54.

Coggeshall, J., et al., “Biotin status and plasma glucose in diabetes,” Ann NY Acad Sci 1985; 447:389.

Colgan, M., The New Nutrition.Vancouver, BC: Apple Publishing, 1995.

Collins, J., What’s Your Menopause Type? Roseville, CA: Prima Publishing, 2000.

Crayhon, R., “Aging well in the 21st century,” Seminar 2002.

Crook, T., The Memory Cure. New York, NY: Pocket Books, 1998.

DiPalma, J., et al., “Use of niacin as a drug.” Annu Rev Nutr 1991; 11:169–87.

Gaby, A., Nutritional Therapy in Medical Practice. Carlisle, PA: Nutrition Seminars, 2003.

Gang, R., et al., “Niacin treatment increases plasma homocysteine levels.” Amer Heart Jour 1999; 138(6 Pt. 1):1082–87.

Goldman, R., Human Growth Factors. Chicago, IL: American Academy of Anti-Aging Physicians, 2003.

Hochman, L., et al., “Brittle nails: response to daily biotin supplementation,” Cutis 1993; 51(4):303–05.

Kapadia, C., et al., “Free intrinsic factor in the small intestine in man,” Gastroenterology 1976; 70(5 pt 1):704-06.

Koutsilos, D., et al., “Biotin for diabetic peripheral neuropathy,” Biomed Phamacother 1990; 44(10):511–14.

Kwasniewska, A., et al., “Folate deficiency and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia,” Eur Jour Gynaecol Oncol 1997; 18(6):526–30.

Lahner, E, et al., “Micronutrients (other than iron) and Helicobacter pylori infection: a systematic review,” Helicobacter 2012; 17(1):1-15.

Lark, S., The Menopause Self Help Book. Berkeley, California: Celestial Arts, 1990.

Levine, J., et al., “Combination of inositol and serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the treatment of depression,” Biol Psychiatry 1999; 45(3):270–73.

Maebashi, M., et al., “Therapeutic evaluation of the effect of biotin on hyperglycemia patients with non-insulin dependant diabetes mellitus,” Journ Clin Biochem Nutri 1993; 14:211–18.

Miller, A., et al., “Homocysteine metabolism: nutritional modulation and impact on health and disease,” Alt Med Rev 1997; 2(4):234–54.

Perlmutter, D., “The brain on fire: the role of inflammation in neurodegenerative disorders,” A4M Conference, 2003.

Polo, V., et al., “Nicotinamide improves insulin secretion and metabolic control in lean type 2 diabetic patients with secondary failure to sulphonylureas,” Acta Diabetol 1998; 35(1):61–6.

Schaumberg, H., et al., “Sensory neuropathy from pyridoxine abuse: a new megavitamin syndrome,” NEJM 1983; 309:445–48.

Schmidt, M., Tired of Being Tired. Berkeley, CA: Frog, Ltd., 1995.

Schoenen, J., et al., “High-dose riboflavin as a prophylactic treatment of migraine: results of an open pilot study,” Cephalgia 1994; 14(5):328–29.

Schulman, R., Solve It With Supplements.  New York, NY: Rodale, Inc, 2007.

Schwaberdal, P., et al., “Pantothenic acid deficiency as a factor contributing to the development of hypertension,” Cardiology 1985; 72(1) Suppl:187–89.

Sedel, F., et al., “High doses of biotin in chronic progressive multiple sclerosis: A pilot study,” Mult Scler Related Disorders 2015; 4(1):159-69.

Shang, H., et al., “A high biotin diet improves the impaired glucose tolerance of long-term spontaneously hyperglycemic rats with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus,” Jour Nutr Sci Vitamins 1996; 42:517–26.

Sundkvist, G., et al., “Sorbitol and myo-inositol levels and morphology of neural nerve in relation to peripheral nerve function and clinical neuropathy in men with diabetic, impaired, and normal glucose tolerance,” Diabetic Med 2000; 17:259–68.

Van Goor, L., et al., “Cobalamin deficiency and mental impairment in elderly people,” Age Ageing 1995; 24:536–42.

Weler, M., et al., “Periconceptional folic acid exposure and risk of occurrent neural tube defects,” JAMA 1993; 269:1257–61.

 

Vitamin C

Ashor, A., “Effect of vitamin C on endothelial function in health and disease: a systemic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials,” Atherosclerosis 2014; 235(1):9-20.

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.

Block, G., et al., “Ascorbic acid status and subsequent diastolic and systolic blood pressure.” Hypertension 2001; 37:261–67.

Braun, L., and Cohen, M., Herbs & Natural Supplements: An Evidenced-Based Guide. 4th Ed. Volume 2. New York: Elsevier, 2015.

Colgan, M., The New Nutrition.Vancouver, BC: Apple Publishing, 1995.

Collins, J., What’s Your Menopause Type? Roseville, CA: Prima Publishing, 2000.

Debusk, R., et al., “Dietary supplements and cardiovascular disease,” Curr Atheroscler Rep 2000; 2:508-14.

Feldman, E., et al., “The role of vitamin C and antioxidants in hypertension,” Nutrition and the MD 1998; 24:1–4.

Fillion, M., Natural Prostate Healers. Paramus, NJ: Prentice Hall Press, 1999.

Fleming, D., et al., “Dietary factors associated with the risk of high iron stores in the elderly Framingham Heart Study cohort,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2002; 76(6):1375-84.

Fotherby, M., et al., “Effect of vitamin C on ambulatory blood pressure and plasma lipids in older persons,” Jour Hypertens 2000; 18; 411–15.

Houston, M., What Your Doctor May Not Tell You About Hypertension. New York: Warner Books, Inc. 2003.

Juraschek, S., et al., “Effects of vitamin C supplementation on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2012; 95(5):1079-88.

Packer, L., The Antioxidant Miracle. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1999.

Perlmutter, D., BrainRecovery.com. Naples, FL: The Perlmutter Health Center, 2000.

Simon, J., et al., “Vitamin C and cardiovascular disease: a review,” Jour Amer Coll Nutr 1992; 11:107-25.

Sinatra, S., “Alternative interventions for preventing and treating cardiovascular disease,” A4M Conference, June 2003.

Trout, D., et al., “Vitamin C and cardiovascular risk factors,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1991; 53:322-25.

 

CHAPTER 2: MINERALS

Calcium

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.

Colgan, M., The New Nutrition.Vancouver, BC: Apple Publishing, 1995.

Crook, T., The Memory Cure. New York, NY: Pocket Books, 1998.

Downing, L., “Influence of calcium supplements on the occurrence of cardiovascular events,” Amer Jour Health Syst Pharm 2013; 70(13):1132–39.

Gaby, A., Nutritional Therapy in Medical Practice. Carlisle, PA: Nutrition Seminars, 2003.

Germano, R., The Osteoporosis Solution. New York, NY: Kensington Publishing Corporation, 1999.

Nachtigall, L., Estrogen: The Facts Can Change Your Life.  New York, NY: HarperCollins, 1995.

Nguyen, U., et al., “Aspartame ingestion increases urinary calcium, but not oxalate excretion, in healthy subjects,” Jour Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998; 83(1):165-68.

Santulli, G., et al., “Essential roles of intracellular calcium release channels in muscle, brain, metabolism, and aging,” Curr Mol Pharmacol 2015; 8(2):206–22.

Smith, P., What You Must Know About Women’s Hormones. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers, 2010.

Wood, R., et al., “High dietary calcium intakes reduce zinc absorption and balance in humans,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1997; 65(6):1803-09.

 

Chloride

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.

Braun, L., and Cohen, M., Herbs and Natural Supplements: An Evidence-Based Guide. 4th Ed, Volume 2. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

Harper, M., et al., “Sodium and chloride in nutrition.” In Handbook of Nutritionally Essential Minerals. O’Dell, B., Sunde, R., (Eds.), New York: Marcel Dekker, 1997.

Okuda T., “Fluid and Electrolyte Disorders.” In Current Medical Diagnosis and Treatment, 37th Ed, Tierney, L., McPhee, S., Papadakis, M., (Eds.), Stamford: Appleton & Lange, 1998.

Pelton, R. and LaValle, J., The Nutritional Cost of Drugs. 2nd Ed. Englewood, CO: Morton Publishing Company, 2004.

 

Magnesium

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.

Bo, S., et al., “Role of dietary magnesium in cardiovascular disease prevention, insulin sensitivity and diabetes,” Curr Opin Lipidol 2008; 19(1):50-6.

Braun, L., and Cohen, M., Herbs & Natural Supplements: An Evidence-Based Guide, 4th Ed, Vol 2. New York: Elsevier, 2015.

Braverman, E., Hypertension and Nutrition. New Canaan, CT: Keats Publishing, Inc, 1996.

Champagne, C., “Magnesium in hypertension, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and other conditions: a review,” Nutr Clin Pract 2008; 23(2):142-51.

Crook, T., The Memory Cure. New York, NY: Pocket Books, 1998.

Dacey, M., “Hypomagnesemic disorder,” Crit Care Clin 2001; 17(1):155-73.

Davis, W., et al., “Monotherapy with magnesium increases abnormally low HDL cholesterol: A clinical assay,” Curr Ther Res 1984; 36:341-46.

Dibaba, D., et al., “Dietary magnesium intake is inversely associated with serum C-reactive protein levels: meta-analysis and systematic review,” Eur Jour Clin Nutr 2014; 68:510-16.

Doghlan, H., et al., “Magnesium in mitral valve prolapse syndrome,” Magnesium Trace Elem 1990; 9:319-20.

Eby, G., et al., “Magnesium for treatment-resistant depression: a review and hypothesis,” Med Hypothesis 2010; 74(4):649-60.

Eby, G., et al., “Rapid recovery from major depression using magnesium treatment,” Med Hypotheses 2006; 67(2):362-70.

Faccinetti, F., et al., “Magnesium prohylaxis of menstrual migraine: effects on intracellular magnesium,” Headache 1991; 31:298–304.

Gaby, A., Magnesium. New Canaan, CT: Keats Publishing, 1994.

Gaby, A., Nutritional Therapy in Medical Practice. Carlisle, PA: Nutrition Seminars, 2003.

Galland, L., “Magnesium and immune function: an overview,” Magnesium 1988; 7:290-99.

Guerrera, M., et al., “Therapeutic uses of magnesium,” Amer Fam Physician 2009; 80(2):157-62.

Hassan, T., et al., “A randomised trial to investigate the efficacy of magnesium sulphate for refractory ventricular fibrillation,” Emerg Med Jour 2002; 19(1):57-62.

Johnson, S., “The multifaceted and widespread pathology of magnesium deficiency,” Med Hypotheses 2001; 56(2):163-70.

Kim, D., et al., “Magnesium intake in relation to systemic inflammation, insulin resistance, and the incidence of diabetes,” Diabetes Care. 2010; 33(12):2604-10.

Mathers, T., et al., “Oral magnesium supplementation in adults with coronary heart disease or coronary heart disease risk,” Jour Amer Acad Nurse Pract. 2009; 21(12):651-57.

Nechifor, M., “Magnesium in major depression,” Magnes Res. 2009; 22(3):163S-166S.

Nielsen, F., “Effects of magnesium depletion on inflammation in chronic disease,” Curr Opin Clin Nutr and Metabolic Care 2014; 17(6):525-30.

Orchard, T., et al., “Magnesium intake, bone mineral density, and fractures: results from the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2014; 99(4):926-33.

Paolisso, G., et al., “Improved insulin response and action by chronic magnesium administration in aged NIDDM subject,” Diabetes Care 1989; 12(4):265-72.

Pelton, R. and LaValle, J., The Nutritional Cost of Drugs, 2nd Ed. Englewood, CO: Morton Publishing Company, 2004.

Ramadan, W., et al., “Low brain magnesium in migraine,” Headache 1989; 29:590-93.

Simontacchi, C., The Crazy Makers. New York, NY: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam, 2000.

Weaver, K., et al., “Magnesium and migraine,” Headache 1990; 30:168.

Yang, C., et al., “Calcium and magnesium in drinking water and risk from cardiovascular disease,” Stroke 1998; 29(2):411–14.

 

Phosphorus

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.

Elliott, P., et al., INTERMAP Cooperative Research Group. “Dietary phosphorus and blood pressure: international study of macro- and micro-nutrients and blood pressure,” Hypertension 2008; 51(3):669-75.

Gaby, A., Nutritional Therapy in Medical Practice. Carlisle, PA: Nutrition Seminars, 2003.

Heaney, R., et al., “Calcium effects on phosphorus absorption: implications for the prevention and co-therapy of osteoporosis,” Jour Amer Coll Nut 2002; 21(3):239-44.

Noori, N., et al., “Organic and inorganic dietary phosphorus and its management in chronic kidney disease,” Iran J Kidney Dis 2010; 4(2):89-100.

Pelton, R. and LaValle, J., The Nutritional Cost of Drugs, 2nd Ed. Englewood, CO: Morton Publishing Company, 2004.

Pinheiro, M., et al., “Nutrient intakes related to osteoporotic fractures in men and women--the Brazilian Osteoporosis Study (BRAZOS),” Nutr Jour 2009; 8:6.

Sherman, R., et al., “Dietary phosphorus restriction in dialysis patients: potential impact of processed meat, poultry, and fish products as protein sources,” Amer Jour Kidney Dis 2009; 54(1):18-23.

Shuto, E., et al., “Dietary phosphorus acutely impairs endothelial function,” Jou Amer Soc Nephrol 2009; 20(7):1504-12.

Sim, J., et al., “Phosphorus and risk of renal failure in subjects with normal renal function,” Amer Jour Med 2013; 126(4):311-18.

Smirnov, A., et al., “Phosphorus and calcium metabolism and the cardiovascular system status in patients with early stage chronic renal disease,” Ter Arkh 2010; 82(6):25-8.

Takeda, E., et al., “Dietary phosphorus in bone health and quality of life,” Nutr Rev 2012; 70(6):311-21.

van Kuijk, J., et al., “Elevated preoperative phosphorus levels are an independent risk factor for cardiovascular mortality,” Amer Joour Nephrol 2010; 32(2):163-68.

 

Potassium

Ascherio, A., et al., “Intake of potassium, magnesium, calcium, and fiber and risk of stroke among US men,” Circulation 1998; 98(12):1198-1204.

Barri, Y., et al., “The effects of potassium depletion and supplementation on blood pressure: a clinical review,” Amer Jour Med Sci 1997; 314(1):37-40.  

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.

Curhan, G., et al., “A prospective study of dietary calcium and other nutrients and the risk of symptomatic kidney stones,” NEJM 1993; 328(12):833-38. 

Gaby, A., Nutritional Therapy in Medical Practice. Carlisle PA: Nutrition Seminars, 2003.

Gennari, F., “Hypokalemia,” NEJM 1998; 339(7):451-58.

Iso, H., et al., “Prospective study of calcium, potassium, and magnesium intake and risk of stroke in women,” Stroke 1999; 30(9):1772-79. 

Liu, S., et al., “Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of cardiovascular disease: the Women's Health Study,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2000; 72(4):922-28. 

Mandal, A., “Hypokalemia and hyperkalemia,” Med Clin North Amer 1997; 81(3):611-39. 

Mumoli, N., et al., “Licorice-induced hypokalemia,” Int Jour Cardiol 2008; 124(3):e42-44. 

Pelton, R. and LaValle, J., The Nutritional Cost of Drugs, 2nd Ed. Englewood, CO: Morton Publishing Company, 2004.

Sheng, H., “Sodium, Chloride and Potassium.” In Physiological Aspects of Human Nutrition, edited by Stipanuk, M. Biochemical and Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company, 2000.

Tucker, K., et al., “Potassium, magnesium, and fruit and vegetable intakes are associated with greater bone mineral density in elderly men and women,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1999; 69(4):727-36.

Walker, B., et al., “Licorice-induced hypertension and syndromes of apparent mineralocorticoid excess,” Endocrinol Metab Clin North Amer 1994; 23(2):359-77.

Young, D., et al., “Potassium’s cardiovascular protective mechanisms,” Amer Jour Physiol 1995; 268(4 Pt 2):R825-R837. 

 

Sodium

Adrogue, H., et al., “Hyponatremia,” NEJM 2000; 342(21):1581-89.

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.

Carbone, L., et al., “Effects of a low sodium diet on bone metabolism,” Jour Bone Miner Metab 2005: 23(6):506-13.

Chrysant, G., “High salt intake and cardiovascular disease: is there a connection?” Nutrition 2000; 16(7-8):662-64.

Cohen, A., et al., “Evaluation of the aetiological role of dietary salt exposure in gastric and other cancers in humans,” Food Chem Toxicol 1997; 35(2):271-93. 

Cutler, J., et al., “Randomized trials of sodium reduction: an overview,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1997; 65(2 Suppl):643S-651S.

du Cailar, G., et al., “Dietary sodium and target organ damage in essential hypertension,” Amer Jour Hypertens 2002; 15(3):222-29. 

Gaby, A., Nutritional Therapy in Medical Practice. Carlisle, PA: Nutrition Seminars, 2003.

Pelton, R. and LaValle, J., The Nutritional Cost of Drugs, 2nd Ed. Englewood, CO: Morton Publishing Company, 2004.

Speedy, D., et al., “Diagnosis and prevention of hyponatremia at an ultradistance triathlon,” Clin Jour Sport Med 2000; 10(1):52-8. 

 

Boron

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.

Colgan, M., The New Nutrition.Vancouver, BC: Apple Publishing, 1995.

Devirian, T., et al., “The physiological effects of dietary boron,” Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2003; 43(2):219-31.

Hunt, C., et al., “Dietary boron as a physiological regulator of the normal inflammatory response: a review and current research progress,” Jour Trace Elem Med 1999; 12:221–33.

Newnham, R., et al., “Essentiality of boron for healthy bones and joints,” Environ Health Perspect 1994; 102 (Suppl 7):83-5.

Nielson, F., “Is boron nutritionally relevant?” Nutr Rev 2008; 66(4):183-91.

Nielsen, F., et al., “The justification for providing dietary guidance for the nutritional intake of boron,” Biol Trace Elem Res 1998; 66(1-3):319-30.

Penland, J., et al., “The importance of boron nutrition for brain and psychological function,” Biol Trac Elem Res 1998; 66:299–317.

Penland, J., “Dietary boron, brain function and cognitive performance,” Environ Health Report 1994; 102 (Suppl 7):65-72.

Zhang, Z., et al., “Boron is associated decreased risk of prostate cancer,” FASEB Jour 2001; 1:394-97.

 

Chromium

Abdollahi, M., et al., “Effect of chromium on glucose and lipid profiles in patients with type 2 diabetes; a meta-analysis review of randomized trials,” Jour Pharm Pharm Sci 2013; 16(1):99-114.

Anderson, R., et al., “Effect of chromium supplementation on Cr excretion of human subjects and correlation of Cr excretion with selected clinical parameters,” Jour Nutri 1983; 113:276–81.

Anderson, A., et al., “Potential antioxidant effects of zinc and chromium supplementation in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Jour Amer Coll Nutr 2001; 20(3):212-18.

Anderson, R “Chromium in the prevention and control of diabetes,” Diabetes and Metabolism 2000; 26(1)22-7.

Bahadori, B., et al., “Treatment with chromium picolinate improves lean body mass in patients following weight reduction,” Inter Jour Obesity 1995; 19(Suppl)12:38.

Balk, E., et al., “Effect of chromium supplementation on glucose metabolism and lipids: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials,” Diabetes Care 2007; 30(8):2154-63.

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.

Bland, J., “Nutrients as Biological Response Modifiers,” Applying Functional Medicine in Clinical Practice. Gig Harbor, WA: Functional Medicine Institute, 2002.

Crayhon, R., Robert Crayhon’s Nutrition Made Simple. New York, NY: M. Evans and Company, 1994.

Davìs, G., et al., “Nutraceuticals in diabetes and metabolic syndrome,” Cardiovasc Ther 2010; 28(4):216-26.

Evans, G., Chromium Picolinate. New York, NY: Avery Publishing Group, 1996.

Hellerstein, M., “Is chromium supplementation effective in managing type II diabetes?” Nutr Rev 1998; 56(10):302-06.

Lee, N., et al., “Beneficial effect of chromium supplementation on serum triglyceride levels in NIDDM,” Diabetes Care 1994; 17:1449-52.

Lieberman, S., The Real Vitamin and Mineral Book. New York, NY: Avery Publishing Group, 1997.

Mertz, W., “Chromium in human nutrition: a review,” Jour Nutr 1993; 123(4):626-33.

Nielsen, F., “Manganese, Molybdenum, Boron, Chromium, and other trace elements.” In Present Knowledge of Nutrition, edited by Erdman, J., Macdonald, I., Zelssel, S. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2012.

Press, R., et al., “The effect of chromium picolinate on serum cholesterol and apoliporotein fractions in human subjects,” Western Jour Med 1990; 152:41–5.

Preuss, H., et al., “Chromium update: examining recent literature 1997–1998,” Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 1998; 1:509–12.

Trow, l., et al., “Lack of effect of dietary chromium supplementation on glucose tolerance, plasma insulin, and lipoprotein levels in patients with type 2 diabetes,” Int Jour Vitam Nutr Res 2000; 70(1):14-8.

Wang, Z., et al., “Current concepts about chromium supplementation in type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance,” Curr Diab Rep. 2010; 10(2):145-51.

 

Copper

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.

Bland, J., “Nutrients as Biological Response Modifiers,” Applying Functional Medicine in Clinical Practice. Gig Harbor, WA: Functional Medicine Institute, 2002.

Brewer, G., “Copper control as an antiangiogenic anticancer therapy: lessons from treating Wilson's disease” Exper Biol Med 2001; 226(7):665–73.

Cousins, R., et al., “Absorption, transport, and hepatic metabolism of copper and zinc: special reference to metallothionein and ceruloplasmin,” Physiol Rev 1985; 65(2): 238–309.

Danks, D., “Copper deficiency in humans,” Ann Rev Nutri 1988; 8:235–57.

Gaby, A., Nutritional Therapy in Medical Practice. Carlisle, PA: Nutrition Seminars, 2003.

Goodman, V., “Control of copper status for cancer therapy,” Current Cancer Drug Targets 2005; 5(7):543–49.

Kelsay, J., “Effects of fiber, phytic acid, and oxalic acid in the diet on mineral bioavailability,” Amer Jour Gastroenterol 1987; 82(10):983–86.

Klevay, L., “The influence of copper and zinc on the occurrence of ischemic heart disease,” Jour Environ Pathol and Toxicol 1980; 4(2-3):281–87.

Lazarchick, J., “Update on anemia and neutropenia in copper deficiency,” Curr Opin Hematol 2012; 19(1):58-60. 

Lee, D., et al., “The effect of phytic acid on copper bioavailability,” Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 1984; 43(3):616–20.

Lönnerdal, B., “Bioavailability of copper,” Amer Jour Clin Nutri 1996; 63(5):821S–829S.

Lowndes, S., “The role of copper in tumour angiogenesis,” Jour Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 2005; 10(4):299–310.

Oestreicher, P., et al., “Copper and Zinc Absorption in the Rat: Mechanism of Mutual Antagonism,” Jour Nutr 1985; 115(2):159–66.

Stern, B, “U-Shaped Dose-Response Curve for Risk Assessment of Essential Trace Elements: Copper as a Case Study.” In Risk Assessment for Environmental Health, by Robson, M., Toscano, W. San Francisco: John Wiley and Sons, 2007.

Stern, B., et al., “Copper and human health: biochemistry, genetics, and strategies for modeling dose-response relationships,” Jour Toxicol and Environ Health, Part B 2007; 10(3):157–222.

Strain, J., “Newer aspects of micronutrients in chronic disease: copper,” Proc Nutri Soc 1994; 53(3):583–98.

Turnlund, J., “Copper.” In Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, 10th Ed., edited by Shils, M., Shike, M., Ross, A., Caballero, B., Cousins, R. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2006.

Uauy, R., et al., “Essentiality of copper in humans,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1998; 67(5 Suppl):952S-959S.

Wapnir, R., “Copper absorption and bioavailability,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1998; 67(5 Suppl): 1054S–1060S.

Werman, M., et al., “Fructose metabolizing enzymes in the rat liver and metabolic parameters: Interactions between dietary copper, type of carbohydrates, and gender.” Jour of Nutr Biochem 1995; 6(7):373–79.

 

Iodine

Ajjan, R., et al., “The sodium iodide symporter gene and its regulation by cytokines found in autoimmunity,” Jour Endocrinol 1998; 158(3):351-58.

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.

Brownstein, D., Iodine: Why You Need It, Why You Can’t Live Without It. Medical Alternatives Press, 2004.

Christianson, A., and Murray, M., “Hypothyroidism.”” In Pizzorno, J., and Murray, M., Textbook of Natural Medicine. St. Louis: Elsevier/Churchill Livingstone, 2013.

Collins, J., “Phytotherapeutic support of thyroid function,” Nutri News 2007; 8(5):1-6.

Goldman, R. Human Growth Factors. Chicago, IL: American Academy of Anti-Aging Physicians, 2003.

Harach, H., et al., “Thyroid cancer and thyroiditis in the goitrous region of Salta, Argentina, before and after iodine prophylaxis,” Clin Endocrin 1995; 43:701-06.  

Harding, K., et al., “Iodine supplementation for women during the preconception, pregnancy and postpartum period,” Cochrane Database Systematic Rev 2017; 3: CD011761.

Lark, S. The Menopause Self Help Book. Berkeley, CA: Celestial Arts, 1990.

Rose, N., et al., “The role of iodine in autoimmune thyroiditis,” Clin Reviews in Immunology 1997; 17:511-17.

Taylor, P., et al., “Impact of iodine supplementation in mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency: systematic review and meta-analysis,” Eur Jour Endocrinol 2014; 170(1):R1-R15.

 

Iron

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.

Bland, J., “Nutrients as Biological Response Modifiers” Applying Functional Medicine in Clinical Practice. Gig  Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 2002.

Camaschella, C., “Iron-deficiency anemia,” NEJM 2015; 372(19):1832-43.

Campbell, N., et al., “The effect of ferrous sulfate and pH on L-dopa absorption,” Can Jour Physiol Pharmacol 1990; 68:603-07.

Campbell, N., et al., “Ferrous sulfate reduces levodopa bioavailability: chelation as a possible mechanism,” Clin Pharmacol Ther 1989; 45:220-25.

Campbel, N., et al. “Ferrous sulfate reduces thyroxine efficacy in patients with hypothyroidism,” Ann Intern Med 1992; 117:1010-13.

Gaby, A., Nutritional Therapy in Medical Practice. Carlisle, PA: Nutrition Seminars, 2003.

Murray-Kolbe, L., et al., Encyclopedia of Dietary Supplements, 2nd Ed, 432-38. London and New York: Informa Healthcare, 2010.

Pelton, R. and LaValle, J., The Nutritional Cost of Drugs, 2nd Ed. Englewood, CO: Morton Publishing Company, 2004.

Schulman, R., Solve It With Supplements. New York: Rodale, Inc., 2007.

Simontacchi, C., The Crazy Makers. New York, NY: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam, 2000.

 

Manganese

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.

Bland, J., “Nutrients as Biological Response Modifiers,” Applying Functional Medicine in Clinical Practice. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 2002.

Gaby, A., Nutritional Therapy in Medical Practice. Carlisle, PA: Nutrition Seminars, 2003.

Takeda, A. “Manganese action in brain function,” Brain Res Rev 2003; 41(1): 79–87.

 

Molybdenum

Beedham, C., “Molybdenum hydroxylases as drug-metabolizing enzymes,” Drug Metab Rev 1985; 16(1-2):119-56. 

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.

Colgan, M., The New Nutrition.Vancouver, BC: Apple Publishing, 1995.

Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. “Molybdenum.” In Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; 2001:420-41.

Gaby, A., Nutritional Therapy in Medical Practice. Carlisle, PA: Nutrition Seminars, 2003.

Huang, B., et al., “Relationships between distributions of longevous population and trace elements in the agricultural ecosystem of Rugao County, Jiangsu, China,” Environ Geochem Health 2009; 31(3):379-90. 

Lv, J., et al., “Effects of several environmental factors on longevity and health of the human population of Zhongxiang, Hubei, China,” Biol Trace Elem Res 2011; 143(2):702-16. 

Plitzko, B., et al., “The Involvement of Mitochondrial Amidoxime Reducing Components 1 and 2 and Mitochondrial Cytochrome b5 in N-reductive Metabolism in Human Cells,” Jour Biol Chem 2013; 288(28):20228-237.

Vyskocil, A., et al., “Assessment of molybdenum toxicity in humans,” Jour Appl Toxicol 1999; 19(3):185-92. 

Zannolli, R., et al., “Hereditary xanthinuria type II associated with mental delay, autism, cortical renal cysts, nephrocalcinosis, osteopenia, and hair and teeth defects,” Jour Med Genet 2003; 40(11):e121.

 

Selenium

Berkson, B., The Alpha Lipoic Acid Breakthrough. Rocklin, CA: Prima Publishing, 1998. 

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.

Brinkman, M., et al., “Are men with low selenium levels at increased risk of prostate cancer?” Eur Jour Cancer 2006; 42(15):2463-71.

Brown, K., et al., “Selenium, selenoproteins, and human health: a review,” Pub Health Nutr 2001; 4(2B):593-99.

Fillion, M., Natural Prostate Healers. Paramus, NJ: Prentice Hall Press, 1999.

Hurst, R., et al., “Selenium and prostate cancer: systemic review an mea-analysis,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2012; 96(1):111-22.

Packer, L., The Antioxidant Miracle. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1999.

Pelton, R. and LaValle, J., The Nutritional Cost of Drugs, 2nd Ed. Englewood, CO: Morton Publishing Company, 2004.

Rayman, M., “The argument for increased selenium intake,” Proc Nutr Soc 2002; 6192):203-15.

Rayman, M., “The importance of selenium to human health,” Lancet 2000; 356(9225):233-41.

 

Silicon

Barel, A., et al., “Effect of oral intake of choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid on skin, nails and hair in women with photodamaged skin,” Arch Dermatol Res 2005; 297(4):147-53.

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.

Eisinger, J., et al., “Effects of silicon, fluoride, etidronate and magnesium on bone mineral density: a retrospective study,” Magnes Res 1993; 6(3):247-49.

Exley, C., et al., “Non-invasive therapy to reduce the body burden of aluminum in Alzheimer's disease,” Jour Alzheimers Dis 2006; 10(1):17-24.

Gillette, G., et al., “Cognitive impairment and composition of drinking water in women: findings of the EPIDOS Study,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2005; 81(4):897-902.

Gillette, G., et al., “The potential influence of silica present in drinking water on Alzheimer’s disease and associated disorders,” Jour Nutr Health Aging 2007; 11(2):119-24.

Jugdaohsingh, R., et al. “Dietary silicon intake and absorption,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2002; 75:887-93.

Jugdaohsingh, R., et al. “Dietary silicon intake is positively associated with bone mineral density in men and premenopausal women of the Framingham Offspring cohort,” Jour Bone Miner Res 2004; 19:297-307.

Jugdaohsingh, R., “Silicon and bone health,” Jour Nutr Health Aging 2007; 11(2):99-110.

Lacasse, Y., “Dose-response meta-analysis of silica and lung cancer,” Cancer Causes Control 2009; 20(6):925-33.

Macdonald, H., et al., “Dietary silicon intake is associated with bone mineral density in premenopasual women and postmenopausal women taking HRT,” Jour Bone Mineral Res 2005; 20:S393.

Martin, K., “The chemistry of silica and its potential health benefits,” Jour Nutr Health Aging 2007; 11(2):94-7.

McCormic, Z., et al., “Occupationalsilica exposure as a risk factor for scleroderma: a meta-analysis,” Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2010; 83(7):763-69.

Nielsen, F., “Update on the possible nutritional importance of silicon,” Jour Trace Elem Med Biol 2014; 28(4):379-82.

Rondeau, V., “A review of epidemiologic studies on aluminum and silica in relation to Alzheimer's disease and associated disorders,” Rev Environ Health 2002; 17(2):107-21.

Rondeau, V., et al., “Aluminum and silica in drinking water and the risk of Alzheimer's disease or cognitive decline: findings from 15-year follow-up of the PAQUID cohort,” Amer Jour Epidemiol 2009; 169(4):489-96.

Scheinfeld, N., et al., “Vitamins and minerals: their role in nail health and disease,” Jour Drugs Dermatol 2007; 6(8):782-87.

Spector, T., et al., “Effect of bone turnover and BMD of low dose oral silicon as an adjunct to calcium/vitamin D3 in a randomized placebo-controlled trial,” Jour Bone Mineral Res 2005; 20:S172.

Sripanyakorn, S., et al., “The comparative absorption of silicon from different foods and food supplements,” Brit Jour Nutr 2009; 102(6):825-34.

 

Vanadium

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.

Cicero, A., et al., “What do herbalists suggest to diabetic patients in order to improve glycemic control? Evaluation of scientific evidence and potential risks,” Acta Diabetol 2004; 41(3):91-8.

Cusi, K., et al., “Vanadyl sulfate improves hepatic and muscle insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes,” Jour Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001; 86(3):1410-17.

Fillion, M., Natural Prostate Healers. Paramus, NJ: Prentice Hall Press, 1999.

Fukunaga, K., “Benefit of vanadium compound in therapy for cardiovascular diseases,” Yakugaku Zasshi 2012; 132(3):279-84.

Gaby, A., Nutritional Therapy in Medical Practice,” Carlisle, PA: Nutrition Seminars, 2003.

Goldfine, A., et al., “Vanadium improves insulin sensitivity,” Jour Clin Endocrinol Metabol 1995; 80(11):3311–19.

Goldman, R., Human Growth Factors. Chicago: American Academy of Anti-Aging Physicians, 2003.

Goldwaser, I., et al., “Insulin-like effects of vanadium: basic and clinical implications,” Jour Inorg Biochem 2000; 80(1-2):21-5.

Korbecki, J., et al., “Biochemical and medical importance of vanadium compounds,” Acta Biochim Pol 2012; 59(2):195-200.

Nahas, R., et al., “Complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of type 2 diabetes,” Can Fam Physician 2009; 55(6):591-96.

Rakel, D., Rakel Integrative Medicine, 2nd Ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier, 2007.

Schmidt, M., Tired of Being Tired. Berkeley, CA: Frog, Ltd, 1995.

Schulman, R., Solve It With Supplements. New York, NY: Rodale, Inc, 2007.

Shukla, R., et al., “Adipogenic action of vanadium: a new dimension in treating diabetes,” Biometal. 2008; 21(2):205-10.

Srivastava, A., “Anti-diabetic and toxic effects of vanadium compounds,” Mol Cell Biochem 2000; 206(1-2):177-82.

Wang, J., “Effect of vanadium on insulin sensitivity and appetite,” Metabolism 2001; 50(6):667-73.

 

Zinc

Anderson, R., et al., “Potential antioxidant effects of zinc and chromium supplementation in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Jour Amer Coll Nutr 2001; 20(3):212-18.

Baum, M., et al., “Zinc status in human immunodeficiency virus infection,” Jour Nutr 2000; 130(5S Suppl):1421S-1423S. 

Bland, J., “Nutrients as Biological Response Modifiers.” Applying Functional Medicine in Clinical Practice. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 2002.

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.

Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. “Zinc.” In Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; 2001:442-501.

Gaby, A., Nutritional Therapy in Medical Practice. Carlisle, PA: Nutrition Seminars, 2003.

Jackson, J., et al., “Zinc and the common cold: a meta-analysis revisited,” Jour Nutr 2000; 130(5S Suppl):1512S-1515S.

Jyawardena, R., et al., “Effects of zinc supplementation on diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and metanalysis,” Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome 2012; 4:13. 

Mocchegiani, E., et al., “Therapeutic application of zinc in human immunodeficiency virus against opportunistic infections,” Jour Nutr 2000; 130(5S Suppl):1424S-1431S. 

O'Dell, B., “Role of zinc in plasma membrane function,” Jour Nutr 2000; 130(5S Suppl):1432S-1436S. 

Pelton, R. and LaValle, J., The Nutritional Cost of Drugs, 2nd Ed. Englewood, CO: Morton Publishing Company, 2004.

Prasad, A., “Clinical, immunological, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant roles of zinc,” Exp Gerontol 2008; 43(5):370-77. 

Prasad, A., “Duration of symptoms and plasma cytokine levels in patients with the common cold treated with zinc acetate. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,” Ann Intern Med 2000; 133(4):245-52.

Prasad, A., “Zinc deficiency in humans: a neglected problem,” Jour Amer Coll Nutr 1998; 17(6):542-43.

Prasad, A., “Zinc in human health: effect of zinc on immune cells,” Mol Med 2008; 14(5-6):353-57. 

Schulman, R., Solve It With Supplements. New York: Rodale, Inc. 2007.

Smith, W., et al., “Dietary antioxidants and age-related maculopathy: the Blue Mountains Eye Study,” Ophthalmology 1999; 106(4):761-67.

Tan, J., et al., “Dietary antioxidants and the long-term incidence of age-related macular degeneration: the Blue Mountains Eye Study,” Ophthalmology 2008; 115(2):334-41. 

van Leeuwen, R., et al., “Dietary intake of antioxidants and risk of age-related macular degeneration,” JAMA 2005; 294(24):3101-07. 

VandenLangenberg, G., et al., “Associations between antioxidant and zinc intake and the 5-year incidence of early age-related maculopathy in the Beaver Dam Eye Study,” Amer Jour Epidemiol 1998; 148(2):204-14. 

Wapnir, R., “Zinc deficiency, malnutrition and the gastrointestinal tract,” Jour Nutr 2000; 130(5S Suppl):1388S-1392S. 

 

CHAPTER 3: FATTY ACIDS

Adam, O., et al., “Anti-inflammatory effects of a low arachidonic acid diet and fish oil in patients with rheumatoid arthritis,” Rheumatoid Int 2003; 23(1):27-36.

Bagga, D., et al., “Long-chain n-3 to n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratios in breast adipose tissue from women with and without breast cancer,” Nutr Cancer 2002; 42(2):180-85.

Bates, D., et al. “A double-blind controlled trial of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the treatment of multiple sclerosis.” Jour Neurol Neurosurg Psych 1989; 52: 18–22.

Belluzzi, A., et al. “Polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammatory bowel disease.” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2000; 71(1):339S–342S.

Belury, M., et al., “Conjugated dienoic linoleate: a polyunsaturated fatty acid with unique chemorotective properties,” Nutr Res 1995; 53(4Pt 1):83–9.

Bender, N., et al., “Effects of marine fish oils on the anticoagulation status of patients receiving chronic warfarin therapy,” Jour Thromb Thrombolysis 1998; 5:257-61.

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.

Blankson, H., et al., “Conjugated linoleic acid reduces body fat mass in overweight and obese humans,” Jour Nutr 2000; 130(12):2943–48.

Brasky, T., et al., “Specialty supplements and breast cancer risk in the VITamins and Lifestyle (VITAL) Cohort,” Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2010; 19:1696-708.

Braun, L., and Cohen, M., (Eds.) Herbs and Natural Supplements. 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

Bucher, H., et al., “N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials,” Amer Jour Med 2002; 112(4):298-304.

Burgess, J., et al., “Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2000; 71(Suppl):327S-330S.

Calder, P., “Dietary modification of inflammation with lipids,” Proc Nutr Soc 2002; 61(3):345-58.

Calo, L., et al., “N-3 fatty acids for the prevention of atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass surgery: a randomized controlled trial,” Jour Amer Coll Cardiol 2005; 45(10):1723-28.

Chew, E., et al., “Effect of omega-3 fatty acids, lutein/zeaxanthin, or other nutrient supplementation on cognitive function: the AREDS2 randomized clinical trial,” JAMA 2015; 314:791-801.

Clevland, L., et al., “The role of fish oils in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis,” Drugs 2003; 63(9):845-53.

Colgan, M., The New Nutrition. Vancouver, BC, Canada: Apple Publishing, 1995.

Connor, S., et al. “Are fish oils beneficial in the prevention and treatment of coronary artery disease?” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1997; 66(4 Suppl):1020S–1031S.

Curtis, L., et al., “Nutritional and environmental approaches to preventing and treating autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a review,” Jour Altern Complement Med 2008; 14(1):79-85.

Dangour, A., et al., “B-vitamins and fatty acids in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease and dementia: a systematic review,” Jour Alzheimers Dis 2010; 22:205-24.

Del Gobbo, L., et al., “Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid biomarkers and coronary heart disease: pooling project of 19 cohort studies,” JAMA Intern Med 2016; 176:1155-66.

Djousse, L., et al., “Fish consumption, omega-3 fatty acids and risk of heart failure: a meta-analysis,” Clin Nutr 2012; 31:846-53.

Epstein, F., et al., “Glucose transporters and insulin action: implication for insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus,” NEJM 1999; 341(4):248–57.

Erasmus, U., Fats that Heal, Fats that Kill. Burnaby, BC, Canada: Alive Books, 1993.

Gaby, A., Nutritional Therapy in Medical Practice. Carlisle, PA: Nutrition Seminars, 2003.

Gago-Dominguez, M., et al., “Opposing effects of dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids on mammary carcinogenesis: The Singapore Chinese Health Study,” Brit Jour Cancer 2003; 89:1686-92.

Gerber, M., “Omega-3 fatty acids and cancers: a systematic update review of epidemiological studies,” Brit Jour Nutr 2012; 107(Suppl 2):S228-S239.

Geusens, P., et al. “Long-term effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in active rheumatoid arthritis (a 12-month, double-blind, controlled study.” Arthritis Rheumatism 1996; 37(6):824–29.

Goodman, J., The Omega Solution. Roseville, CA: Prima Publishing, 2001.

Gow, R., et al., “Omega-3 fatty acids are related to abnormal emotion processing in adolescent boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,” Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2013; 88(6):419-29.

Hamazaki, T., et al., “The effect of docosahexaenoic acid on aggression in young adults: A placebo-controlled study,” Jour Clin Invest 1996; 97(4):1129-33.

Harris, W, et al. “Omega-3 fatty acids and serum lipoproteins: human studies.” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1997; 65:1645S–1654S.

Harris, W., “The omega-3 index as a risk factor for coronary heart disease,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2008; 87:1997S-2002S.

Hartweg, J., et al., “Potential impact of omega-3 treatment on cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes,” Curr Opin Lipidol 2009; 20(1):30-8.

Holman, R., et al., “The slow discovery of the importance of omega-3 essential fatty acids in human health.” Jour Nutr 1998; 128:427S–433S.

Holub, B., et al., “Clinical nutrition: 4. Omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular care,” Can Med Assoc Jour 2002; 166(5):608-15.

Horrobin, D., et al., “The use of gamma-linolenic acid on human diabetic peripheral neuropathy,” Agents and Actions 1992; 37S:120–44.

Hu, F., et al., “Fish and omega-3 fatty acid intake and risk of coronary heart disease in women,” JAMA 2002; 287(14):1815–21.

Iso, H., et al., “Intake of fish and omega-3 fatty acids and risk of stroke in women,” JAMA 2001; 285(3):304-12.

Itomura, M., et al., “The effect of fish oil on physical aggression in schoolchildren - a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,” Jour Nutr Biochem 2005; 16:163-71.

Jones, P., et al., Lipids: cellular metabolism. In: Erdman, J., Macdonald, I., Zeisel, S., Eds. Present Knowledge in Nutrition. 10th Ed. Washington, DC: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012, p.132-48.

Jung, U., et al., “Fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: mechanisms underlying beneficial effects,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2008; 87(6):20035-95.

Kamphuis, M., et al., “Depression and cardiovascular mortality: a role for n-3 fatty acids? Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2006; 84(6):1513-17.

Kang, J., et al., “Prevention of fatal cardiac arrhythmias by polyunsaturated fatty acids,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2000; 71(1Suppl):2025–75.

Koch, C., et al., “Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation in atopic eczema: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial,” Brit Jour Dermatol 2008; 158(4):786-92.

Kremer, J., et al., “N-3 fatty acid supplements in rheumatoid arthritis,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2000; 71(1Suppl):349S–351S.

Kris-Etherton, P., et al., “American Heart Association Nutrition Committee: Fish consumption, fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease,” Circulation 2002; 106:2747–2757.

Kwak, S., et al., “Efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid supplements (eicosapentanoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease: a meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,” Arch Intern Med 2012; 172(9):686-94.

Lerman, R., “Nutrients as biological response modifiers: fatty acids and inflammation,” Applying Functional Medicine in Clinical Practice. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 2002.

Lerman, R., “The essential fatty acids in psychiatric and neurological dysfunction,” Brain Biochemistry and Nutrition. Gig Harbor Washington: Institute for Functional Medicine, 2002.

Li, F., et al., “Fish consumption and risk of depression: a meta-analysis,” Jour Epidemiol Community Health 2016; 70:299-304.

Lichtenstein, A., Lipids: absorption and transport. In: Erdman, J., Macdonald, I., Zeisel, S., (Eds.) Present Knowledge in Nutrition. 10th Ed. Washington, DC: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012.

Lorenz, R., et al., “Supplementation with n-3 fatty acid from fish oil in chronic irritable bowel disease: A random, placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over trial.” Jour Intern Med Suppl 1989; 225(731):225–32.

Marangell, L., “A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexanoic acid in the treatment of major depression.” Amer Jour Psychiatry 2003; 160(3):996–98.

Mattar, M., et al., “Fish oil and the management of hypertriglyceridemia,” Nutr Health 2009; 20(1):41-9.

Mayser, P., et al., “Omega-3 fatty acid-based lipid infusion in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis: results of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial,” Jour Amer Acad Derm 1998; 38:539–47.

Miles, E., et al., “Influence of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on immune function and a systematic review of their effects on clinical outcomes in rheumatoid arthritis,” Brit Jour Nutr 2012; 107(Suppl 2):S171-S184.

Miller, P., et al., “Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid and blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials,” Amer Jour Hypertension 2014; 27(7):885-96.

Mischoulon, D., et al., “Docosahexaenoic acid and omega-3 fatty acids in depression,” Psychiatr Clin North Amer 2000; 4:785–94.

Mischoulov, D., et al., “Docosahexanoic acid and omega-3-fatty acids in depression,” Psychiatr Clin North Amer 2000; 4:785–94.

Moya-Camarena, S., et al., “Conjugated linoleic acid is a potent naturally occurring ligand and activator of PPAR,” Jour Lipid Res 1999; 40:1426–33.

Mozzaffarian, D., et al., “Fish oil postoperative atrial fibrillation: the Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Prevention of Post-operative Atrial Fibrillation (OPERA) randomized trial,” JAMA 2012; 308(19):2001-11.

Mozzaffarian, D., et al., “Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: effects on risk factors, molecular pathways, and clinical events,” Jour Amer Coll Cardiol 2011; 58(20):2047-67.

Nicholson, T., et al., “The role of murine n-3 fatty acids in improving cardiovascular health: a review,” Food Funct 2013; 4(3):357-65.

Nordvik, I., et al., “Effect of dietary advice and omega-3 supplementation in newly diagnosed MS patient.” Acta Neurol Scandia 2000; 102(3):143–49.

Oliver, M., et al., “Diet and coronary disease,” Brit Med Bull 1981; 37:49–58.

Ornish, D., et al., “Intensive lifestyle changes for reversal of coronary heart disease,” JAMA 1998; 280(23):2001-07.

Pariza, M., et al., “Conjugated dienoic derivatives of linolic acid: a new class of anticarcinogens,” Med Oncol Tumor Pharmacother 1990; 7(2-3):169–71.

Park, Y., et al., “Effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a 16-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-design multicenter study in Korea,” Jour Nutr Biochem 2013; 24:1367-72.

Peet, M., “Eicosapentaenoic acid in the treatment of schizophrenia and depression: rationale and preliminary double-blind clinical trial results,” Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2003; 69(6):477-85.

Ramel, A., et al., “Beneficial effects of long-chain n-3 fatty acids included in an energy-restricted diet on insulin resistance in overweight and obese European young adults,” Diabetologia 2008; 51(7):1261-68.

Riediger, N., et al., “A systematic review of the roles of n-3 fatty acids in health and disease,” Jour Amer Diet Assoc 2009; 109(4):668-79.

Riserus, U., “Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) reduced abdominal adipose tissue in obese middle-aged men with signs of metabolic syndrome: a randomized controlled trial,” Int Jour Obes Relat Metab Disord 2001; 25(8):1129–35.

Ryder, J., et al., “Isomer-specific antidiabetic properties of conjugated linoleic acid. Improve glucose tolerance, skeletal muscle insulin action, and UCP-2 gene expression,” Diabetes 2001; 50:1149–57.

Sarris, J., et al., “Major depressive disorder and nutritional medicine: a review of monotherapies and adjuvant treatments,” Nutr Rev 2009; 67(3):125-31.

Schmidt, M., Brain-Building Nutrition: The Healing Power of Fats and Oils. Berkeley, CA: Frog, Ltd, 2001.

Sears, B., et al., “Therapeutic use of high-dose omega-3 fatty acids to treat comatose patients with severe brain injury,” Pharm Nutri 2013; 1(3):86-89.

Seddon, J., et al., “Cigarette smoking, fish consumption, omega-3 fatty acid intake, and associations with age-related macular degeneration: the US Twin Study of Age-Related Macular Degeneration,” Arch Ophthalmol 2006; 124:995-1001.

Siguel, E., et al., “Prevalence of essential fatty acid deficiency in patients with chronic gastrointestinal disorders,” Metabolism 1996; 45(1):12–23.

Stevens, L., et al., “Essential fatty acid metabolism in boys with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1995; 62:762–68.

Sydenham, E., et al., “Omega 3 fatty acid for the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012; 6:CD005379.

Tanaka, K., et al., “Reduction in the recurrence of stroke by eicosapentaenoic acid for hypercholesterolemic patients: subanalysis of the JELIS trial,” Stroke 2008; 39:2052-58.

Tiemeier, H., et al. “Plasma fatty acid composition and depression are associated in the elderly: the Rotterdam study,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2003; 78(1):40–6.

Tully, A., et al., “Low serum cholesteryl ester-docosahexaenoic acid levels in Alzheimer’s disease: a case-control study,” Brit Jour Nutr 2003; 89:483-89.

Ulbricht, C., et al., Natural Standard Herb and Supplement Reference. St. Louis: Mosby, 2005.

Vognild, E, et al. “Effects of dietary marine oils and olive oil on fatty acid composition, platelet membrane fluidity, platelet responses, and serum lipids in healthy humans.” Lipids 1998; 3(4):3427–3436.

Watanabe, T., et al., “The effect of a newly developed ointment containing eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in the treatment of atopic dermatitis,” Jour Med Invest 1999; 46: 173–77.

Weinstock-Guttman, B., et al., “Low fat dietary intervention with omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in multiple sclerosis patients,” Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2005; 73:397-404.

Wong, K., “Clinical efficacy of n-3 fatty acid supplementation in patients with asthma,” Jour Amer Diet Assoc 2005; 105(1):98-105.

Yehuda, S., et al., “Essential fatty acids and the brain: from infancy to aging,” Neurobiol Aging 2005; 26(Suppl 1):98-102.

Yokoyama, M., et al., “Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid on major coronary events in hypercholesterolaemic patients (JELIS): a randomised open-label, blinded endpoint analysis,” Lancet 2007; 369:1090-9.

 

CHAPTER 4: AMINO ACIDS

D’Mello, J., Amino Acids in Human Nutrition and Health. Cambridge, MA: CABI, 2012.

Sahley, B., Control Hyperactivity, ADD Naturally. San Antonio, Texas: Pain and Stress Publications, 1999.

Sahley, B., Heal with Amino Acids and Nutrients. San Antonio Texas: Pain and Stress Publications, 2000.

Wu, G., Amino Acids: Biochemistry and Nutrition. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2013.

 

Alanine

Artioli, G., et al., “Role of beta-alanine supplementation on muscle carnosine and exercise performance,” Med Sci Sports Exerc 2010; 42(6):1162-73.

Hoffman, J., et al., “Short duration β-alanine supplementation increases training volume and reduces subjective feelings of fatigue in college football players,” Nutr Res 2008; 28:31–5.

Sahley, B., Heal with Amino Acids and Nutrients. San Antonio, TX: Pain and Stress Publications, 2000.

Sale, C., et al., “Effect of beta-alanine supplementation on muscle carnosine concentrations and exercise performance,” Amino Acids 2010; 39(2):321-33.

Sattar, N., et al., “Elevated alanine aminotransferase predicts new-onset type 2 diabetes independently of classical risk factors, metabolic syndrome, and C-Reactive protein in The West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study,” Diabetes 2004; 53(11).

Smith, A., et al., “Effects of β-alanine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on endurance performance and body composition in men; a double-blind trial,” Jour Int Soc Sports Nutr 2009; 6:5.

Smith, A., et al., “The effects of beta-alanine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on neuromuscular fatigue and muscle function,” Eur Jour Appl Physiol 2009; 105:357–63.

Stout, J., et al., “Effects of β-alanine supplementation on the onset of neuromuscular fatigue and ventilatory threshold in women,” Amino Acids 2007; 32:381–86.

 

Arginine

Andoh, T., et al., “Protective effects of dietary L-arginine supplementation on chronic cyclosporine nephrotoxicity,” Transplantation 1997; 64(9):1236-40.

Ast, J., et al., “Evaluation of the antihypertensive effect of L-arginine supplementation in patients with mild hypertension assessed with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring,” Med Sci Monit 2010; 16(5):CR266-CR271.

Baris, N., et al., “Alterations in L-arginine and inflammatory markers in type 2 diabetic patients with and without microalbuminuria,” Acta Diabetol 2009; 46(4):309-16.

Bednarz, B., et al., “Effects of oral L-arginine supplementation on exercise-induced QT dispersion and exercise tolerance in stable angina pectoris,” Int Jour Cardiol 2000; 75(2-3):205-10.

Blum, A., “Effects of oral L-arginine on endothelium-dependent vasodilation and markers of inflammation in healthy postmenopausal women,” Jour Amer Coll Cardiol 2000; 35:271-76.

Bode-Boger, S., et al., “L-arginine infusion decreases peripheral arterial resistance and inhibits platelet aggregation in healthy subject,” Clin Sci (Lond) 1994; 87(3):303-10.

Bode-Boger, S., et al., “Oral L-arginine improves endothelial function in healthy individuals older than 70 years,” Vasc Med 2003; 8(2):77-81.

Borsheim, E., et al., “Effect of amino acid supplementation on muscle mass, strength and physical function in elderly,” Clin Nutr 2008; 27(2):189-95.

Camic, C., e al., “Effects of arginine-based supplements on the physical working capacity at the fatigue threshold,” Jour Strength Cond Res 2010; 24(5):1306-12.

Cartledge, J., et al., “A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial of the efficacy of L-arginine in the treatment of interstitial cystitis,” Brit Jour Urol Int 2000; 85(4):421-26.

Cassone, Faldetta M., et la., “L-arginine infusion decreases plasma total homocysteine concentrations through increased nitric oxide production and decreased oxidative status in Type II diabetic patients,” Diabetologia 2002; 45(8):1120-27.

Chen, S., et al., “Arginine and antioxidant supplement on performance in elderly male cyclists: a randomized controlled trial,” Jour Int Soc Sports Nutr 2010; 7:13.

Cheng, J., et al., “L-arginine in the management of cardiovascular diseases,” Ann Pharmacother 2001; 35:755-64.

Colagrande, L., et al., “Reduced cytokines release and myocardial damage in coronary artery bypass patients due to L-arginine cardioplegia supplementation,” Ann Thorac Surg 2006; 81(4):1256-61.

De Aloysio D., “The clinical use of arginine aspartate in male infertility,” Acta Eur Fertil 1982; 13(3):133-67.

Desneves, K. et al., “Treatment with supplementary arginine, vitamin C and zinc in patients with pressure ulcers: a randomised controlled trial,” Clin Nutr 2005; 24(6):979-87.

Doley, J., “Nutrition management of pressure ulcers,” Nutr Clin Pract 2010; 25(1):50-60.

Dong, J. et al., “Effect of oral L-arginine supplementation on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials,” Amer Heart Jour 2011; 162(6):959-65.

Doutreleau, S., et al., “L-arginine supplementation improves exercise capacity after a heart transplant,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2010; 91(5):1261-67.

Efron, D., et al., “Role of arginine in immunonutrition.” Jour Gastroenterol 2000; 35 (Suppl 12):20–23.

Egashira, K., et al., “Effects of L-arginine supplementation on endothelium-dependent coronary vasodilation in patients with angina pectoris and normal coronary arteriograms,” Circulation 1996; 94(2):130-34.

Eshghi, F., “The efficacy of L-arginine gel for treatment of chronic anal fissure compared to surgical sphincterotomy,” Jour Med Sci 2007; 7(3):481-84.

Fahs, C., et al., “Hemodynamic and vascular response to resistance exercise with L-arginine,” Med Sci Sports Exerc 2009; 41(4):773-79.

Fricke, O., et al., “The effect of L-arginine administration on muscle force and power in postmenopausal women,” Clin Physiol Funct Imaging 2008; 28(5):307-11.

Gentile, V., et al., “Effect of propionyl-L-carnitine, L-arginine and nicotinic acid on the efficacy of vardenafil in the treatment of erectile dysfunction in diabetes,” Curr Med Res Opin 2009; 25(9):2223-28.

Griffin, N., et al., “Topical L-arginine gel lowers resting anal pressure: possible treatment for anal fissure,” Dis Colon Rectum 2002; 45(10):1332-36.

Hertz, P., et al., “Arginine-induced hyperkalemia in renal failure patients,” Arch Intern Med 1972; 130(5):778-80.

Heyman, H., et al., “Benefits of an oral nutritional supplement on pressure ulcer healing in long-term care residents,” Jour Wound Care 2008; 17(11):476-78, 480.

Houwing, R., et al., “A randomised, double-blind assessment of the effect of nutritional supplementation on the prevention of pressure ulcers in hip-fracture patients,” Clin Nutr 2003; 22(4):401-05.

Huynh, N., et al., “Oral arginine reduces systemic blood pressure in type 2 diabetes: its potential role in nitric oxide generation,” Jour Amer Coll Nutr 2002; 21:422-27.

Jude, E., et al., “Effect of L-arginine on the microcirculation in the neuropathic diabetic foot in Type 2 diabetes mellitus: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study,” Diabet Med 2010; 27(1):113-16.

Kawano, H., et al., “Endothelial dysfunction in hypercholesterolemia is improved by L-arginine administration: possible role of oxidative stress,” Atherosclerosis 2002; 161(2):375-80.

Khan, F., et al., “Oral L-arginine supplementation and cutaneous vascular responses in patients with primary Raynaud's phenomenon,” Arthritis Rheum 1997; 40(2):352-57.

Khan, F., et al., “Skin blood flow in patients with systemic sclerosis and Raynaud's phenomenon: effects of oral L-arginine supplementation,” Jour Rheumatol 1999; 26(11):2389-94.

Kirk, S., et al., “Arginine stimulates wound healing and immune function in elderly human beings,” Surgery 1993; 114(2):155-59.

Klatz, R., The New Anti-Aging Revolution. Laguna Beach, CA: Basic Health Publications, 2003.

Klotz, T., et al., “Effectiveness of oral L-arginine in first-line treatment of erectile dysfunction in a controlled crossover study,” Urol Int 1999; 63:220-23.

Knechtle, B., et al., “The influence of arginine supplementation on performance and metabolism in athletes,” Inter Sport Med Jour 2008; 9(1):22-31.

Koga, Y., et al., “Endothelial dysfunction in MELAS improved by l-arginine supplementation,” Neurology 2006; 66(11):1766-69.

Koga, Y., et al., “L-arginine improves the symptoms of stroke-like episodes in MELAS,” Neurology 2005; 64(4):710-12.

Komers, R., et al., “Effect of ACE inhibition and angiotensin AT1 receptor blockade on renal and blood pressure response to L-arginine in humans,” Jour Hypertens 2000; 18(1):51-9.

Lakhan, S., et al., “Nutritional and herbal supplements for anxiety and anxiety-related disorders: systematic review,” Nutr Jour 2010; 9:42.

Lecleire, S., et al., “Modulation of nitric oxide and cytokines production by L-arginine in human gut mucosa,” Clin Nutr 2005; 24(3):353-59.

Ledda, A., et al., “Investigation of a complex plant extract for mild to moderate erectile dysfunction in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm study,” Brit Jour Urology Int 2010; 106(7):1030-33.

Lekakis, J., et al., “Oral L-arginine improves endothelial dysfunction in patients with essential hypertension,” Int Jour Cardiol 2002; 86(2-3):317-23.

Lim, D. S., et al., “Effect of oral L-arginine on oxidant stress, endothelial dysfunction, and systemic arterial pressure in young cardiac transplant recipient,” Amer Jour Cardiol 2004; 94(6):828-31.

Lubec, B., et al., “L-Arginine reduces lipid peroxidation in patients with diabetes mellitus,” Free Radic Biol Med 1997; 22(1-2):355-57.

Lucotti, P., et al., “Beneficial effects of a long-term oral L-arginine treatment added to a hypocaloric diet and exercise training program in obese, insulin-resistant type 2 diabetic patients,” Amer Jour Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2006; 291(5):E906-E912.

Lucotti, P., et al., “Oral L-arginine supplementation improves endothelial function and ameliorates insulin sensitivity and inflammation in cardiopathic nondiabetic patients after an aortocoronary bypass,” Metabolism 2009; 58(9):1270-76.

Maarsingh, H., et al., “Arginine homeostasis in allergic asthma,” Eur Jour Pharmacol 2008; 585(2-3):375-84.

Malenfant, D., et al., “The efficacy of complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of Raynaud's phenomenon: a literature review and meta-analysis,” Rheumatology (Oxf.) 2009; 48(7):791-95.

Marchesi, S., et al., “Oral L-arginine administration attenuates postprandial endothelial dysfunction in young healthy males,” Jour Clin Pharm Ther 2001; 26(5):343-49.

Martina, V., et al., “A long-term N-acetylcysteine and L-arginine administration reduces endothelial activation and systolic blood pressure in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes Care 2008; 31(5):940-44.

Masha, A., et al., “Prolonged treatment with N-acetylcysteine and L-arginine restores gonadal function in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome,” Jour Endocrinol Invest 2009; 32(11):870-72.

Maxwell, A., et al., “L-arginine enhances aerobic exercise capacity in association with augmented nitric oxide production,” Jour Appl Physiol 2001; 90(3):933-38.

Maxwell, A., et al., “Randomized trial of a medical food for the dietary management of chronic, stable angina,” Jour Amer Coll Cardiol 2002; 39:37-45.

McConell, G., “Effects of L-arginine supplementation on exercise metabolism,” Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2007; 10(1):46-51.

McConell, G., et al., “L-Arginine infusion increases glucose clearance during prolonged exercise in humans,” Amer Jour Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2006; 290(1):E60-E66.

Miroueh, A., “Effect of arginine on oligospermia,” Fertil Steril 1970; 21(3):217-19.

Morris, C., et al., “Arginine therapy: a novel strategy to induce nitric oxide production in sickle cell disease,” Brit Jour Haematol 2000; 111(2):498-500.

Nelson, R., “Non-surgical therapy for anal fissure,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012; 2:CD003431

Ohtsuka, Y., et al., “Effect of oral administration of L-arginine on senile dementia,” Amer Jour Med 2000; 108:439.

Oka, R., et al., “A pilot study of L-arginine supplementation on functional capacity in peripheral arterial disease,” Vasc Med 2005; 10(4):265-74.

Palloshi, A., et al., “Effect of oral L-arginine on blood pressure and symptoms and endothelial function in patients with systemic hypertension, positive exercise tests, and normal coronary arteries,” Amer Jour Cardiol 2004; 93(7):933-35.

Pernow, J., et al., “L-arginine protects from ischemia-reperfusion-induced endothelial dysfunction in humans in vivo,” Jour Appl Physiol 2003; 95(6):2218-22.

Pezza, V., et al., “Study of supplemental oral l-arginine in hypertensives treated with enalapril + hydrochlorothiazide,” Amer Jour Hyperten 1998; 11(10):1267-70.

Piatti, P., et al., “Long-term oral L-arginine administration improves peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients,” Diabetes Care 2001; 24(5):875-80.

Pryor, J., et al., “Controlled clinical trial of arginine for infertile men with oligozoospermia,” Brit Jour Urol 1978; 50(1):47-50.

Rector, T., et al., “Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of supplemental oral L-arginine in patients with heart failure,” Circulation 1996; 93:2135-41.

Regensteiner, J., et al., “Oral L-arginine and vitamins E and C improve endothelial function in women with type 2 diabetes,” Vasc Med 2003; 8(3):169-75.

Sahley, B., Heal with Amino Acids and Nutrients. San Antonio, TX: Pain and Stress Publications, 2000.

Saito, H., et al., “Metabolic and immune effects of dietary arginine supplementation after burn,” Arch Surg 1987; 122(7):784-89.

Saleh, A., et al., “Protective effect of L-arginine in experimentally induced myocardial ischemia: comparison with aspirin,” Jour Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 2011; 16(1):53-62.

Sandrini, G., et al., “Effectiveness of ibuprofen-arginine in the treatment of acute migraine attacks,” Int Jour Clin Pharmacol Res 1998; 18:145-50.

Schachter, A., et al., “Treatment of oligospermia with the amino acid L-arginine,” Jour Urology 1973; 110(3):310-13.

Schulman, S., et al., “L-arginine therapy in acute myocardial infarction. The vascular interaction with age in myocardial infarction (VINTAGE MI) randomized clinical trial,” JAMA 2006; 295:58-64.

Schulze, F., et al., “L-Arginine enhances the triglyceride-lowering effect of simvastatin in patients with elevated plasma triglycerides,” Nutr Res 2009; 29(5):291-97.

Settergren, M., et al., “L-arginine and tetrahydrobiopterin protects against ischemia/reperfusion-induced endothelial dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease,” Atherosclerosis 2009; 204(1):73-8.

Siani, A., et al., “Blood pressure and metabolic changes during dietary L-arginine supplementation in human.” Amer Jour Hypertens 2000; 13(5, Pt.1):547–51.

Siasos, G., et al., “The impact of oral L-arginine supplementation on acute smoking-induced endothelial injury and arterial performance,” Amer Jour Hypertens 2009; 22(6):586-92.

Sinatra, S., Heart Sense for Women. Washington, DC: LifeLine Press, 2000.

Smith, S., et al., “Improvement in interstitial cystitis symptom scores during treatment with oral L-arginine,” Jour Urol 1997; 158(3 Pt 1):703-08.

Smriga, M., et al. “Oral treatment with L-lysine and L-arginine reduces anxiety and basal cortisol levels in healthy humans,” Biomed Res 2007; 28(2):85-90.

Sun, T., et al., “Oral L-arginine supplementation in acute myocardial infarction therapy: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials,” Clin Cardiol 2009; 32(11):649-52.

Sydow, K., et al., “ADMA and oxidative stress are responsible for endothelial dysfunction in hyperhomocyst(e)inemia: effects of L-arginine and B vitamins,” Cardiovasc Res 2003; 57(1):244-52.

Tangphao, O., et al., “Pharmacokinetics of L-arginine during chronic administration to patients with hypercholesterolaemia,” Clin Sci (London) 1999; 96(2):199-207.

Tarumoto, T., et al., “L-arginine administration reverses anemia associated with renal disease,” Int Jour Hematol 2007; 86(2):126-29.

Theilmeier, G., et al., “Adhesiveness of mononuclear cells in hypercholesterolemic humans is normalized by dietary L-arginine,” Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1997; 17(12):3557-64.

Tripathi, P., et al., “Oral administration of L-arginine in patients with angina or following myocardial infarction may be protective by increasing plasma superoxide dismutase and total thiols with reduction in serum cholesterol and xanthine oxidase,” Oxid Med Cell Longev 2009; 2(4):231-37.

Tripathi, P., et al., “Therapeutic role of L-arginine on free radical scavenging system in ischemic heart diseases,” Indian Jour Biochem Biophys 2009; 46(6):498-502.

Umathe, S., et al., “Gastrointestinal dysfunction in diabetic rats relates with a decline in tissue L-arginine content and consequent low levels of nitric oxide,” Nitric Oxide 2009; 20(2):129-33.

Watanabe, G., et al., “Effects of oral administration of L-arginine on renal function in patients with heart failure,” Jour Hypertens 2000; 18:229-34.

Wheeler, M., et al., “Effect of long-term oral L-arginine on the nitric oxide synthase pathway in the urine from patients with interstitial cystitis,” Jour Urol 1997; 158:2045-50.

Wolf, A., et al., “Dietary L-arginine supplementation normalizes platelet aggregation in hypercholesterolemic humans,” Jour Amer Coll Cardiol 1997; 29(3):479-85.

Wu, G., et al., “Arginine metabolism and nutrition in growth, health and disease,” Amino Acids 2009; 37(1):153-68.

Wu, G., et al. “Nitric oxide and vascular insulin resistance,” Biofactors 2009; 35(1):21-7.

Yeo, T., et al., “Pharmacokinetics of L-arginine in adults with moderately severe malaria,” Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2008; 52(12):4381-87.

Yin, W., et al., “L-arginine improves endothelial function and reduces LDL oxidation in patients with stable coronary artery disease,” Clin Nutr 2005; 24(6):988-97.

Zajac, A., et al., “Arginine and ornithine supplementation increases growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 serum levels after heavy-resistance exercise in strength-trained athletes,” Jour Strength Cond Res 2010; 24(4):1082-90.

Zhang, X., et al., “The anabolic effect of arginine on proteins in skin wound and muscle is independent of nitric oxide production,” Clin Nutr 2008; 27(4):649-56.

 

Asparagine

Patterson, M., “Metabolic Mimics: The Disorders of N-Linked Glycosylation,” Seminars Ped Neurol 2005; 12(3):144–51.

Ruzzo, E., et al., “Deficiency of asparagine synthetase causes congenital microcephaly and a progressive form of encephalopathy,” Neuron 2013; 80(2):429–41.

Sahley, B., Heal with Amino Acids and Nutrients. San Antonio, TX: Pain and Stress Publications, 2000.

 

Aspartic Acid

D’Anielloa, G., et al., “D-aspartate, a key element for the improvement of sperm quality,” Adv Sexual Med 2012; (4):45-53.

Poddar, R., et al., “Homocysteine-NMDA receptor-mediated activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase leads to neuronal cell death,” Jour Neurochem 2009; 110(3):1095-106.

Rosenquist, T., et al., “N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor agonists modulate homocysteine-induced developmental abnormalities,” Jour Federation Amer Soc Exper Biol 1999; 13(12):1523-31.

Sahley, B., Heal with Amino Acids and Nutrients. San Antonio, TX: Pain and Stress Publications, 2000.

Topo, E., et al., “The role and molecular mechanism of D-aspartic acid in the release and synthesis of LH and testosterone in humans and rats,” Repro Biol Endocrinol 2009; 7:120.

 

Branched-Chain Amino Acids

Aquilani, R., et al., “Branched-chain amino acids enhance the cognitive recovery of patients with severe traumatic brain injury,” Arch Physical Med Rehab 2005; 86(9):1729–35.

Cole, J., et al., “Dietary branched chain amino acids ameliorate injury-induced cognitive impairment,” Proc National Acad Sci USA 2010; 107(1):366–71.

De Bandt, J., et al., “Therapeutic use of branched-chain amino acids in burn, trauma and sepsis,” Jour Nutr 2006; 136:308S–313S.

Fernstrom, J., “Branched-chain amino acids and brain function,” Jour Nutr 2005; 135(6 Suppl.): 1539S–1546S.

Genova Laboratory. Metametrix Handbook Clinical Reference Manual, 2009.

Ishikawa, Y., et al., "Prospective randomized controlled study of short-term perioperative oral nutrition with branched chain amino acids in patients undergoing liver surgery,” Hepato-Gastroenterol 2010; 57(99–100):583–90.

Matthews, D., “Observations of branched-chain amino acid administration in humans,” Jour Nutr 2005; 135(6 Suppl.):1580S–1584S.

Sahley, B., Heal with Amino Acids and Nutrients. San Antonio, TX: Pain and Stress Publications, 2003.

Wagenmakers, A., “Amino acid supplements to improve athletic performance,” Curr Opinion Clin Nutri Metabolic Care 1999; 2:539–44.

Yudkoff, M., et al., “Brain amino acid requirements and toxicity: The example of leucine,” Jour Nutri 2005; 135(6 Suppl.):1531S–1538S.

 

Carnosine

“The Anti-aging Effects of Carnosine” Life Extensions 2003; January.

Babizhayev, M., et al., “Efficacy of n-acetylcysteine in the treatment of cataracts,” Drugs RD 2002; 3(2):87-103.

Babizhayev, M., et al., “Lipid peroxidation and cataracts: nacetylcarnosine as a therapeutic tool to manage age-related cataracts in human and canine eyes,” Drugs RD 2004; 5(3):125-39.

Boldynev, A., et al., “The antioxidative properties of carnosine, a natural histidine containing dipeptide,” Biochem Int 1987; 15:1105-13.

Boldyrev, A., et al., “Biochemical and physiological evidence that carnosine is an endogenous neuroprotector against free radicals,” Cell Mol Neurobiol 1997; 17(2):259-71.

Boldyrev, A., et al., “Carnosine protects against excitotoxic cell death independently of effects on reactive oxygen species,” Neuroscience 1999; 94(2):571-77.

Brownson, C., et al., “Carnosine reacts with a glycated protein,” Free Radic Biol Med 2000; 28(10):1564-70.

Bulygina, E., et al., “Effect of carnosine on age-induced changes in senescence-accelerated mice,” Jour Anti-Aging Med 1999; 2(4):337-42.

Gulyaeva, N., “Superoxide-scavenging activity of carnosine in the presence of copper and zinc ions,” Biochemistry (Moscow) 1987; 52(7 Part 2):1051-54.

Hipkiss, A., et al., “Carnosine protects proteins against methylglyoxal-mediated modifications,” Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1998; 248(1):28-32.

Hipkiss, A., et al., “Non-enzymatic glycosylation of the dipeptide L-carnosine, a potential anti-protein-cross-linking agent,” FEBS Lett 1995; 371(1):81-5.

Hipkiss, A., et al., “Pluripotent protective effects of carnosine, a naturally occurring dipeptide,” Ann NY Acad Sci 1998; 854:37-53.

Hipkiss, A., et al., “Protective effects of carnosine against malondialdehyde-induced toxicity towards cultured rat brain endothelial cells,” Neurosci Lett 1997; 238(3):135-38.

Horning, M., et al., “Endogenous mechanisms of neuroprotection: role of zinc, copper, and carnosine,” Brain Res 2000; 852(1):56-61.

Nagai, K., et al., “Action of carnosine and beta-alanine on wound healing,” Surgery 1986; 100(5):815-21.

Preston, J., et al., “Toxic effects of beta-amyloid (25-35) on immortalised rat brain endothelial cell: protection by carnosine, homocarnosine and beta-alanine,” Neurosci Lett 1998; 242(2):105-08.

Price, D., et al., “Chelating activity of advanced glycation end-product inhibitors,” Jour Bio Chem 2001; 276:48967-72.

Quinn, P., et al., “Carnosine: its properties, functions, and potential therapeutic applications,” Mol Aspects Med 1992; 13:379-44.

Ririe, D., et al., “Vasodilatory actions of the dietary peptide carnosine,” Nutrition 2000; 16:168-72.

Roberts, O., “Dietary peptides improve wound healing following surgery,” Nutrition 1998; 14:266-69.

Sahley, B., Heal with Amino Acids and Nutrients. San Antonio, TX: Pain and Stress Publications, 2000.

Stvolinsky, S., et al., “Anti-ischemic activity of carnosine,” Biochem (Masc) 2000; 65:849-55.

Stvolinsky, S., et al., “Carnosine: an endogenous neuroprotector in the ischemic brain,” Cell Mol Neurobiol 1999; 19(1):45-56.

Wang, A., et al., “Use of carnosine as a natural anti-senescence drug for human beings,” Biochem (Masc) 2000; 65:869-71.

 

Cysteine

Amin, A., “N-acetyl cysteine for treatment of recurrent unexplained pregnancy loss,” Reprod Biomed Online 2008; 17(5):722-26.

Ardissino, D., et al., “Effect of transdermal nitroglycerin or N-acetylcysteine, or both, in the long-term treatment of unstable angina pectoris,” Jour Amer Coll Cardiol 1997; 29(5):941–47.

Atkuri, K., et al., “N-Acetylcysteine—a safe antidote for cysteine/glutathione deficiency,” Curr Opin Pharmacol 2007; 7(4):355–59.

Badawy, A., et al., “N-cetyl cysteine and clomiphene citrate for induction of ovulation in polycystic ovary syndrome: a crossover trial,” Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2007; 86(2):218–22.

Bagshaw, S., et al., “Acetylcysteine in the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy: a case study of the pitfalls in the evolution of evidence,” Arch Intern Med 2006; 166(2):161–66.

Caylak, E., et al., “Antioxidant effects of methionine, alpha-lipoic acid, N-acetylcysteine and homocysteine on lead-induced oxidative stress to erythrocytes in rats,” Exp Toxicol Path 2008; 60(4-5):289-94.

Dekhuijzen, P., et al., “Antioxidant properties of N-acetylcysteine: their relevance in relation to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” Eur Respir Jour 2004; 23(4):629–36.

Demedts, M., et al., For the IFIGENIA Study Group. “High-dose acetylcysteine in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis,” NEJM 2005; 353(21):2229–42.

deQuay, B., et al., “Glutathione depletion in HIV-infected patients: role of cysteine deficiency and effect of oral N-acetylcysteine,” AIDS 1992; 6(8):815-19.

Feldman, L., et al., “Gentamicin-induced ototoxicity in hemodialysis patients is ameliorated by N-acetylcysteine,” Kidney Int 2007; 72(3):359–63.

Gaby, A., Nutritional Therapy in Medical Practice. Carlisle, PA: Nutritional Seminars, 2003.

Gurbuz, A., et al., “Effect of N-acetyl cysteine on Helicobacter pylori,” South Med Jour 2005; 98(11):1095–97.

Klatz, R., The New Anti-Aging Revolution. North Bergen, NJ: Basic Health Publications, 2003.

Liu R., et al., “N-acetylcysteine for the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy. A systematic review and meta-analysis,” Jour Gen Intern Med 2005; 20(2):193–200.

Lundback, B., et al., “Possible effect of acetylcysteine on lung function,” Eur Respir Jour 1992; 5(Suppl 15):289s.

Millea, P., et al., “N-acetylcysteine: multiple clinical applications,” Amer Fam Physician 2009; 80(3):265-69.

Moreira, P., et al., “Lipoic acid and N-acetyl cysteine decrease mitochondrial-related oxidative stress in Alzheimer disease patient fibroblasts,” Jour Alzheimer’s Dis 2007; 12(2):195-206.

Rihal, C., et al., “Incidence and prognostic importance of acute renal failure after percutaneous coronary intervention,” Circulation 2002; 105(19):2259–264.

Rizk, A., et al., “N-acetyl-cysteine is a novel adjuvant to clomiphene citrate in clomiphene citrate-resistant patients with polycystic ovary syndrome,” Fertil Steril 2005; 83(2):367–70.

Sahley, B., Heal with Amino Acids and Nutrients. San Antonio, TX: Pain and Stress Publications, 2000.

Stey, C., et al., “The effect of oral N-acetylcysteine in chronic bronchitis: a quantitative systematic review,” Eur Respir Jour 2000; 16(2):253–62.

Tattersall, A., et al., “Acetylcysteine (Fabrol) in chronic bronchitis—a study in general practice,” Jour Int Med Res 1983; 11(5):279–84.

Treitinger, A., et al., “Effect of N-acetyl-L-cysteine on lymphocyte apoptosis, lymphocyte viability, TNF-alpha and IL-8 in HIV-infected patients undergoing anti-retroviral treatment,” Braz Jour Infect Dis 2004; 8(5):363-71

Zagler, A., et al., “N-acetylcysteine and contrast-induced nephropathy: a meta-analysis of 13 randomized trials,” Amer Heart Jour 2006; 151(1):140–45.

 

Glutamate

Hack, V., “Elevated venous glutamate levels in (pre)catabolic conditions result at least partly from a decreased glutamate transport activity,” Jour Mol Med (Berl) 1996; 74(6):337-43.

Harris, R, et al., “Elevated insular glutamate in fibromyalgia is associated with experimental pain,” Arthritis Rheumatism 2009; 60(10):3146-52.

Hassler, G., et al., “Reduced prefrontal glutamate/glutamine and gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in major depression determined using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy,” Arch Gen Psychiatry 2007; 64(2):193-200.

Jain, S., et al., “Vitamin D upregulates glutamate cysteine ligase and glutathione reductase, and GSH formation, and decreases ROS and MCP-1 and IL-8 secretion in high-glucose exposed U937 monocytes,” Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2013; 437(1):7-11.

Kaiser, L., et al., “Age-related glutamate and glutamine concentration changes in normal human brain: 1H MR spectroscopy study at 4 T,” Neurobiol Aging 2005; 26(5):665-72.

Kuiper, A., et al., “L-glutamate, L-arginine and L-citrulline levels in cerebrospinal fluid of Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy, and Alzheimer's disease patients,” Jour Neural Transmission 2000; 107(2):183-89.

Lombard, J., HPA Axis and Neuroendocrinology/Aging Brain. Module III. Fellowship in Anti-Aging, Regenerative, and Functional Medicine, Feb. 24-26, 2012.

Lyoo, I., et al., “Altered prefrontal glutamate-glutamine-gamma-aminobutyric acid levels and relation to low cognitive performance and depressive symptoms in type 1 diabetes mellitus,” Arch Gen Psy 2009; 66(8):878-87.

Schrauzer, G., “Lithium: occurrence, dietary intakes, nutritional essentiality,” Jour Amer Coll Nutr 2002; 21(1):14-21.

Willner, C., Neurotransmitters: From Biochemistry to Behavior. Module III. Fellowship in Anti-Aging, Regenerative, and Functional Medicine, Feb. 24-26, 2012.

Zahr, N., et al., “Low striatal glutamate levels underlie cognitive decline in the elderly: evidence from in vivo molecular spectroscopy,” Cereb Cortex 2008; 18(10):2241-50.

 

Glutamine

Keast, D., et al., “Depression of plasma glutamine concentration after exercise stress and its possible influence on the immune system,” Med Jour Aust 1995; 162(1):15–8.

Klatz, R., The New Anti-Aging Revolution. North Bergen, NJ: Basic Health Publications, 2003.

Maskovitz, B., et al., “Glutamine metabolism and utilization: relevance to major problems in health care,” Pharmacol Res 1994; 30(1):61–71.

Peck, L., et al., “Glutamine should be figured into inflammatory bowel disease formulations,” Family Pract News June 1994.

Sahley, B., Heal with Amino Acids and Nutrients. San Antonio Texas: Pain and Stress Publications, 2000.

Shabert, J., The Ultimate Nutrient Glutamine. New York, NY: Avery Publishing Group, 1994.

Welbourne, T., et al., “Increased plasma bicarbonate and growth hormone after an oral glutamine load,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1995; 61(5):1058–61.

 

Glutathione

Asher, B., et al., “Oxidative stress and low glutathione in common ear, nose, and throat conditions: A systemic review,” Altern Therp Health Med 2016; 22(5):44-50.

Burnham, E., et al., “The relationship between airway antioxidant levels, alcohol use disorders,, and cigarette smoking,” Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2016; Sept 14 (Epub ahead of print).

Choi, I., et al., “Longitudinal changes of cerebral glutathione (GSH) levels associated with clinical course of disease progression in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis,” Multiple Sclerosis 2016.

James, S., et al., “Metabolic biomarkers of increased oxidative stress and impaired methylation capacity in children with autism,” Amer Jour Clin Nutri 2004; 80(6):1611-17.

Kern, J., et al., "A clinical trial of glutathione supplementation in autism spectrum disorders." Med Sci Monit 2011; 17(12):CR677-82.

Klatz, R., The New Anti-Aging Revolution. North Bergen, New Jersey: Basic Health Publications, 2003.

Lang, C., et al., “Low blood glutathione levels in healthy aging adults,” Jour Lab Clin Med 1992; 20(5):720-25.

Loguercio, C., et al., “Glutathione supplementation improves oxidative damage in experimental colitis," Dig Liver Dis 2003; 35(9):635-41.

Misckley, L., et al., “Central nervous system uptake of intranasal glutathione in Parkinson’s disease,” NPJ Parkinson’s Disease 2016; 2:16002.

Pastore, A., et al., “Analysis of glutathione: implication in redox and detoxification,” Clin Chim Acta 2003; 333(1):19-39.

Perlmutter, D., BrainRecovery.com. Naples, Florida: The Perlmutter Health Center, 2000.

Pierce, S, et al., Multiple Sclerosis in Rakel, D., Integrative Medicine, 24th Ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier, 2012.

Rahman, I., et al., “Oxidative stress and regulation of glutathione in lung inflammation,” Eur Respir Jour 2000; 16(3):534-54.

Ramires, P., et al., "Glutathione supplementation and training increases myocardial resistance to ischemia-reperfusion in vivo,” Amer Jour Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2001; 281(2):H679-88.

Sahley, B., Heal with Amino Acids and Nutrients. San Antonio, TX: Pain and Stress Publications, 2003.

Sinha, S., et al., “Improvement of glutathione and total antioxidant status with yoga,” Jour Altern Complement Med 2007; 13910):1085-90.

Wu, G., et al., "Glutathione metabolism and its implications for health," Jour Nutr 2004; 134(3):489-92.

 

Glycine

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.

de Koning, T., et al., “Beneficial effects of L-serine and glycine in the management of seizures in 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiency,” Ann Neurol 1998; 44:261-65.

Evins, A., et al., “Placebo-controlled trial of glycine added to clozapine in schizophrenia,” Amer Jour Psychiatry 2000; 157:826-28.

File, S., et al., “Beneficial effects of glycine (bioglycin) on memory and attention in young and middle-aged adults,” Jour Clin Psychopharmacol 1999; 19:506-12.

Gusev, E., et al., “Neuroprotective effects of glycine for therapy of acute ischaemic stroke,” Cerebrovasc Dis 2000; 10:49-60.

Hartog, A., et al., “Anti-inflammatory effects of orally ingested lactoferrin and glycine in different zymosan-induced inflammation models: evidence for synergistic activity,” Int Immunopharmacol 2007; 7(13):1784-92.

Harvey, S., et al., “L-cysteine, glycine and dl-threonine in the treatment of hypostatic leg ulceration: a placebo-controlled study,” Pharmatherapeutica 1985; 4:227-30.

Heresco-Levy, U., et al., “Double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of glycine adjuvant therapy for treatment-resistant schizophrenia,” Brit Jour Psychiatry 1996; 169:610-17.

Heresco-Levy, U., et al., “Efficacy of high-dose glycine in the treatment of enduring negative symptoms of schizophrenia,” Arch Gen Psychiatry 1999; 56:29-36.

Javitt, D., et al., “Amelioration of negative symptoms in schizophrenia by glycine,” Amer Jour Psychiatry 1994; 151:1234-36.

Klatz, R., The New Anti-Aging Revolution. Laguna Beach, CA: Basic Health Publications, 2003.

Rose, M., et al., “Dietary glycine prevents the development of liver tumors caused by the peroxisome proliferator WY-14,643,” Carcinogenesis 1999; 20:2075-81.

Sahley, B., Heal with Amino Acids and Nutrients. San Antonio, TX: Pain and Stress Publications, 2003.

Thurman, R., et al., “Prevention of cyclosporine-induced nephrotoxicity with dietary glycine,” Transplantation 1997; 63:1661-67.

Yin, M., et al., “Glycine accelerates recovery from alcohol-induced liver injury,” Jour Pharmacol Exp Ther 1998; 286:1014-19.

Zhong, Z., et al., “Cyclosporin A increases hypoxia and free radical production in rat kidneys: prevention by dietary glycine,” Amer Jour Physiol 1998; 275:F595-604.

 

Histidine

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.

Braun, L., and Cohen, M., (Eds.) Herbs and Natural Supplements. 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

Klatz, R., The New Anti-Aging Revolution. Laguna Beach, CA: Basic Health Publications, 2003.

Lakhan, S., et al. “Nutritional and herbal supplements for anxiety and anxiety-related disorders: a systematic review,” Nutri Jour 2010; 9:42-55.

Sahley, B., Heal with Amino Acids and Nutrients. San Antonio Texas: Pain and Stress Publications, 2000.

 

Lysine

Civitelli, R., et al., “Dietary l-lysine and calcium metabolism in humans,” Nutrition 1992; 8(6):400-05.

Griffith, R., et al., “Success of l-lysine therapy in frequently recurrent herpes simplex infection. Treatment and prophylaxis,” Dermatologica 1987; 175(4):183-90.

Klatz, R., The New Anti-Aging Revolution. Laguna Beach, CA: Basic Health Publications, 2003.

Mirmiranpour, H., et al., “Investigation of the mechanisms involved in decreasing increased fibrinogen activity hyperglycemic conditions using l-lysine supplementation,” Thromb Res 2012; 130(3):13-9.

Sahley, B., Heal with Amino Acids and Nutrients. San Antonio Texas: Pain and Stress Publications, 2000.

Smriga, M., et al., “Dietary l-lysine deficiency increases stress-induced anxiety and fecal excretion in rats,” Jour Nutr 2002; 132(12):3744-46.

Wass, C., et al., “L-lysine as a adjunctive treatment in patients with schizophrenia: a single-blinded, randomized, cross-over pilot study,” BMC Med 2011; 9:40.

 

Methionine

Bellamy, M., et al., “Hyperhomocysteinemia after an oral methionine load acutely impairs endothelial function in healthy adults,” Circulation 1998; 98:1848-52.

Cellarier, E., et al., “Methionine dependency and cancer treatment,” Cancer Treat Rev 2003; 29(6):489-99.

Di Buono, M., et al., “Dietary cysteine reduces the methionine requirement in men,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2001; 74(6):761-66.

Douglas, A., et al., “Controlled trial of cysteamine in treatment of acute paracetamol (acetaminophen) poisoning,” Lancet 1976; 1(7951):111-15.

Epner, D., “Can dietary methionine restriction increase the effectiveness of chemotherapy in treatment of advanced cancer?” Jour Amer Coll Nutr 2001; 20:443S-449S.

Finkelstein, J., “Homocysteine: a history in progress,” Nutr Rev 2000; 58(7):193-204.

Fuchs, C., et al., “The influence of folate and multivitamin use on the familial risk of colon cancer in women,” Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2002; 11:227-34.

Hamlyn, A., et al., “Methionine and cysteamine in paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose, prospective controlled trial of early therapy,” Jour Int Med Res 1981; 9(3):226-31.

Hanratty, C., et al., “The effects of oral methionine and homocysteine on endothelial function,” Heart 2001; 85(3):326-30.

Klatz, R., The New Anti-Aging Revolution. Laguna Beach, CA: Basic Health Publications, 2003.

La Vecchia, C., et al., “Case-control study on influence of methionine, nitrite, and salt on gastric carcinogenesis in northern Italy,” Nutr Cancer 1997; 27:65-8.

Larsson, S., et al., “Methionine and vitamin B6 intake and risk of pancreatic cancer: a prospective study of Swedish women and men,” Gastroenterology 2007; 132(1):113-18.

Lu, S., et al., “Methionine restriction induces apoptosis of prostate cancer cells via the c-Jun N-terminal kinase-mediated signaling pathway,” Cancer Lett 2002; 179(1):51-8.

McAuley, D., et al., “Effect of methionine supplementation on endothelial function, plasma homocysteine, and lipid peroxidation,” Jour Toxicol Clin Toxicol 1999; 37(4):435-40.

Sahley, B., Heal with Amino Acids and Nutrients. San Antonio, TX: Pain and Stress Publications, 2003.

Shaw, G., et al., “Is dietary intake of methionine associated with a reduction in risk for neural tube defect-affected pregnancies?” Teratology 1997; 56(5):295-99.

Shoob, H., et al., “Dietary methionine is involved in the etiology of neural tube defect-affected pregnancies in humans,” Jour Nutri 2001; 131(10):2653-58.

Smulders, Y., et al., “Fasting and post-methionine homocysteine levels in NIDDM. Determinants and correlations with retinopathy, albuminuria, and cardiovascular disease,” Diabetes Care 1999; 22(1):125-32.

Su, L., et al., “Nutritional status of folate and colon cancer risk: evidence from NHANES I epidemiologic follow-up study,” Ann Epidemiol 2001; 11:65-72.

Trumbo, P., et al., “Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein and amino acids,” Jour Amer Diet Assoc 2002; 102(11):1621-30.

Vale, J., et al., “Treatment of acetaminophen poisoning. The use of oral methionine,” Arch Int Med 1981; 141:394-96.

Ward, M., et al., “Effect of supplemental methionine on plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy men: a preliminary study,” Int Jour Vitam Nutr Res 2001; 71(1):82-6.

 

Phenylalanine

Antoniou, C., et al., “Vitiligo therapy with oral and topical phenylalanine with UVA exposure,” Int Jour Dermatol 1989; 28:545-47.

Beckmann, H., et al., “Dl-phenylalanine in depressed patients: an open study,” Jour Neural Transmiss 1977; 41(2-3):123-34.

Birkmayer, W., et al., “L-deprenyl plus L-phenylalanine in the treatment of depression,” Jour Neural Transm 1984; 59:81-7.

Boirie, Y., et al., “Impairment of phenylalanine conversion to tyrosine in end-stage renal disease causing tyrosine deficiency,” Kidney Int 2004; 66(2):591-96.

Bornstein, R., et al., “Plasma amino acids in attention deficit disorder,” Psychiatry Res 1990; 33:301-06.

Camacho, F., et al., “Oral and topical L-phenylalanine, clobetasol propionate, and UVA/sunlight--a new study for the treatment of vitiligo,” Jour Drugs Dermatol 2002; 1(2):127-31.

Camacho, F., et al., “Treatment of vitiligo with oral and topical phenylalanine: 6 years of experience,” Arch Dermatol 1999; 135(2):216-17.

Cotzias, G., et al., “Aromatic amino acids and modification of parkinsonism,” NEJM 1967; 276(7):374-79.

Eriksson, T., et al., “On-off" phenomenon in Parkinson's disease: relationship between dopa and other large neutral amino acids in plasma,” Neurology 1988; 38:1245-48.

Feillet, F., et al., “Nutritional issues in treating phenylketonuria,” Jour Inherit Metab Dis 2010; 33(6):659-64.

Gardos, G., et al., “The acute effects of a loading dose of phenylalanine in unipolar depressed patients with and without tardive dyskinesia,” Neuropsychopharmacology 1992; 6:241-47.

Heller, B., et al., “Therapeutic action of D-phenylalanine in Parkinson's disease,” Arzneimittelforschung 1976; 26:577-79.

Jukic, T., et al., “The use of a food supplementation with D-phenylalanine, L-glutamine and L-5-hydroxytriptophan in the alleviation of alcohol withdrawal symptoms,” Coll Antropol 2011; 35:1225-30.

Klatz, R., The New Anti-Aging Revolution. Laguna Beach, CA: Basic Health Publications, 2003.

Kravitz, H., et al., “Dietary supplements of phenylalanine and other amino acid precursors of brain neuroamines in the treatment of depressive disorders,” Jour Amer Osteopath Assoc 1984; 84(1 Suppl):119-23.

Kuiters, G., et al., “Oral phenylalanine loading and sunlight as source of UVA irradiation in vitiligo on the Caribbean island of Curacao NA,” Jour Trop Med Hyg 1986; 89:149-55.

Mann, J., et al., “D-phenylalanine in endogenous depression,” Amer Jour Psychiatry 1980; 137(12):1611-12.

Mitchell, M., et al., “Effect of L-tryptophan and phenylalanine on burning pain threshold,” Phys Ther 1987; 67:203-05.

Mosnik, D., et al., “Tardive dyskinesia exacerbated after ingestion of phenylalanine by schizophrenic patients,” Neuropsychopharmacology 1997; 16:136-46.

Reuss, S., et al., “Phenylalanine and UVA for Vitiligo patients: probability of an effective treatment,” Med Hypotheses 2006; 67(1):199-200.

Rucklidge, J., et al., “Nutrient supplementation approaches in the treatment of ADHD,” Expert Rev Neurother 2009; 9(4):461-76.

Sahley, B., Heal with Amino Acids and Nutrients. San Antonio, TX: Pain and Stress Publications, 2003.

Wade, D., et al., “A randomised placebo controlled exploratory study of vitamin B-12, lofepramine, and L-phenylalanine (the "Cari Loder regime") in the treatment of multiple sclerosis,” Jour Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2002; 73(3):246-49.

Wood, D., et al., “Treatment of attention deficit disorder with DL-phenylalanine,” Psychiatry Res 1985; 16:21-6.

Zametkin, A., et al., “Treatment of hyperactive children with D-phenylalanine,” Amer Jour Psychiatry 1987; 144:792-94.

 

Proline

Rath, M.., “Reducing the risk for cardiovascular disease with nutritional supplements,” Jour Orthomol Med 1992; 7:153-62.

Sahley, B., Heal with Amino Acids and Nutrients. San Antonio, TX: Pain and Stress Publications, 2000.

 

Serine

de Koning, T., "Treatment with amino acids in serine deficiency disorders," Jour Inherit Met Dis 2006; 29(2):347–51.

Klatz, R., The New Anti-Aging Revolution. Laguna Beach, CA: Basic Health Publications, 2003.

Madeira, C., "d-serine levels in Alzheimer's disease: implications for novel biomarker development," Translational Psychiatry 2015; 5(5):e561.

Sahley, B., Heal with Amino Acids and Nutrients. San Antonio, TX: Pain and Stress Publications, 2000.

Tabatabaie, L., et al., “L-serine synthesis in the central nervous system: a review on serine deficiency disorders,” Mol Genet Metab 2010; 99(3):256–62.

 

Taurine

Abebe, W., et al., “Role of taurine in the vasculature: an overview of experimental and human studies,” Amer Jour Cardiovasc Dis 2011; 1(3):293-311.

Askwith, T., et al., “Oxidative stress and dysregulation of the taurine transporter in high-glucose-exposed human Schwann cells: implications for pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy,” Amer Jour Physiol Endocrinol Metabol 2009; 297(3):E620-E628.

Askwith, T., et al., “Taurine reduces nitrosative stress and nitric oxide synthase expression in high glucose-exposed human Schwann cells,” Exp Neurol 2012; 233(1):154-62.

Azuma, J., et al., “Therapeutic effect of taurine in congestive heart failure: a double-blind crossover trial,” Clin Cardiol 1985; 8(5):276-82.

Balshaw, T., et al., “The effect of acute taurine ingestion on 3-km running performance in trained middle-distance runners,” Amino Acids 2013; 44(2):55-61.

Birdsall, T., et al., “Therapeutic applications of taurine,” Altern Med Rev 1998; 3:128-36.

Braverman, E., The Healing Nutrients Within. New Canaan, CT: Keats, 1987; 120-36.

Brozoski, T., et al., “The effect of supplemental dietary taurine on tinnitus and auditory discrimination in an animal model,” Hear Res 1010; 60(4):508-13.

Canas, P., et al., “Biological and nutritional role of taurine and its derivatives on cellular and organic physiology,” Arch Latinoam Nutr 1991; 41(2):139-51.

Chapman, R., et al., “Taurine and the heart,” Cardiovasc Res 1993; 27(3):358–63.

Chesney, R., “Taurine: its biological role and clinical implications,” Adv Pediatr 1985; 32:1-42.

Collins, B., “Plasma and urinary taurine in epilepsy,” Clin Chem 1988; 34(4):671-75.

Crayhon, R. “Aging well in the 21st century.” Seminar, 2002.

Das, J., et al., “Taurine ameliorates alloxan-induced diabetic renal injury,” oxidative stress-related signaling pathways and apoptosis in rats,” Amino Acids 2012; 43(4):1509-23.

Das, J., et al., “Taurine exerts hypoglycemic effect on alloxan-induced diabetic rats, improves insulin-mediated glucose transport signaling pathway in heart and ameliorates cardiac oxidative stress and apoptosis,” Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2012; 258(2):296-308.

Davies, E., et al., “Tinnitus, membrane stabilizers and taurine,” Practitioner 1988; 232(Part 2):1139.

Dawson, R., “An age-related decline in striatal taurine is correlated with a loss of dopaminergic markers,” Brain Res Bull 1999; 48:319-24.

Dawson, R., et al., “The cytoprotective role of taurine in exercise-induced muscle injury,” Amino Acids 2002 22(4):309-24.

Desai, T., et al., “Taurine deficiency after intensive chemotherapy and/or radiation,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1992; 55(3):708–11.

Du, H., et al., “Antiobesity and hypolipidemic effects of lotus leaf hot water extract with taurine supplementation in rats fed a high fat diet,” Jour Biomed Sci 2010; 17(Supp 1):S42.

Eby, G., et al., “Elimination of cardiac arrhythmias using oral taurine with l-arginine with case histories: Hypothesis for nitric oxide stabilization of the sinus node,” Med Hypotheses 2006; 67(5):1200-04.

El Idrissi, A., et al., “Selective resistance of taurine-fed mice to isoniazide-potentiated seizures: in vivo functional test for the activity of glutamic acid decarboxylase,” Neuroscience 2008; 156(3):693-99.

Franconi, F., et al., “Plasma and platelet taurine are reduced in subjects with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: effects of taurine supplementation,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1995; 61(5):1115-19.

Franconi, F., et al., “Taurine supplementation and diabetes mellitus,” Curr Opin Clin Nutr Met Care 2006; 9(1):32-6.

Froger, N., et al., “Taurine provides neuro-protection against retinal ganglion cell degeneration,” PLoS One 2012; 7(10):E42017.

Fujita, T., “Hypotensive effect of taurine. Possible involvement of the sympathetic nervous system and endogenous opiates,” Jour Clin Invest 1988; 82(3):993-97.

Fukuyama, Y., et al., “Therapeutic trial by taurine for intractable childhood epilepsies,” Brain Dev 1982; 4:63-69.

Gaby, A., Nutritional Therapy in Medical Practice. Carlisle, PA: Nutrition Seminars, 2003.

Gaby, A., Taurine in Nutritional Medicine. Concord, NH: Fritz Perlberg Publishing, 2011.

Galazyuk, A., et al., “Tinnitus and underlying brain mechanisms,” Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2012; 20(5):409-15.

Goldman, R., Human Growth Factors. Chicago, IL: American Academy of Anti-Aging Physicians, 2003.

Goodman, C., et al., “Taurine supplementation increases skeletal muscle force production and protects muscle function during and after high-frequency in vitro stimulation,” Jour Appl Physiol 2009; 107(1):144-54.

Hu, Y., et al., “Dietary amino acid taurine ameliorates liver injury in chronic hepatitis patients,” Amino Acids 2008; 35(2):469-73.

Huxtable, R., et al., “Physiologic actions of taurine,” Physiol Rev 1992; 72:101-63.

Imagawa, T., et al., “Caffeine and taurine enhance endurance performance,” Int Jour Sports Med 2009; 30(7):485-88.

Jammoul, F., et al., “Taurine deficiency damages photoreceptors and retinal ganglion cells in vigabatrin-treated neonatal rats,” Mol Cell Neurosci 2010; 43(4):414-21.

Jeejeebhoy, F., et al., “Nutritional supplementation with MyoVive repletes essential cardiac myocyte nutrients and reduces left ventricular size in patients with left ventricular dysfunction,” Amer Heart Jour 2002; 143(6):1092-100.

Jin, H., et al., “Electro-acupuncture improves epileptic seizures induced by kainic acid in taurine-depletion rats,” Acupunct Electrother Res 2005; 30(3-4):207-17.

Kendler, B., et al. “Taurine: an overview of its role in preventive medicine,” Prev Med 1989; 18(1):70-100.

Kim, K., et al., “Taurine ameliorates hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia by reducing insulin resistance and leptin levels in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLERF) rats with long-term diabetes,” Exp Mol Med 2012; 44(1):665-73.

Klatz, R., The New Anti-Aging Revolution. Laguna Beach, CA: Basic Health Publications, 2003.

Kumata, K., et al., “Restoration of endothelium-dependent relaxation in both hypercholesterolemic and diabetics by chronic taurine,” Eur Jour Pharmacol 1996; 303:47-53.

L’Amoreaux, W., et al., “Pharmacological characterization of GABAA receptors in taurine-fed mice,” Jour Biomed Sci 2010; 17(Suppl 1):S14.

Laidlaw, S., et al., “Plasma urine taurine levels in vegans,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1988; 47:660-63.

Li, F., et al., “Taurine reverses neurological and neurovascular deficits in Zucker diabetic fatty rats,” Neurobiol Dis 2006; 22(3):669-76.

Liu, H., et al., “Taurine attenuates aminoglycoside ototoxicity by inhibiting inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in the cochlea,” Neuroreport 2008; 19(1):117-20.

Liu, H., et al., “Taurine modulates calcium influx through L-type voltage-gated calcium channels in isolated cochlear outer hair cells in guinea pigs,” Neurosci Lett 2006; 399(1-2):23-6.

Liu, H., et la., “Taurine modulates calcium influx under normal and ototoxic conditions in isolated cochlear spiral ganglion neurons,” Pharmacol Rep 2008; 60(4):508-13.

Lombardini, J., et al., “Taurine: retinal function,” Brain Res Brain Res Rev 1991; 16(2):151-69.

Lourenco, R., et al., “Taurine: a conditionally essential amino acid in humans? An overview in health and disease,” Nutr Hosp 2002; 17(6):262-70.

Macleavy, I., “The forgotten longevity benefits of taurine,” Life Extension June 2013; p. 38-46.

Manabe, S., et al., “Decreased blood levels of lactic acid and urinary excretion of 3-methylhistidine after exercise by chronic taurine treatment in rats,” Jour Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2003; 49(6):375-80.

Militante, J., et al., “Age-related retinal degeneration in animal models of aging: possible involvement of taurine deficiency and oxidative stress,” Neurochem Res 2004; 29(1):151-60.

Militante, J., et al., “Taurine: evidence of physiological function in the retina,” Nutr Neurosci 2002; 5(2):75-90.

Miyazaki, T., et al., “The protective effect of taurine against hepatic damage in a model of liver disease and hepatic stellate cells,” Adv Exp Med Biol 2009; 643:293-303.

Molaparast-Saless, F., et al., “The effects of propionylcarnitine taurine on cardiac performance in aerobic and ischemic myocardium,” Jour Mol Cell Cardiol 1988; 20(1):63-74.

Moloney, M., et al., “Two weeks taurine supplementation reverses endothelial dysfunction in young male type I diabetics,” Diab Vasc Dis Res 2010; 7(4):300-10.

Murakami, S., “Taurine and atherosclerosis,” Amino Acids 2012; Dec. 8.

Nakagawa, M., et al., “Antihypertensive effect of taurine on the salt-induced hypertension,” Adv Exp Med Biol 1994; 359:197-206.

Nardelli, t., et al., “Taurine prevents fat deposition and ameliorates plasma lipid profile in monosodium glutamate-obese rats,” Amino Acids 2011; 4(4):901-08.

Obrosova, I., et al., “Taurine counteracts oxidative stress and nerve growth factor deficit in early experimental diabetic neuropathy,” Exp Neurol 2001; 172(1):211-19.

Paauw, J., et al., “Taurine supplementation at three different dosages and its effect on trauma patients,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1994; 60(2):203–06.

Pasantes-Morles, H., et al., “Clinical study on the effect of taurine on intractable epileptics,” Rev Invest Clin 1981; 33:373-78.

Rahman, M., “Taurine prevents hypertension and increases exercise capacity in rats with fructose-induced hypertension,” Amer Jour Hypertens 2011; 24(5):574-81.

Rana, S., et al., “Taurine concentrations in the diet, plasma, urine and breast milk of vegans compared with omnivores,” Brit Jour Nutr 1986; 56:17-27.

Redmond, H., et al., “Immunonutrition: the role of taurine,” Nutrition 1998; 14(7-8):599–604.

Sahley, B., Heal With Amino Acids and Nutrients. San Antonio, TX: Pain and Stress Publications, 2000.

Stapleton, P., et al., “Host defense—a role for the amino acid taurine?” Jour Parenter Enteral Nutr 1998; 22(1):42-8.

Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, N., et al., “Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) deficiency creates a vicious circle promoting obesity,” Endocrinology 2006; 147(7):3276-84.

van Gelder, N., “A central mechanism of action for taurine, osmoregulation, bivalent cations, and excitation threshold,” Neurochem Res 1983; 8:697-99.

Yu, X., et al., “Dietary taurine reduces retinal damage produced by photochemical stress via antioxidant and anti-apoptotic mechanisms in Sprague-Dawley rats,” Brit Jour Nutr 2007; 98(4):711-19.

Yu, X., et al., “Dietary taurine supplementation ameliorates diabetic retinopathy via anti-excitotoxicity of glutamate in streptozotocin-induced Sprague-Dawley rats,” Neurochem Res 2008; 33(3):500-07.

Zackheim, H., et al., “Taurine and psoriasis,” Jour Invest Dermatol 1968; 50(23):227-30.

Zeng, K., et al., “Dietary taurine supplementation prevents glial alterations in retina of diabetic rats,” Neurochem Res 2009; 34(2):244-54.

Zeng, K., et al., “Effects of taurine on glial cells apoptosis and taurine transporter expression in retina under diabetic conditions,” Neurochem Res 2010; 35910:1566-74.

Zhang, M., et al., “Beneficial effects of taurine on serum lipids in overweight or obese on-diabetic subjects,” Amino Acids 2004; 26(3):267-71.

Zhang, M., et al., “Role of taurine supplementation to prevent exercise-induced oxidative stress in healthy young men,” Amino Acids 2004 26(2):203-07.

 

Threonine

Hauser, S., et al., “An antispasticity effect of threonine in multiple sclerosis,” JAMA Neurol 1992; 49(9):923-26.

Klatz, R., The New Anti-Aging Revolution. Laguna Beach, CA: Basic Health Publications, 2003.

Roufs, J., “L-threonine as a symptomatic treatment for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS),” Med Hypothesis 1991; 34(1):20-3.

Sahley, B., Heal with Amino Acids and Nutrients. San Antonio, TX: Pain and Stress Publications, 2000.

Testa, D., et al., “Chronic treatment with L-threonine in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a pilot study,” Clin Neurol Neurosurg 1992; 94(1):7-9.

 

Tryptophan

Almeida-Montes, L., et al., “Relation of serum cholesterol, lipid, serotonin and tryptophan levels to severity of depression and to suicide attempts,” Jour Psychiatry Neurosci 2000; 25(4):371-77.

Bell, C., et al., “Tryptophan depletion and its implications for psychiatry,” Brit Jour Psychiatry 2001; 178:399-405.

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional  Medicine, 1999.

Bohme, A., et al., “L-tryptophan-related eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome possibly associated with a chronic B-lymphocytic leukemia,” Ann Hematol 1998; 77:235-38.

Booij, L., et al., “The effects of high-dose and low-dose tryptophan depletion on mood and cognitive functions of remitted depressed patients,” Jour Psychopharmacol 2005; 19(3):267-75.

Bornstein, R., et al., “Plasma amino acids in attention deficit disorder,” Psychiatry Res 1990; 33:301-06.

Bowen, D., et al., “Tryptophan and high-carbohydrate diets as adjuncts to smoking cessation therapy,” Jour Behav Med 1991; 14:97-110.

Breum, L., et al., “Twenty-four-hour plasma tryptophan concentrations and ratios are below normal in obese subjects and are not normalized by substantial weight reduction,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2003; 77(5):1112-18.

Bryant, S., et al., “Serotonin syndrome resulting from an herbal detox cocktail,” Amer Jour Emerg Med 2004; 22:625-26.

Caballero, B., et al., “Plasma amino acid concentrations in healthy elderly men and women,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1991; 53(5):1249-52.

Carr, L., et al., “Eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome in Germany: an epidemiologic review,” Mayo Clin Proc 1994; 69:620-25.

Demisch, K., et al., “Treatment of severe chronic insomnia with L-tryptophan: results of a double-blind cross-over study,” Pharmacopsychiatry 1987; 20(6):242-44.

Etienne-Mesmin, L., et al., “Tryptophan: A gut microbiota-derived metabolites regulating inflammation,” World Jour Gastrointest Pharmacol Ther 2017; 8(1):7-9.

Etzel, K., et al., “Tryptophan supplementation for nocturnal bruxism: report of negative results,” Jour Craniomandib Disord 1991; 5:115-20.

Forrest, C., et al., “Tryptophan loading induces oxidative stress,” Free Radic Res 2004; 38: 1167–71.

Ghadirian, A., et al., “Efficacy of light versus tryptophan therapy in seasonal affective disorder,” Jour Affect Disord 1998; 50:23-7.

Hartmann, E., “Effects of L-tryptophan on sleepiness and on sleep,” Jour Psychiatr Res 1982; 17(2):107-13.

Klatz, R., The New Anti-Aging Revolution. Laguna Beach, CA: Basic Health Publications, 2003.

Korner, E., et al., “Sleep-inducing effect of L-tryptophane,” Eur Neurol 1986; 25(Suppl 2):75-81.

Lieberman, H., et al., “The effects of dietary neurotransmitter precursors on human behavior,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1985; 42:366-70.

Mayeno, A., et al., “The eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome: lessons from Germany,” Mayo Clin Proc 1994; 69:702-04.

Murphy, F., et al., “The effects of tryptophan depletion on cognitive and affective processing in healthy volunteers,” Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2002; 163:42-53.

Sahley, B., Heal with Amino Acids and Nutrients. San Antonio, TX: Pain and Stress Publications, 2003.

Schmidt, H., “L-tryptophan in the treatment of impaired respiration in sleep,” Bull Eur Physiopathol Respir 1983; 19:625-29.

Schneider-Helmert, D., et al., “Evaluation of L-tryptophan for treatment of insomnia: a review,” Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1986; 89(1):1-7.

Seltzer, S., et al., “The effects of dietary tryptophan on chronic maxillofacial pain and experimental pain tolerance,” Jour Psychiatr Res 1982-83; 17:181-86.

Sharma, R., et al., “Acute dietary tryptophan depletion: effects on schizophrenic positive and negative symptoms,” Neuropsychobiol 1997; 35:5-10.

Shaw, K., et al., “Tryptophan and 5-hydroxytryptophan for depression,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002; (1):CD003198.

Silva, L., et al., “Tryptophan overloading activates brain regions involved with cognition, mood and anxiety,” Ann Acad Bras Cienc 2017.

Steinberg, S., et al., “A placebo-controlled study of the effects of L-tryptophan in patients with premenstrual dysphoria,” Adv Exp Med Biol 1999; 467:85-8.

Stockstill, J., et al., “The effect of L-tryptophan supplementation and dietary instruction on chronic myofascial pain,” Jour Am Dent Assoc 1989; 118:457-60.

van Praag, H., “Management of depression with serotonin precursors,” Biol Psychiatry 1981; 16:291-310.

Walinder, J., et al., “Potentiation of the antidepressant action of clomipramine by tryptophan,” Arch Gen Psychiatry 1976; 33:1384-89.

 

Tyrosine

Arnold, L., et al., “Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: dietary and nutritional treatments,” Child Adolesc Psychiatry Clin North Amer 2013; 22:381-402.

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.

Braun, L., and Cohen, M., Herbs & Natural Supplements: An Evidenced-Based Guide. 4th Ed., Volume 2. New York: Elsevier, 2015.

Butterfield, D., et al., “Elevated levels of 3-nitrotyrosine in brain from subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment: Implications for the role of nitration in the progression of Alzheimer’s disease,” Brain Res 2007; 1148: 243-48.

Charlton, C., “Depletion of nigrostriatal and forebrain tyrosine hydroxylase by S-adenosylmethionine: a model that may explain the occurrence of depression in Parkinson’s disease,” Life Sci 1997; 61(5):495-502.

Deutsch, S., et al., “L-tyrosine pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia: Preliminary data,” Clinical Neuropharmacology 1994; 17(1):53-62.

Dollins, A., et al., “L-tyrosine ameliorates some effects of lower body negative pressure stress,” Physiol Behav 1995; 57(2):223-30.

Eisenberg, J., et al., “Effect of tyrosine on attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity,” Jour Clin Psychiatr 1988; 49:193-95.

Ellis, K., et al., “Tyrosine depletion alters cortical and limbic blood flow but does not modulate spatial working memory performance or task-related blood flow in humans,” Human Brain Mapping 2007; 28(11):1136-49.

Elwes, R., “Treatment of narcolepsy with L-tyrosine: double-blind placebo- controlled trial,” Lancet 11-4-1989; 2(8671):1067-69.

Fernstrom, J., “Can nutrient supplements modify brain function?” Amer Jou Clin Nutr 2000; 71(6 Suppl):1669S-1675S.

Galloway, G., et al., “A historically controlled trial of tyrosine for cocaine dependence,” Jour Psychoactive Drugs 1996; 28(3):305-09.

Gelenberg, A., et al., “Tyrosine for the treatment of depression,” Nutr Health 1984; 3(3):163-73.

Georgiades, E., et al., “Chronic fatigue syndrome: new evidence for a central fatigue disorder,” Clin Sci (Lond.) 2003; 105(2):213-18.

Gibson, C., et al., “Tyrosine for the treatment of depression,” Advances in Biological Psychiatry 1983; 10:148-59.

Giltay, E., et al., “Effects of sex steroids on the neurotransmitter-specific aromatic amino acids phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan in transsexual subjects,” Neuro Endocrinol 2008; 88:103-10.

Growdon, J., et al., “Effects of oral L-tyrosine administration on CSF tyrosine and homovanillic acid levels in patients with Parkinson's disease,” Life Sci 1982; 30(10):827-32.

Hull, K., et al., “L-tyrosine potentiates the anorexia induced by mixed-acting sympathomimetic drugs in hyperphagic rats,” Jour Pharmacol Exp Ther 1990; 255(2):403-09.

Hull, K., et al., “L-tyrosine potentiation of opioid-induced analgesia utilizing the hot-plate test,” Jour Pharmacol Exp Ther 1994; 269(3):1190-95.

Ichikawa, K., et al., “Oral supplementation of branched-chain amino acids reduces early recurrence after hepatic resection in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: a prospective study,” Surg Today 2013; 43:720-26.

Kitahara, M., “A precursor study of the indoleamine and catecholamine hypotheses of depression using the dietary tryptophan and tyrosine ratios,” Jour Orthomolecular Med 1990; 5(4):210-14.

Klatz, R., The New Anti-Aging Revolution. Laguna Beach, CA: Basic Health Publications, 2003.

Leyton, M., et al., “Effects on mood of acute phenylalanine/tyrosine depletion in healthy women,” Neuropsychopharmacol 2000. 22(1):52-63.

Lieberman, H., et al., “The effects of dietary neurotransmitter precursors on human behavior,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1985; 42:366-70.

Mahoney, C., et al., “Tyrosine supplementation mitigates working memory decrements during cold exposure,” Physiol Behav 2007; 92(4):575-82.

McLean, A., et al., “The effects of tyrosine depletion in normal healthy volunteers: Implications for unipolar depression,” Psychopharmacology 2004; 171(3):286-97.

McTavish, S., et al., “Antidopaminergic effects of dietary tyrosine depletion in healthy subjects and patients with manic illness,” Brit Jour Psychiatry 2001; 179(4):356-60.

Mehta, M., et al., “The effects of acute tyrosine and phenylalanine depletion on spatial working memory and planning in healthy volunteers are predicted by changes in striatal dopamine levels,” Psychopharmacology 2005; 180(4):654-63.

Meyer, J., et al., “Neurotransmitter precursor amino acids in the treatment of multi-infarct dementia and Alzheimer's disease,” Jour Amer Geriat Soc 1977; 25:289-98.

Meyers, S., “Use of neurotransmitter precursors for treatment of depression,” Altern Med Rev 2000; 5(1):64-71.

Mouret, J., et al., “Treatment of narcolepsy with L-tyrosine,” Lancet 1988; 2(8626-8627):1458-59.

Munafo, M., et al., “Journal of Effects of acute tyrosine depletion on subjective craving and selective processing of smoking-related cues in abstinent cigarette smokers,” Psychopharmacology 2007; 21(8):805-14.

Neri, D., et al., “The effects of tyrosine on cognitive performance during extended wakefulness,” Aviat Space Environ Med 1995; 66(4):313-19.

Porter, R., et al., “Tryptophan and tyrosine availability and response to antidepressant treatment in major depression,” Jour Affective Disorders 2005; 86(2-3):129-34.

Rasmussen, D., et al., “Effects of tyrosine and tryptophan ingestion on plasma catecholamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid concentrations,” Jour Clin Endocrinol Metab 1983; 57(4):760-63.

Reimherr, F., et al., “An open trial of L-tyrosine in the treatment of attention deficit disorder, residual type,” Amer Jour Psychiatr 1987; 144:1071-77.

Sahley, B., Heal with Amino Acids and Nutrients. San Antonio, TX: Pain and Stress Publications, 2003.

Salter, C., “Dietary tyrosine as an aid to stress resistance among troops,” Military Med 1989; 154(3):144-46.

Shaw, D., et al., “Multicompartmental analysis of amino acids. III. Tyrosine in affective disorder,” Psychol Med 1979; 9(1):117-23.

Shurtleff, D., et al., “Tyrosine reverses a cold-induced working memory deficit in humans,” Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1994; 47(4):935-41.

Sole, M., et al., "Chronic dietary tyrosine supplements do not affect mild essential hypertension,” Hypertension 1985; 7(4):593-96.

Struder, H., et al., “Influence of paroxetine, branched-chain amino acids and tyrosine on neuroendocrine system responses and fatigue in humans,” Horm Metab Res 1998; 30(4):188-94.

Sutton, E., “Ingestion of tyrosine: effects on endurance, muscle strength, and anaerobic performance,” Int Jour Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2005; 15(2):173-85.

Thomas, J., et al., “Tyrosine improves working memory in a multitasking environment,” Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1999; 64(3):495-500.

Tissot, R., “Uptake of tryptophan and tyrosine in some cases of manic depressive psychosis and schizophrenia,” Neuropsychobiology 1978; 4(2):65-73.

Wei, J., “Low concentrations of serum tyrosine in neuroleptic-free schizophrenics with and early onset,” Schizophrenia Res 1995; 14(3):257-60.

Wiesel, F., “Tyrosine transport in schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Res 1994; 13(3):255-58.

Wood, D., et al., “Amino acid precursors for the treatment of attention deficit disorder, residual type,” Psychopharmacol Bull 1985; 21:146-49.

Young, S., “L-tyrosine to alleviate the effects of stress?” Jour Psychiatry Neurosci 2007; 32(3):224.

 

CHAPTER 5: HERBS

Taylor, L., The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers, 2005.

Werbach, M., Botanical Influences on Illness, Tarzana, CA: Third Line Press, Inc, 2000.

 

Aloe Vera

Atherton, P., “Aloe vera revisited,” Brit Jour Phytother1998; 4:76–83.

Bosley, C., et al., “A phase III trial comparing an anionic phospholipid-based (APP) cream and aloe vera-based gel in the prevention and treatment of radiation dermatitis,” Int Jour Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2003; 57:S4–S38.

Braun, L., and Cohen, M. Herbs and Natural Supplements, 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

Chalaprawat, M., et al., “The hypoglycemic effects of aloe vera in Thai diabetic patients.” Jour Clin Epidemiol 1997; 50(1):3S–45S.

Chithra, R., et al., “Influence of aloe vera on collagen characteristics in healing dermal wounds in rats,” Mol Cell Biochem1998; 181:71–6.

Choonhakarn, C., et al., “A perspective, randomized clinical trial comparing topical aloe vera with 0.1% triamcinolone acetonide in mild to moderate plaque psoriasis,” Jour Eur Acad Derm Venereol 2010; 24(2):168-72.

Davis, K., et al., “Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of aloe vera for irritable bowel syndrome,” Int Jour Clin Pract 2006; 60(9):1080-86.

Fulton, J., “The stimulation of postdermabrasion wound healing with stabilized aloe vera gel-polyethylene oxide dressing,” Jour Dermatol Surg Oncol 1990; 16:460–67.

Furukawa, F., et al., “Chemopreventive effects of Aloe arborescens on N-nitrosobis (2-oxopropyl) amine-induced pancreatic carcinogenesis in hamsters,” Cancer Lett2002; 178:117–22.

Grover, J., et al., “Medicinal plants of India with anti-diabetic potential,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 2002; 81(1):81-100.

Haggers, J., et al., “Beneficial effects of Aloe in wound healing,” Phytother Res 1993; 7:S48-S52.

Hajheydari, Z., et al., “Effect of Aloe vera topical gel combined with tretinoin in treatment of mild and moderate acne vulgaris: a randomized, double-blind, prospective trail,” Jour Dermatol Treat 2014; 25(2):123-29.

Hayes, S., “Lichen planus: A report of successful treatment with aloe,” Gen Dent1999; 47:268–72.

Heggers, J., et al., “Beneficial effects of Aloe in wound healing,” Phytoher Res 1993, 7:S48–S52.

Heggers, J., et al., “Beneficial effect of aloe on wound healing in an excisional wound model,” Jour Altern Complement Med1996; 2:271–77.

Hutter, J., et al. “Anti-inflammatory C-glucosyl chromone from Aloe barbadensis,” Jour Nat Prod1996; 59:541–43.

Im, S., et al., “In vivo evidence of the immunomodulatory activity of orally administered aloe vera gel,” Arch Pharm Res 2010; 33(3):451-56.

Ishii, Y., et al., “Studies of aloe. V: Mechanism of cathartic effect,” Biol Pharm Bull1994; 17:651–53.

Kirshnon, P., “The scientific study of herbal wound healing therapies: Current state of play,” Curr Anaes Crit Care 2006; 17(1-2):21-27.

Klatz, R., The New Anti-Aging Revolution. Laguna Beach, CA: Basic Health Publications, 2003.

Langmead, L., et al. “Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of oral aloe vera gel for active ulcerative colitis,” Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2004; 19:739–47.

Maddock-Jennings, W., et al., “Novel approaches to radiotherapy-induced skin reactions: a literature review,” Complement Ther Clin Pract 2005; 11(4):224-31.

Maenthalsong, R., et al., “The efficacy of aloe vera used for burn wound healing. A systemic review,” Burns 2007; 33(6):713-18.

McCarty, M., “Glucomannan minimizes the postprandial insulin surge: a potential adjuvant for hepatothermic therapy,” Med Hypothesis 2002; 58(6):487-90.

McCauley, R., “Frostbite: Methods to minimize tissue loss,” Postgrad Med 1990; 88:67–8.

Montaner, J., et al., “Double-blind placebo-controlled pilot trial of acemannan in advanced human immunodeficiency virus disease,” Jour Acquir Immune Defic Syn Hum Retrovirol1996; 12:153–57.

Paulsen, E., et al., “A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of a commercial Aloe vera gel in the treatment of slight to moderate psoriasis vulgaris,” Jour Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol2005; 19:326–31.

Quillin, P., Beating Cancer With Nutrition. Tulsa, OK: Nutrition Times Press, Inc, 2000.

Sato, Y., et al., “Studies on chemical protectors against radiation XXXI: Protective effects of Aloe arborescens on skin injury induced by x-irradiation,” Yakugaku Zasshi 1990; 110:876–84.

Shelton, M., “Aloe vera, its chemical and therapeutic properties,” Int Jour Dermatol1991; 30:679–83.

Stargrove, M., et al., Herb, Nutrient and Drug Interactions: Clinical Applications and Therapeutic Strategies. St. Louis: Mosby/Elsevier, 2008.

Surjushe, A., et al., “Aloe vera: A short review,” Indian Jour Dermatolol 2008; 53(4):163-66.

Syed, T., et al., “Management of genital herpes in men with 0.5% Aloe vera extract in a hydrophilic cream A placebo-controlled double-blind study,” Jour Derm Treatment1997; 8:99–102.

Syed, T., et al., “Management of psoriasis with Aloe vera extract in a hydrophilic cream: A placebo-controlled, double-blind study,” Trop Med Int Health1996; 1:505–09.

Thomas, D., et al., “Acemannan hydrogel dressing for pressure ulcers: A randomized, controlled trial,” Adv Wound Care 1998; 11:273–76.

Vardy, A., et al., “A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of Aloe vera (A. barbadensis) emulsion in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis,” Jour Derm Treatment1999; 10:7–11.

Visuthikosol, V., et al., “Effect of aloe vera gel to healing of burn wound a clinical and historic study,” Jour Med Assoc Thai1995; 78:403–09.

Werbach, M., Botanical Influences on Illness. Tarzana, CA: Third Line Press, Inc., 2000.

West, D., et al., “Evaluation of aloe vera gel gloves in the treatment of dry skin associated with occupational exposure,”Amer Jour Infect Control2003; 31:40–2.

Yeh, G., et al., “Systematic review of herbs and dietary supplements for glycemic control in diabetes,” Diabetes Care2003; 26:1277–94.

Youngchaiyudha, S., et al., “Antidiabetic activity of Aloe vera L. juice. Int clinical trial in new cases of diabetes mellitus,” Phytomed 1996; 3(3):241-43.

Zawahry, M., et al., “Use of aloe in treating leg ulcers and dermatoses,” Int Jour Dermatol1973; 12:68–73.

 

Ashwagandha

Ali, N., et al., “Screening of Yemeni medicinal plants for antibacterial and cytotoxic activities,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 2001; 74:173-79.

Bhattarcharya, S., et al., “Adaptogenic activity of Withania somnifera: an experimental study using a rat model of chronic stress,” Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2003; 75:547-55.

Collins, J., What’s Your Menopause Type? Roseville, CA: Prima Publishing, 2000.

Davis, L., et al., “Immunomodulatory activity of Withania somnifera,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 2000; 71:193-200.

Dhuley, J., “Adaptogenic and cardioprotective action of ashwagandha in rats and frogs,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 2000; 70:57-63.

Heller, L., Applying the Essentials of Herbal Care. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute of Functional Medicine, 1999.

Mishra, L., et al., “Scientific basis for the therapeutic use of Withania somnifera (ashwagandha): a review,” Alt Med Rev 2000; 5(4):334-46.

Mohanty, T., et al., “Mechanisms of cardioprotective effect of Withania somnifera in experimentally induced myocardial infarction,” Basic Clin Pharmcol Toxicol 2004; 94(4):184-90.

Rasool, M., et al., “Protective effect of Withania somnifera root powder in relation to lipid peroxidation, antioxidant status, glycoproteins and bone collagen on adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats,” Fundam Clin Pharmacol 2007; 2192:157-64.

Winters, M., “Ancient medicine, modern use: Withania somnifera and its potential role in integrative oncology,” Alter Med Rev 2006; 11(4):269-77.

Ziauddin, M., et al., “Studies on the immunomodulatory effects of Ashwagandha,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 1996; 50:69-76.

 

Astralagus

Braun, L., and Cohen, M., Herbs and Natural Supplements, 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

Chen, C., et al., “Chinese herb astragulus membranaceus enhances recovery of hemorrhagic stroke: double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized study,” Evid Based Complent Alternat Med 2012; 708452.

Chen, K., “Certain progress in the treatment of coronary heart disease with traditional medicinal plants,” Amer Jour Chinese Med 1981; 9:193-96.

Cheng, Y., et al., “Astragalus polysaccharides lowers plasma cholesterol through mechanisms distinct from statins,”PLoS One 2011; 6(11):e27437.

Chu, D., et al., “Immunotherapy with Chinese medicinal herbs. II. Reversal of cyclophosphamide-induced immune suppression by administration of fractionated Astragalus membranaceus in vivo,” Jour Clin Lab Immunol 1988; 25:125-29.

Duan, P., et al., “Clinical study on effect of astragalus in efficacy enhancing and toxicity reducing of chemotherapy in patients of malignant tumor,” Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 2002; 22(7):515-17.

Hao, Y., et al., “Effect of Astragalus polysaccharides in promoting neutrophil-vascular endothelial cell adhesion and expression of related adhesive molecules,” Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 2004; 24(5):427-30.

Huang, X., et al., “Enhanced antitumor efficacy with combined administration of astagalus and pterostilbene for melanoma,” Asian Pac Jour Cancer Prev 2014; 15(3):1163-69.

Kou, W., et al., “Validity of Oriental Medicines. 2. Hypotensive principle of Astragalus and Hedysarum roots,” Planta Medica 1976; 30:297.

Lei, Z., et al., “Action of astragalus membranaceus on left ventricular function of angina pectoris,” Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 1994; 14(4):195, 199-202.

Li, J., et al., “Antihypertensive effect of total flavonoid fraction of Astragalus complanatus in hypertensive rats,” Chin Jour Physiol 2005; 48(2):101-06.

Li, L., “Diabetic nephropathy treating with Astragalus,” Chin Jour Pract Med 2008; 3:103-04.

Li, M., et al., “Meta-analysis of the clinical value of Astragalus membranaceus in diabetic nephropathy,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 2011; 133(2):412-19.

Li, S., et al., “Astragalus injection as the assisted treatment for 30 cases with pulmonary heart failure,” Jour Anhui TCM College 1997; 16(2):19-20.

Li, X., et al., “Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of chronic kidney disease,” Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2005; 12(3):276-81.

Liao, J., “Pharmacologic effects of codonopsis pilosula-astragalus injection in the treatment of CHD patients,” Jour Trad Chin Med 1988; 8(1):1-8.

Liao, J., et al., “Clinical and experimental studies of coronary heart disease treated with yi-qi huo-xue injection,” Jour Trad Chin Med 1989; 9(3):193-98.

Liu, J., “Chinese medicinal herbs for asymptomatic carriers of hepatitis B virus infection,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001; (2):CD002231.

Liu, J., et al., “Effects of several Chinese herbal aqueous extracts on human sperm motility in vitro,” Andrologia 2004; 36(2):78-83.

Liu, J., et al., “Herbal medicines for viral myocarditis,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004; (3):CD003711.

Liu, M., et al., “Astragalus polysaccharide improves insulin sensitivity in KKAy mice: regulation of PKB/GLUT4 signaling in skeletal muscle,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 2010; 127(1):32-7.

Liu, Y., et al., “Clinical research on Huangqi injection for congestive heart failure,” Jour Pract Trad Chin Med 2005; 21(4):198-99.

Liu, Z., et al., “Herbal medicines for viral myocarditis,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012; 11:CD003711.

Lu, Q., “The treatment of 80 cases of intractable heart failure with traditional Chinese and Western medicine,” Modern Jour Integrated Trad Chin West Med 2000; 9(1):61.

Luo, X., “Clinical observation of Astragalus injection for 30 cases with congestive heart failure,” Jour Emerg Traditional Chin Med 2003; 12(1):35.

Ma, L., et al., “Clinical observation of Huangqi injection for the treatment of pulmonary heart disease refractory heart failure,” Henan Traditional Chin Med 2005; 25(10):78.

Matkovic, Z., “Efficacy and safety of astragalus membranaceus in the treatment of patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis,” Phyto Res 2010; 24(2):175-81.

McCulloch, M., et al., “Chinese herbal medicine and interferon in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials,” Amer Jour Public Health 2002; 92(10):1619-28.

Miao, Q., et al., “The effect of Astragalus on diabetic nephropathy,” Jour Bethune Med Univ 2000; 26:146.

Miller, A., “Botanical influences on cardiovascular disease," Altern Med Rev 1998; 3(6):422-31.

Park, H., et al., “The Effects of Astragalus Membranaceus on Repeated Restraint Stress-induced Biochemical and Behavioral Responses,” Korean Jour Physiol Pharmacol 2009; 13(4):315-19.

Park, J., et al., “Anti-diabetic activity of herbal drugs,” Kor Jour Pharmacogn 1997; 28(2):72-4.

Qin, L., “Therapeutic effect observation of Chinese and western medicine in the treatment of congestive heart failure,” Jour Shaanxi College Trad Chin Med 2000; 23(4):46-7.

Shao, B., et al., “A study on the immune receptors for polysaccharides from the roots of Astragalus membranaceus, a Chinese medicinal herb,” Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2004; 320(4):1103-11.

Sheng, B., et al, “The protective effects of the traditional Chinese herbs against renal damage induced by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy: a clinical study,” Urol Res 2010; 7:6.

Shi, P., “Reducing micro-albuminuria of Huangci in diabetic nephropathy,” Jour Mod Clin Med 2005; 31:89-90.

Taixiang, W., et al., “Chinese medical herbs for chemotherapy side effects in colorectal cancer patients,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005; (1):CD004540.

Wang, D., et al., “Study of the effects of total flavonoids of Astragalus on atherosclerosis formation and potential mechanisms,” Oxid Med Cell Longrev 2012; 2012:282383.

Wang, F., “Twenty-eight cases of diabetic foot ulcer and gangrene treated with the Chinese herbal medicine combined with injection of ahylsantinfarctase,” Jour Trad Chin Med 2002; 22(1):3-4.

Wang, G., et al., “Observation of recent curative effect of Astragalus membranaceus injection on diabetic nephropathy,” Chin Jour Primary Med Pharm 2003; 10:38-9.

Wang, H., “Clinical research on Astragalus injection as assisted treatment for refractory heart failure,” Jour Emerg Trad Chin Med 2005; 14(11):1070-71.

Wang, J., et al., “Preventive effects of a fractioned polysaccharide from a traditional Chinese herbal medical formula (Yu Ping Feng San) on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic fibrosis,” Jour Pharm Pharmacol 2010; 62(7):935-42.

Wang, Q., “Application of Astragalus injection on 30 patients with diabetic nephropathy,” Central Plains Med Jour 2004; 31:6-7.

Wang, S., et al., “Clinical observation of astragalus in treatment of heart failure in 102 cases with chronic pulmonary heart disease,” Chin Jour Integrated Trad West Med Intensive Crit Care 2002; 9(4):230-31.

Wang, Y., et al., “Application of Astragalus injection on diabetic nephropathy complicated with chronic renal failure,” Jour Pract Emerg Med Integrated Chin West Med 1999; 6:230-31.

Wei, H., et al., “Traditional Chinese medicine Astragalus reverses predominance of Th2 cytokines and their up-stream transcript factors in lung cancer patients,” Oncol Rep 2003; 10(5):1507-12.

Wei, Y., et al., “Effect of Astragalus parenteral solution of cytokines and angiotensin II in patients with congestive heart failure,” Chin Jour Clin Rehab 2006; 10(3):54-6.

Wu, H., “Interventions for preventing infection in nephrotic syndrome,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012; 4:CD003964.

Wu, L., “Therapeutic effect observation of Huangqi injection for the treatment of chronic pulmonary heart failure,” Xinjiang Med Jour 2004; 34:107-08.

Xi, Z., et al., “Therapeutic effect observation of Astragalus injection for congestive heart failure,” Mod Med Health 2005; 21(17):2337-38.

Xu, Y., “Efficacy of Astragalus for postponing the deterioration of renal function in patients with diabetic nephropathy,” Fujian Med Jour 2002; 24:101-02.

Yang, Q., et al., “Clinical effect of Astragalus granule of different dosages on quality of life in patients with chronic heart failure,” Chin Jour Integr Med 2011; 17(2):146-49.

Yang, R., “Application of Astragalus injection on 56 patients with diabetic nephropathy,” Med Tribune 2006; 27:84-5.

Yang, Y., “Therapeutic effect observation of Astragalus injection combined with Western medicine for congestive heart failure,” World Health Digest 2007; 4(11):31-32.

Yong, W., et al., “Hypoglycemic effect of astragalus polysaccharide and its effect on PTP1B,” Acta Pharmacol Sin 2005; 26(2):345-52.

Zhang, B., et al., “Effects of Astragalus membranaceus and its main components on the acute phase endothelial dysfunction induced by homocysteine,” Vascul Pharmacol 2007; 46(4):278-85.

Zhang, H., et al., “Astragalus (a traditional Chines medicine) for treating chronic kidney disease,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014; 10:CD008369.

Zhang, H., et al., “The effect of Astragalus injection on proteinuria in diabetic nephropathy,” Henan Jour Chin Med 2001; 16:36-7.

Zhang, J., et al., “Effects of Astragalus on cardiac function and hemorrheology in aged patients with congestive heart failure,” Pract Geriatrics 2003; 17(4):192-94.

Zhang, L., et al., “Application of Astragalus injection with western medicine on proteinuria in patients with diabetic nephropathy,” Shanxi Jour Chin Trad Med 2005; 26:1285-86.

Zhou, C., et al., “Astragalus in the prevention of upper respiratory tract infection in children with nephrotic syndrome: evidence-based clinical practice (review),” Evidenced-based Comp Altern Med 2013; 352130.

 

Bilberry

Anderson, K., et al., “Potential use of bilberry for dry eye relief,” Optometry 2011; 82(6):380.

Ashour, O., et al., “Protective effect of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) against doxorubicin-induced oxidative cardiotoxicity in rats,” Med Sci Monitor 2011; 17(4):110-15.

Bao, L., et al., “Bilberry extract protein resistant stress-induced liver damage through attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction,” Fitoterapia 2010; 81(8):1094-101.

Barrett, M., “Bilberry.” In Encyclopedia of Dietary Supplements, 2nd Ed., by Coates, P., Betz, J., Blackman, M., et al., New York: Informa Healthcare, 2010.

Biedermann, L., et al., “Bilberry ingestion improves disease activity in mild to moderate ulcerative colitis-an open pilot study,” Jour Crohn’s Colitis 2013; 7(4):271-79.

Blumenthal, M., et al., Herbal Medicine: Expanded Commission E Monographs. Austin Tx: Integrative Medicine Communications, 2000.

Braun, L., and Cohen, M., Herbs and Natural Supplements, 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

Caselli, L., “Clinical and electroretinographic study on activity of anthocyanosides,” Arch Med Int 1985; 37:29-35.

Chu, W., et al., “Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.).” In Herbal Medicine: Biomolecular and Clinical Aspects, 2nd Ed, edited by Benzie I., Wachtel-Galor, S. Boca Raton : CRC Press, 2011.

Cristoni, A., et al., “Effect of a natural flavonoid on gastric mucosal barrier,” Arzneimittelforschung 1989; 39(5):590-92.

Hou, D., “Potential mechanisms of cancer chemoprevention by anthocyanins,” Curr Mol Med 2003; 3(2):149-59.

Kawabata, F., et al., “Effects of dietary supplementation with a combination of fish oil, bilberry extract, and lutein on subjective symptoms of asthenopia in humans,” Bio Med Res 2011; 32(6):387-93.

Liske, E., “Therapeutic efficacy and safety of Cimicifuga racemosa for gynecological disorders,” Adv Ther 1998; 15:45–53.

Matsunaga, N., et al., “Vaccinium myrillus (bilberry) extract reduce angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo,” Evidence-Based Complet Altern Med 2010; 7(1):47-56.

Mauray, A., et al., “Nutrigenomic analysis of the protective effects of bilberry anthocyanin-rich extract in apo E-deficient mice,” Genes Nutri 2010; 5(4):343-53.

Mian, E., et al., “Anthocyanosides and the walls of the microvessels: further aspects of the mechanism of action of their protective effect in syndromes due to abnormal capillary fragility,” Minerva Med 1977; 68(52):3565-81.

Miksicek, R., “Commonly occurring plant flavonoids have estrogenic activity,” Molecular Pharmacology 1993; 44:37–43.

Murray, M., The Healing Power of Herbs. Rocklin, CA: Prima Publications, 1995.

Smeriglio, A., et al., “Health effects of Vaccinium myrtillus L.. Evaluation of efficacy and technological strategies for preservation of active ingredients,” Mni Rev Med Chem 2014; 14(7):567-84.

Takikawa, M., et al., “Dietary anthocyanin-rich bilberry extract ameliorates hyperglycemia and insulin sensitivity via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in diabetic mice,” Jour Nutr 2010; 140(3):527-33.

Ulene, A., Art Ulene’s Complete Guide to Vitamins, Minerals And Herbs. New York, NY: Avery Publishing Group, 2000.

Werbach, M., Botanical Influences on Illness. Tarzana, CA: Third Line Press, Inc, 2000.

Zhu, Y., et al., “Anti-inflammatory effect of purified dietary anthocyanin in adults with hypercholesterolemia: a randomized controlled trial,” Nutr Met Cardiovascular Dis 2013; 23(9):843-49.

 

Bitter Melon

Ahmed, I., et al., “Beneficial effects and mechanism of action of Momordica charantia juice in the treatment of streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus in rat,” Mol Cell Biochem 2004; 261: 63-70.

Amed, I., et al., “Hypotriglyceridemic and hypocholesterolemic effects of anti-diabetic Momordica charantia (karela) fruit extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats,” Diab Res Clin Pract 2001; 51:155-61.

Basch, E., et al., “Bitter melon (Momordica charantia): a review of efficacy and safety,” Amer Jour Health Syst Pharm 2003; 60:356-59.

Beloin, N., et al., “Ethnomedicinal uses of Momordica charantia (Cucurbitaceae) in Togo and relation to its phytochemistry and biological activity,” Jour Ethnopharmachol 2005; 96:49-55.

Biswas, A., et al., “Analgesic effect of Momordica charantia seed extract in mice and rats,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 1991; 31:115-18.

Braun, L., and Cohen, M., Herbs and Natural Supplements, 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

Chaturvedi, P., “Antidiabetic potentials of Momordica charantia: multiple mechanisms behind the effects,” Jour Med Food 2012; 15:101–07.

Chen, Q., et al., “Bitter melon (Momordica charantia) reduces adiposity, lowers serum insulin and normalizes glucose tolerance in rats fed a high fat diet,” Jour Nutr 2003; 133(4):1088-93.

Dans, A., et al., “The effect of Momordica charantia capsule preparation on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus needs further studies,” Jour Clin Epidemiol 2007; 60:554-59.

Efird, J., et al., “Potential for improved glycemic control with dietary Momordica charantia in patients with insulin resistance and pre-diabetes,” Int Jour Environ Res Public Health 2014; 11:2328–45.

Grover, J., et al., “Pharmacological actions and potential uses of Momordica charantia: a review,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 2004; 93:123–32.

Jiang, B., et al., “Antidiabetic activities of a cucurbitane-type triterpenoid compound from Momordica charantia in alloxan-induced diabetic mice,” Mol Med Rep 2016; 14: 4865–72.

Joseph, B., et al., “Antidiabetic effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon) and its medicinal potency,” Asian Pac Jour Trop Dis 2013; 3:93–102.

Kaur, M., et al., “Bitter melon juice activates cellular energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase causing apoptotic death of human pancreatic carcinoma cells,” Carcinogenesis 2013; 34(7):1585-92.

Khanna, P., et al., “Hypoglycemic activity of polypeptide-p from a plant source,” Jour Nat Prod 1981; 44:648–55.

Kohno, H., et al., “Dietary seed oil rich in conjugated linolenic acid from bitter melon inhibits azoxymethane-induced rat colon carcinogenesis through elevation of colonic PPARgamma expression and alteration of lipid composition,” Int Jour Cancer 2004; 110(6):896-901.

Krawinkel, M., et al, “Bitter gourd (Momordica Charantia): A dietary approach to hyperglycemia,” Nutr Rev 2006 ;64(7 Pt 1):331-37.

Leatherdale, B., et al., “Improvement in glucose tolerance due to Momordia charantia (Karela),” BMJ 1981; 282:1823-24.

Miura, T., et al., “Hypoglycemic activity of the fruit of the Momordica charantia in type 2 diabetic mice,” Jour Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2001; 47(5):340-44.

Naseem, M., et al., “Antispermatogenic and androgenic activities of Momordica charantia (Karela) in albino rats,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 1998; 61:9-16.

Nerurkar, P., et al., “Lipid lowering effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon) in HIV-1-protease inhibitor-treated human hematoma cells, HEPG2,” Brit Jour Pharmacol 2006; 148(8):1156-64.

Ota, P., et al., “An overview of herbal products and secondary metabolites used for management of type two diabetes,” Front Pharmacol 2017; 8:436.

Pongnikorn, S., et al., “Effect of bitter melon (Momordica charantia Linn) on level and function of natural killer cells in cervical cancer patients with radiotherapy,” Jour Med Assoc Thai 2003; 86(1):61-8.

Prasad, V., et al., “Wound-healing property of Momordica charantia L. fruit powder,” Jour Herb Pharmacol Ther 2006; 6(3-4):105-15.

Raman, A., et al., “Anti-diabetic properties and phytochemistry of Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae),” Phytomedicine 1996; 2(4):349-62.

Rebultan, S. P. “Bitter melon therapy: an experimental treatment of HIV infection.” AIDS Asia 1995; 2(4):6-7.

Shekelle, P., et al., “Are Ayurvedic herbs for diabetes effective?” Jour Fam Pract 2005; 54(10):876-86.

Shibib, B., et al., “Hypoglycaemic activity of Coccinia indica and Momordica charantia in diabetic rats: depression of the hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and elevation of both liver and red-cell shunt enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase,” Biochem Jour 1993; 292:267–70.

Srivatava, Y., et al., “Antidiabetic and adaptogenic properties of Momordica charantia extract: an experimental and clinical evaluation,” Phytotherapy Res 1993; 7:285-89.

Theoh, S., et al., “The effect of topical extract of Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) on wound healing in nondiabetic rats and in rats with diabetes induced by streptozotocin,” Clin Exp Dermatol 2009; 34(7):815-22.

Tsai, C., et al., “Wild bitter gourd improves metabolic syndrome: a preliminary dietary supplementation trial,” Nutr Jour 2012; 11:4.

Virdi, J., et al., “Antihyperglycemic effects of three extracts from Momordica charantia,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 2003; 88(1):107-11.

Welihinda, J., et al., “Effect of Momordica charania on the glucose tolerance in maturity onset diabetes,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 1986; 17:277-82.

Welihinda, J., et al., “The insulin-releasing activity of the tropical plant momordica charantia,” Acta Biol Med Ger 1982; 41(12):1229-40.

Yeh, G., et al., “Systematic review of herbs and dietary supplements for glycemic control in diabetes,” Diabetes Care, 2003; 26(4):1277-94.

 

Black Cohosh

Amsterdam, J., et al., “Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of Cimicifuga racemosa (black cohosh) in women with anxiety disorder due to menopause,” Jour Clin Psychopharmacol 2009; 29(5):474-83.

 

Borrelli, F., et al., “Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) for menopausal symptoms: a systematic review of its efficacy,” Pharmacology Res 2008; 58(1):8-14.

Braun, L., and Cohen, M., Herbs and Natural Supplements, 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

Burke, B., et al., “Randomized, controlled trial of phytoestrogen in a prophylactic treatment of menstrual migraine,” Bio Med Pharmacother 2002; 56(6):283-88.

Einbond, L., et al., “Growth inhibitory activity of extracts and purified components of black cohosh on human breast cancer cells,” Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 2004; 83(3):221-31.

Frei-Kleiner, S., et al., “Cimicifuga racemosa dried ethanolic extract in menopausal disorders: a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial,” Maturitas 2005; 51(4):397-404.

Geller, S., et al., “Safety and efficacy of black cohosh and red clover for the management of vasomotor symptoms: a randomized controlled trial. Menopause 2009; 16(6):1156-66.

Huntley, A., et al., “A systematic review of herbal medicinal products for the treatment of menopausal symptoms,” Menopause 2003; 1095):465-76.

Ismail, R., et al., “Effects of herbal preparations on symptom clusters during the menopausal transition,” Climacteric 2015; 18(1):11-28.

Klatz, R., The New Anti-Aging Revolution. Laguna Beach, CA: Basic Health Publications, 2003.

Levitsky, J., et al., “Fulminant liver failure associated with the use of black cohosh,” Dig Dis Sci 2005; 50(3):538-39.

Lieberman, S., “A review of the effectiveness of Cimicifuga racemosa (Black cohosh) for the symptoms of menopause,” Jour Women’s Health 1998; 7:525-29.

Liske, E., “Therapeutic efficacy and safety of Cimicifuga racemose for gynecological disorders,” Adv Ther 1998; 15:45-53.

Low Dog, T., “Menopause: a review of botanical dietary supplements,” Amer Jour Med 2005; 118(Supp 128):98-108.

Mahady, G., “Black cohosh (Actaea/Cimicifuga racemosa): review of the clinical data for safety and efficacy in menopausal symptoms,” Treat Endocrinol 2005; 4(3):177-84.

Mahady, G., et al., “United Sates Pharmacopeia review of the black cohosh case reports of hepatotoxicity,” Menopause 2008; 15(4 pt 1):628-38.

McKenna, D., et al., “Black cohosh: efficacy, safety, and use in clinical and preclinical applications,” Altern Ther Health Med 2001; 7(3):93-100.

Newton, K., et al., “Treatment of vasomotor symptoms of menopause with Black cohosh, multibotanicals, soy, hormone therapy, or placebo,” Ann Int Med 2006; 145(12):869-79.

Palacio, C., et al., “Black cohosh for the management of menopausal symptoms : a systematic review of clinical trials,” Drugs Aging 2009; 26(1):23-36.

Ruediger, O., et al., “Efficacy and safety of isopropanolic black cohosh extract for climacteric symptoms,” Obstetrics & Gynecology 2005; 105:1074-83.

Sammartino, A., et al., “Short-term effects of a combination of isoflavones, lignans and Cimicifuga racemosa on climacteric-related symptoms in postmenopausal women: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial,” Gynecol Endocrinol 2006; 22(11):646-50.

Seidlova-Wuttke, D., et al., “Inhibitory effects of a black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) extract on prostate cancer,” Planta Med 2006; 72(6):521-26.

Shams, T., et al., “Efficacy of black cohosh-containing preparations on menopausal symptoms: a meta-analysis,” Altern Ther Health Med 2010; 16(1):36-44.

Wuttke, W. et al., “Effects of black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) on bone turnover, vaginal mucosa, and various blood parameters in postmenopausal women: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, and conjugated estrogens-controlled study,” Menopause 2006; 13(2):185-96.

 

Boswellia

Abdel-Tawab, M., “Boswellia serrata: an overall assessment of in vitro, preclinical, pharmacokinetic and clinical data,” Clin Pharmacokinet 2011; 50(6):349-69.

 

Ahangarpour, A., et al., “Effect of Boswellia serrata supplementation on blood lipid, hepatic enzymes and fructosamine levels in type2 diabetic patients,” Jour Diabet Metabol Disorders 2014; 13:21.

Ammon, H., “Modulation of the immune system by Boswellia serrata extracts and boswellic acids,” Phytomedicine 2010; 17(11):862-67.

Ammon, J., “Boswellic acids in chronic inflammatory diseases,” Planta Med 2006; 72(12):1100–16.

Anthoni, C., et al., “Mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory actions of boswellic acid derivatives in experimental colitis,” Amer Jour Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2006; 290:G1131–37.

Banno, N., et al., “Anti-inflammatory activities of the triterpene acids from the resin of Boswellia carteri,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 2006; 107(2):249–53.

Basch, E., et al., “Boswellia: an evidence-based systematic review by the natural standard research collaboration,” Jour Herb Pharmacother 2004; 4(3):63–83.

Catanzaro, D., et al., “The intestinal microbiome, barrier function, and immune system in inflammatory bowel disease: a tripartite pathophysiological circuit with implications for new therapeutic directions,” PLoS One 2015; 10(5):e0125375.

Chevrier, M., et al., “Boswellia carterii extract inhibits Th1 cytokines and promotes Th2 cytokines in vitro,” Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005; 12:575–80.

Chopra, A., et al., “Randomized double blind trial of an ayurvedic plant derived formulation for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis,” Jour Rheumatol 2000; 27(6): 365–72.

Ernst, E., “Frankincense: systematic review,” BMJ 2008; 337:a2813.

Etzel, R., “Special extract of Boswellia serrata (H15) in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis,” Phytomed 1996; 3:91–4.

Frank, A., et al., “Analysis of frankincense from various Boswellia species with inhibitory activity on human drug metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzymes using liquid chromatography mass-spectrometry after automated on-line extraction,” Jour Chromatogr A 2006; 1112(1-2):255–62.

Gulliams, T., et al., “Managing chronic inflammation: natural solutions,” The Standard 2006; 7(2):1-8.

Gupta, I., et al., “Effects of Boswellia serrata gum resin in patients with bronchial asthma: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 6-week clinical study,” Eur Jour Med Res 1998; 3(11):511-14.

Gupta, I., et al., “Effects of Boswellia serrata gum resin in patients with chronic colitis,” Planta Med 2001; 67(5):391-95.

Gupta, I., et al., “Effects of Boswellia serrata gum resin in patients with ulcerative colitis.” Eur Jour Med Res 1997; 2(1): 37–43.

Khan, M., “Pharmacological evidences for cytotoxic and antitumor properties of Boswellic acids from Boswellia serrata,” Jour Ethanopharmacol 2016; 191:315-23.

Kimmakar, N., et al., “Efficacy and tolerability of Boswellia serrata extract in treatment of osteoarthritis of knee--a randomized double blind placebo controlled trial,” Phytomedicine 2003; 10(1):3-7.

Krüger, P., et al., “Metabolism of boswellic acids in vitro and in vivo,” Drug Metab Dispos 2008; 36(6):135–42.

Kulkarni, R., et al., “Efficacy of an ayurvedic formulation in rheumatoid arthritis: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study,” Indian Jour Pharm 1992; 24:98–101.

Madisch, A., et al., “Boswellia serrata extract for the treatment of collagenous colitis: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial,” Int Jour Colorectal Dis 2007; 22:1445–51.

Poeckel, D., et al., “Boswellic acids: biological actions and molecular targets,” Curr Med Chem 2006; 13:3359–69.

Pungle, P., et al., “Immunomodulatory activity of boswellic acids of Boswellia serrata Roxb,” Indian Jour Exp Biol 2003; 41:1460–62.

Roy, S., et al., “Regulation of vascular responses to inflammation: inducible matrix metalloproteinase-3 expression in human microvascular endothelial cells is sensitive to anti-inflammatory Boswellia,” Antioxid Redox Signal 2006; 8(3-4):653-60.

Safahy, H., et al., “Inhibition by boswellic acids of human leukocyte elastase,” Jour Pharmacol Exp Ther 1997; 28(1):460-63.

Sander, O., et al., “Is H15 (resin extract of Boswellia serrata, “incense”) a useful supplement to established drug therapy of chronic polyarthritis? Results of a double-blind pilot study,” Z Rheumatol 1998; 57(1):11–6.

Sharma, S., et al., “Pharmacokinetic study of 11-keto-β-boswellic acid,” Phytomedicine 2004; 11:255–60.

Siddiqui, M., “Boswellia serrata, a potential anti-inflammatory agent: an overview,” Indian Jour Pharm Sci 2011; 7393):255-61.

Siemoneit, U., et al., “On the interference of boswellic acids with 5-lipoxygenase: mechanistic studies in vitro and pharmacological relevance,” Eur Jour Pharmacol 2009; 606(1-3): 246–54.

Singh, G., et al., “Pharmacology of an extract of salai guggal ex-Boswellia serrata, a new non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent,” Agents Actions 1986; 18:407–12.

Singh, S., et al. “The gastric ulcer protective effect of boswellic acids, a leukotriene inhibitor from Boswellia serrata, in rat,” Phytomedicine 2008; 15(6-7):408–15.

Sontakke, S., et al., “Open, randomized, controlled clinical trial of Boswellia serrata extract as compared to valdecoxib in osteoarthritis of knee,” Indian Jour Pharmacol 2007; 39:27–9.

Syrovets, T., et al., “Acetyl-boswellic acids inhibit lipo-polysaccharide-mediated TNF-α induction in monocytes by direct interaction with IkB kinases,” Jour Immunol 2005; 174: 498–506.

Tausch, L., et al., “Identification of human cathepsin G as a functional target of boswellic acids from the anti-inflammatory remedy frankincense,” Jour Immunol 2009; 183: 3433–42.

Wildfeuer, A., et al., “Effects of boswellic acids extracted from a herbal medicine on the biosynthesis of leukotrienes and the course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis,” Arzneimittelforschung 1998; 48:668–74.

 

Butcher’s Broom

Aguilar, P., et al., “Clinical and capillaroscopic evaluation in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency with Ruscus aculeatus, hesperidin methylchalcone and ascorbic acid in venous insufficiency treatment of ambulatory patients,” Int Angiol 2007; 26(4):378-84.

Allaert, F., “Combination of Ruscus aculeatus extract, hesperidin methyl chalcone and ascorbic acid: a comprehensive review of their pharmacological and clinical effects and of the pathophysiology of chronic venous disease,” Int Angiol 2016; 35(2):111-16.

Beltramino, R., et al., “An open-label, randomized multicenter study comparing the efficacy and safety of Cyclo 3 Fort versus hydroxyethyl rutoside in chronic venous lymphatic insufficiency,” Angiology 2000; 51:535-44.

Boccalon, H., et al., “Comparative efficacy of a single daily dose of two capsules of Cyclo 3 Fort in the morning versus a repeated dose of one capsule morning and noon: a  one month study,” Int Angiol 1998; 17:155-60.

Cappelli, R., et al., “Use of extract of Ruscus aculeatus in venous disease in the lower limbs,” Drugs Exp Clin Res 1988; 14:277-83.

Jawien, A., et al., “The place of Ruscus extract, hesperidin methyl chalcone, and vitamin C in the management of chronic venous disease,” Int Angiol 2017; 36(1):31-41.

Murray, M., “Varicose Veins.” In Textbook of Natural Medicine. 4th Ed.  by Pizzorno, J., Murray, M. St. Louis: Elsevier, 2013.

Redman, D., “Ruscus aculeatus (butcher's broom) as a potential treatment for orthostatic hypotension, with a case report,” Jour Altern Complement Med 2000; 6(6):539-49.

Tachijian, A., et al., “Use of herbal products and potential interactions in patients with cardiovascular diseases,” Jour Amer Coll Cardiol 2010; 55(6):515-25.

Vanscheidt, W., et al., “Efficacy and safety of a Butcher's broom preparation (Ruscus aculeatus L. extract) compared to placebo in patients suffering from chronic venous insufficiency,” Arzneimittelforschung 2002; 52(4):243-50.

 

Cat’s Claw

Aquino, R., et al., “New compounds and anti-inflammatory activity of Uncaria tomentosa,” Jour Nat Prod 1991; 54:453-59.

Bacher, N., “Oxindole alkaloids from Uncaria tomentosa induce apoptosis in proliferating, G0/G1-arrested and bcl-2-expressing acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cells,” Brit Jour Haematol 2006; 132(5):615-22.

do Carmo Santos Araujo, M., et al., “Uncaria tomentosa-Adjuvant Treatment for Breast Cancer: Clinical Trial,” Evid Based Complement Alt Med 2012; 2012: 676984.

Gonzales, G., et al., “Medicinal plants from Peru: a review of plants as potential agents against cancer,” Anticancer Agents Med Chem 2006; 6(5):429-44.

Hardin, S., “Cat's claw: an Amazonian vine decreases inflammation in osteoarthritis,” Complement Ther Clin Pract 2007; 13(1):25-8.

Mur, E., et al., “Randomized double blind trial of an extract from the pentacyclic alkaloid-chemotype of uncaria tomentosa for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis,” Jour Rheumatol 2002; 29(4):678-81.

Nogueira, N., et al., “Experimental endometriosis reduction in rats treated with Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw) extract,” Eur Jour Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2011; 154(2):205-08.

Piscoya, J., et al., “Efficacy and safety of freeze-dried cat's claw in osteoarthritis of the knee: mechanisms of action of the species,” Uncaria guianensis Inflamm Res 2001; 50(9):442-48.

Quillin, P., Beating Cancer With Nutrition. Tulsa, OK: Nutrition Times Press, Inc, 2000.

Rizzi, R., et al., “Mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of Uncaria tomentosa and its extracts,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 1993; 38(1):63-77.

Rosenbaum, C., et al., “Antioxidants and antiinflammatory dietary supplements for osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis,” Altern Ther Health Med 2010; 16(2):32-40.

Sandoval, M., et al., “Cat's claw inhibits TNFalpha production and scavenges free radicals: role in cytoprotection,” Free Radic Biol Med 2000; 29(1):71-8.

Setty, A., et al., “Herbal medications commonly used in the practice of rheumatology: mechanisms of action, efficacy, and side effects,” Semin Arthritis Rheum 2005; 34(6):773-84.

Sheng, Y., et al., “Treatment of chemotherapy-induced leukopenia in a rat model with aqueous extract from Uncaria tomentosa,” Phytomedicine 2000; 7(2):137-43.

Spelman, K., et al., “Modulation of cytokine expression by traditional medicines: a review of herbal immunomodulators,” Altern Med Rev 2006; 11(2):128-50.

 

Cayenne/Capsaicin

Ahuja, K., et al., “Effects of chilli consumption on postprandial glucose, insulin, and energy metabolism,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2006; 84(1):63-9.

Ahuja, K., et al., “Effects of daily ingestion of chilli on serum lipoprotein oxidation in adult men and women,” Brit Jour Nutr 2006; 96(2):239-42.

Ahuja, K., et al., “The effect of 4-week chilli supplementation on metabolic and arterial function in humans,” Eur Jour Clin Nutr 2007; 61(3):326-33.

Bouraoui, A., et al., “Effects of capsicum fruit on theophylline absorption and bioavailability in rabbits,” Drug-Nutrient Interact 1988; 5:345-50.

Chrubasik, S., et al., “Effectiveness and safety of topical capsaicin cream in the treatment of chronic soft tissue pain,” Phytother Res 2010; 24(12):1877-85.

D'Alonzo, A., et al., “In vitro effects of capsaicin: antiarrhythmic and antiischemic activity,” Eur Jour Pharmacol 1995; 272(2-3):269-78.

Deal, C., et al., “Treatment of arthritis with topical capsaicin: a double-blind trial,” Clin Ther 1991; 13(3):383-95.

Hakas, J., “Topical capsaicin induces cough in patient receiving ACE inhibitor,” Ann Allergy 1990; 65:322.

Hautkappe, M., et al., “Review of the effectiveness of capsaicin for painful cutaneous disorders and neural dysfunction,”Clin Jour Pain 1998; 14(2):97-106.

Heck, A., et al., “Potential interactions between alternative therapies and warfarin,” Amer Jour Health Syst Pharm 2000; 57(13):1221-27.

Jensen, P., et al., “Management of painful diabetic neuropathy,” Drugs Aging 2001; 18(10):737-49.

Kenney, J., et al., “Prevention and management of pain associated with Herpes zoster,” Jour Pharmaceut Care Pain Symptom Contr 1999; 7(3):7-26.

Klatz, R., The New Anti-Aging Revolution. Laguna Beach, CA: Basic Health Publications, 2003.

Laslett, L., et al., “Capsaicin for osteoarthritis pain,” Prog Drug Res 2014; 68:277-91.

Mozsik, G., “Capsaicin as new orally applicable gastroprotective and therapeutic drug alone or in combination with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in healthy human subjects and in patients,” Prog Drug Res 2014; 68:209-58.

Paice, J., et al., “Topical capsaicin in the management of HIV-associated peripheral neuropathy,” Jour Pain Symtom Manage 2000; 19(1):45-52.

Petersen, K., et al., “Capsaicin evoked pain and allodynia in post-herpetic neuralgia,” Pain 2000; 88:125-33.

Rains, C., et al., “Topical Capsaicin. A review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic potential in post-herpetic neuralgia, diabetic neuropathy and osteoarthritis,” Drugs and Aging 1998; 7(4):317-28.

Sharma, S., et al., “Mechanisms and clinical uses of capsaicin,” Eur Jour Pharmacol 2013; 720(1-3):55-62.

Stam, C., et al., “The efficacy and safety of a homeopathic gel in the treatment of acute low back pain: a multi-centre, randomised, double-blind comparative clinical trial,” Brit Homeopath Jour 2001; 90(1):21-8.

Stankus, S., et al., “Management of herpes zoster (shingles) and postherpetic neuralgia,” Amer Fam Physician 2000; 61(8):2437-44, 2447-48.

Volmink, J., et al., “Treatments for postherpetic neuralgia—a systematic review of randomized controlled trials,” Fam Pract 1996; 13(1):84-91.

Yoshioka, M., et al., “Effects of red pepper added to high-fat and high-carbohydrate meals on energy metabolism and substrate utilization in Japanese women,” Brit Jour Nutr 1998; 80(6):503–10.

 

Chamomile

Amsterdam, J., et al., “A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of oral Marticaria recutita (chamomile) extract therapy of generalized anxiety disorder,” Jour Clin Psychopharmacol 2009; 29(4):378-82.

Chang, S., et al., “Effects of an intervention with drinking chamomile tea on sleep quality and depression in sleep disturbed postnatal women: a randomized controlled trial,” Jour Adv Nus 2016; 72(2):306-15.

Hashempur, M., et al., “A pilot randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial on topical chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) oil for severe carpal tunnel syndrome,” Complement Ther Clin Pract 2015; 21(4):223-28.

McCay, D., et al., “A review of the bioactivity and potential health benefits of chamomile tea (Matricaria recutita L.),” Phytother Res 2006; 20(7):519-30.

Shoara, R., et al., “Efficacy and safety of topical Matricaria chamomilla L. (chamomile) oil for knee osteoarthritis: A randomized controlled clinical trial,” Complet Ther Clinc Pract 2015; 21(3):181-87.

Sinatra, S., Optimum Health. New York, NY: The Lincoln-Bradley Publishing Group, 1996.

Singh, O., et al., “Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.): An overview,” Pharmacogn Rev 2011; 599):82-95.

Srivastava, J., et al., “Chamomile: a herbal medicine of the past with bright future,” Molecular Medicine Reports 2010; 3(6):895-901.

Subiza, J., et al., “Allergic conjunctivitis to chamomile tea,” Ann Allergy 1990; 65:127–32.

 

Curcumin/Turmeric

Aggarwal, B., et al., “Anti-cancer potential of curcumin: preclinical and clinical studies,” Anticancer Res 2003; 23(1A):363-98.

Aggarwal, B., et al., “Curcumin suppresses the paclitaxel-induced nuclear factor kappaB pathway in breast cancer cells and inhibits lung metastasis of human breast cancer in nude mice,” Clin Cancer Res 2005; 11: 7490-98.

Aggarwal, B., et al., “Curcumin: The Indian solid gold,” Adv Exp Med Biol 2007; 595:1-75.

Aggarwal, B., et al., “Potential therapeutic effects of curcumin, the anti-inflammatory agent, against neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, pulmonary, metabolic, autoimmune and neoplastic diseases,” Int Jour Biochem Cell Biol 2009; 41:40-59.

Aggarwal, S., et al., “Inhibition of growth and survival of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells by curcumin via modulation of nuclear factor-kB signaling,” Int Jour Cancer 2004; 111: 679-92.

Aravindan, N., et al., “Curcumin inhibits NF-kappa B mediated radioprotection and modulates apoptosis related genes in human neuroblastoma cells,” Cancer Biol Ther 2008, 7: 569-76.

Baum, L., et al., “Curcumin effects on blood lipid profile in a 6-month human study,” Pharmacol Res 2007; 56:509-14.

Bengmark, D., “Curcumin, a toxic antioxidant and natural NFkappa B, cyclooxygenase-2, lipoxygenase, and inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor: a shield against acute and chronic disease,” Jour Paenter Enteral Nutr 2006; 31(1):45-51.

Bharti, A., et al., “Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) down-regulates the constitutive activation of nuclear factor-kappa B and IkappaBalpha kinase in human multiple myeloma cells, leading to suppression of proliferation and induction of apoptosis,” Blood 2003; 101:1053-62.

Blumenthal, M., Goldberg, A., Brinckmann, J., Herbal Medicine: Expanded Commission E Monographs. Newton, MA: Integrative Medicine Communication. 2000.

Bundy, R., et al., “Tumeric extract may improve irritable bowel syndrome symptomology in otherwise healthy adults: a pilot study,” Jour Altern Complement Med 2004; 10(66):1015-18.

Cao, Y., et al., “Therapeutic targets of multiple angiogenic factors for the treatment of cancer and metastasis,” Adv Cancer Res 2007; 97: 203-24.

Chan, M., “Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor by curcumin, a phytochemical,” Biochem Pharmacol 1995; 49:1551-56.

Chan, M., et al., “In vivo inhibition of nitric oxide synthase gene expression by curcumin, a cancer preventive natural product with anti-inflammatory properties,” Biochem Pharmacol 1998; 55:1955-62.

Chattopadhyay, I., et al., “Turmeric and curcumin: Biological actions and medicinal applications,” Curr Sci 2004; 87:44-50.

Chiu, J., et al., “Curcumin prevents diabetes associated abnormalities in the kidneys by inhibiting p300 and nuclear factor-kappaB,” Nutrition 2009; 25:964-72.

Chuang, S., et al., “Basal levels and patterns of anticancer drug-induced activation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB), and its attenuation by tamoxifen, dexamethasone, and curcumin in carcinoma cells,” Biochem Pharmacol 2002; 63: 709-16.

Elattar, T., et al., “The inhibitory effect of curcumin, genistein, quercetin and cisplatin on the growth of oral cancer cells in-vitro,” Anticancer Res 2000; 20:1733-38.

Fiorillo, C., et al., “Curcumin protects cardiac cells against ischemia reperfusion injury: effects on oxidative stress, NF-kappaB and JNK pathways,” Free Radic Biol Med 2008; 45: 839-46.

Garg, S., et al., “Curcumin for maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012; 10:CD008424.

Gilliams, T., et al., “Managing chronic inflammation: natural solutions,” The Standard 2006; 7(2):1-8.

Gururaj, A., et al., “Molecular mechanisms of anti-angiogenic effect of curcumin,” Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2002; 297: 934-42.

Hanai, H., et al., “Curcumin maintenance therapy for ulcerative colitis: randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,” Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2006; 4:1502-06.

He, L., et al., “Curcumin protects pre-oligodendrocytes from activated microglia in vitro and in vivo,” Brain Res 2010; 1339:60-9.

Heck, A., et al., “Potential interactions between alternative therapies and warfarin,” Amer Jour Health Syst Pharm 2000; 57:1221-27.

Holt, P., et al., “Curcumin therapy in inflammatory bowel disease: a pilot study,” Dig Dis Sci 2005; 50(11):2191-93.

Jagetia, G., et al., “’Spicing up’ of the immune system by curcumin,” Jour Clin Immunol 2007; 27:19-35.

Jobin, C., et al., “Curcumin blocks cytokine-mediated NF-kappa B activation and proinflammatory gene expression by inhibiting inhibitory factor I-kappa B kinase activity,” Jour Immunol 1999; 163:3474-83.

Jurenka, J., “Anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin, a major constituent of Curcima longa: A review of preclinical and clinical research,” Altern Med Rev 2009; 14:141-53.

Kapakos, G., et al., “Cardiovascular protection by curcumin: molecular aspects,” Indian Jour Biochem Biophys 2012; 49:306-15.

Kim, D., et al., “Curcuminoids in neurodegenerative diseases,” Recent Pat CNS Drug Discov 2012; 7:184-204.

Krishnaswamy, K., “Traditional Indian spices and their health significance,” Asia Pac Jour Clin Nutr 2008; 17(Suppl 1):265-68.

Li, L., et al., “Liposome-encapsulated curcumin: in vitro and in vivo effects on proliferation, apoptosis, signaling, and angiogenesis,” Cancer 2005; 104:1322-31.

Lim, G., et al., “The curry spice curcumin reduces oxidative damage and amyloid pathology in an Alzheimer transgenic mouse,” Jour Neurosci 2001; 21(21):8370-77.

Lin, Y., et al., “Curcumin inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis in ovarian carcinoma by targeting the nuclear factor-kappaB pathway,” Clin Cancer Res 2007; 13:3423-30.

LoTempio, M., et al., “Curcumin suppresses growth of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma,” Clin Cancer Res 2005, 11:6994-7002.

Masuda, T., et al., “Chemical studies on antioxidant mechanisms of curcumin: analysis of oxidative coupling products from curcumin and linoleate,” Jour Agric Food Chem 2001; 49:2539-47.

Mehta, K., et al., “Antiproliferative effect of curcumin (diferuloylmethane) against human breast tumor cell lines,” Anticancer Drugs 1997; 8:470-81.

Mukhopadhyay, A., et al., “Curcumin downregulates cell survival mechanisms in human prostate cancer cell lines,” Oncogene 2001; 20: 7597-7609.

Nakamura, K., et al., “Curcumin downregulates AR gene expression and activation in prostate cancer cell lines,” Int Jour Oncol 2002; 21:825-30.

Ng, T., et al., “Curry consumption and cognitive function in the elderly,” Amer Jour Epidemiol 2006; 164(9):898-906.

Parodi, F., et al., “Oral administration of difenuloylmethane (curcumin) suppresses proinflammatory cytokines and destructive connective tissue remodeling in experimental abdominal aortic aneurysms,” Ann Vas Surg 2006; 20(3):360-68.

Prucksunand, C., et al., “Phase II clinical trial on effect of the long turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn) on healing of peptic ulcer,” Asian Jour Trop Med Pubic Health 2001; 32(1):208-15.

Rao, C., “Regulation of COX and LOX by curcumin,” Adv Exp Med Bio 2007; 595:213-26.

Ray, B., et al., “Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease: different molecular targets and potential therapeutic agents including curcumin,” Curr Opin Pharmacol 2009; 4:34-44.

Sa, G., et al., “Anti-cancer effects of curcumin: cycle of life and death,” Cell Div 2008; 3:14- 20.

Sahebkar, A., “Are curcuminoids effective C-reactive protein-lowering agents in clinical practice? Evidence from a meta-analysis,” Phytotherapy Res 2014; 28(5):633-42.

Sharma, R., et al., “Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of curcumin,” Adv Exp Med Biol 2007; 595:453-70.

Shehzad, A., et al., “Curcumin in inflammatory diseases,” Biofactors 2013; 39:69-77.

Singh, S., et al., “Activation of transcription factor NF-kB is suppressed by curcumin (diferuloylmethane),” Jour Biol Chem 1995; 270:24995-25000.

Sreejayan, R., “Curcuminoids as potent inhibitors of lipid peroxidation,” Jour Pharm Pharmacol 1994, 46:1013-16.

White, B., et al., “Clinical Inquiry. Does turmeric relieve inflammatory conditions?” Jour Fam Pract 2011; 60:155-56.

Wilken, R., et al., “Curcumin: A review of anti-cancer properties and therapeutic activity in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma,” Molecular Cancer 2011; 10:12.

Yadav, V., et al., “Novel formulation of solid lipid microparticles of curcumin for anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory activity for optimization of therapy of inflammatory bowel disease,” Jour Pharm Pharmacol 2009; 3:311-21.

 

Dandelion

Braun, L., and Cohen, M., (Eds.) Herbs and Natural Supplements. 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

Chatterjee, S., et al., “The efficacy of dandelion root extract in inducing apoptosis in drug-resistant human melanoma cells," Evidence-based Complement Altern Med 2011; 2011:129045.

Choi, J., et al., “Taraxinic acid, a hydrolysate of sesquiterpene lactone glycoside from the Taraxacum coreanum NAKAI, induces the differentiation of human acute promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells,” Biol Pharm Bull 2002; 25(11):1446-50.

Choi, U., et al., “Hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) root and leaf on cholesterol-fed rabbits,” Int Jour Mol Sci 2010; 11(1):67-78.

Clare, B., et al., “The diuretic effect in human subjects of an extract of Taraxacum officinale folium over a single day,” Jour Altern.Complement Med 2009; 15(8):929-34.

Davies, M., et al., “Contact allergy to yarrow and dandelion,” Contact Dermatitis 1986; 14(4):256-57.

Goksu, E., et al., “First report of hypoglycemia secondary to dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) ingestion,” Amer Jour Emerg Med 2010; 28(1):111-12.

Gonzalez-Castejon, M., et al., “Diverse biological activities of dandelion,” Nutr Rev 2012; 70(9):534-47.

Greenlee, H., et al., “A pilot and feasibility study on the effects of naturopathic botanical and dietary interventions on sex steroid hormone metabolism in premenopausal women,” Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2007; 16(8):1601-09.

Hagymasi, K., et al., “The in vitro effect of dandelions antioxidants on microsomal lipid peroxidation,” Phytother Res 2000; 14(1):43-4.

Han, H., et al., “Inhibitory effect of aqueous Dandelion extract on HIV-1 replication and reverse transcriptase activity,” BMC Complement Altern Med 2011; 11:112.

He, W., et al., “Anti-influenza virus effect of aqueous extracts from dandelion,” Virol Jour 2011; 8:538.

Hook, I., et al., “Evaluation of dandelion for diuretic activity and variation in potassium content,” Int Jour Pharmacol 1993; 31(1):29-34.

Hu, C., et al., “Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) flower extract suppresses both reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide and prevents lipid oxidation in vitro,” Phytomedicine 2005; 12:588-97.

Huang, Y., et al., “Chinese medicinal herbs for sore throat,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012; 3:CD004877.

Hudec, J., et al., “Antioxidant capacity changes and phenolic profile of Echinacea purpurea, nettle (Urtica dioica L.), and dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) after application of polyamine and phenolic biosynthesis regulators,” Jour Agric Food Chem 2007; 55(14):5689-96.

Ingber, A., “Seasonal allergic contact dermatitis from Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) in an Israeli florist,” Contact Dermatitis 2000; 43(1):49.

Jeon, H., et al., “Anti-inflammatory activity of Taraxacum officinale,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 2008; 115(1):82-8.

Kim, H., et al., “Activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase by Taraxacum officinale in mouse peritoneal macrophages,” Gen Pharmacol 1999; 32(6):683-88.

Koo, H., et al., “Taraxacum officinale induces cytotoxicity through TNF-alpha and IL-1alpha secretion in Hep G2 cells,” Life Sci 2004; 74(9):1149-57.

Menghini, L., et al., “Antiproliferative, protective and antioxidant effects of artichoke, dandelion, turmeric and rosemary extracts and their formulation,” Int Jour Immunopathol Pharmacol 2010; 23(2):601-10.

Neef, H., et al., “Platelet anti-aggregating activity of Taraxacum officinale Weber,” Phytotherapy Res 1996; 10:s138-s140.

Ovadje, P., et al., “Selective induction of apoptosis through activation of caspase-8 in human leukemia cells (Jurkat) by dandelion root extract,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 2011; 133(1):86-91.

Ovadje, P., et al., “Selective induction of apoptosis and autophagy through treatment with dandelion root extract in human pancreatic cancer cells,” Pancreas 2012; 41(7):1039-47.

Ovadje, P., et al., “Efficient induction of extrinsic cell death by dandelion root extract in human chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) cells,” PLoS One 2012; 7(2):e30604.

Posadzki, P., et al., “Adverse effects of herbal medicines: an overview of systematic reviews,” Clin Med 2013; 13(1):7-12.

Rutherford, P., et al., “The mode of action of dandelion root fructofuranosidases on inulin,” Biochem Jour 1972; 129(2):511-12.

Schutz, K., et al., “Taraxacum—a review on its phytochemical and pharmacological profile,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 2006; 107(3):313-23.

Seo, S., et al., “Taraxacum officinale protects against cholecystokinin-induced acute pancreatitis in rats,” World Jour Gastroenterol 2005; 11:597-99.

Sigstedt, S., et al., “Evaluation of aqueous extracts of Taraxacum officinale (dandelion) on growth and invasion of breast and prostate cancer cells," Inter Jour Oncol 2008; 32(5):1085-90.

Stagos, D., et al., “Chemoprevention of liver cancer by plant polyphenols,” Food Chem Toxicol 2012; 50(6):2155-70.

Swanston-Flatt, S., et al., “Glycaemic effects of traditional European plant treatments for diabetes. Studies in normal and streptozotocin diabetic mice,” Diabetes Res 1989; 10(2):69-73.

Tita, B., et al., “Taraxacum officinale W.: pharmacological effect of ethanol extract,” Pharmacological Res 1993; 27(Suppl 1):23-4.

Trojanova, I., et al., “The bifidogenic effect of Taraxacum officinale root,” Fitoterapia 2004; 75:760-63.

Vitalone, A., et al., “Surveillance of suspected adverse reactions to herbal products used as laxatives,” Eur Jour Clin Pharmacol 2012; 68(3):231-38.

Williams, C., et al., “Flavonoids, cinnamic acids and coumarins from the different tissues and medicinal preparations of Taraxacum officinale,” Phytochemistry 1996; 42:121-27.

Zhu, M., et al., “Effects of Taraxacum mongolicum on the bioavailability and disposition of ciprofloxacin in rats,” Jour Pharm Sci 1999; 88(6):632-34.

 

Echinacea

Ardjomand-Woelkart, K., et al., “Review and Assessment of Medicinal Safety Data of Orally Used Echinacea Preparations,” Planta Med 2016; 82(1-2):17-31.

Braun, L., and Cohen, M., (Eds.) Herbs and Natural Supplements. 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

Brinkeborn, R., et al., “Echinaforce and other echinacea fresh plant preparations in the treatment of the common cold. A randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind clinical trial,” Phytomedicine 1999; 6:1–6.

Budzinski, J., et al., “An in vitro evaluation of human cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibition by selected commercial herbal extracts and tinctures,” Phytomedicine 2000; 7:273–82.

Dorn, M., et al., “Placebo-controlled, double-blind study of Echinaceae pallidae radix in upper respiratory tract infections,” Com Ther Med 1997; 3:40-42.

Freeman, C., et al., “A critical evaluation of drug interactions with Echinacea spp.,” Mol Nutr Food Res 2008; 52(7):789-98.

Glesson, M., et al., “Nutritional strategies to minimize exercise-induced immunosuppression in athletes,” Can Jour Appl Physiol 2001; 26(Suppl): S23-S35.

Grimm, W., et al., “A randomized controlled trial of the effects of fluid extract of echinacea pur-pura on the frequency and severity of colds and respiratory infections,” Amer Jour Med 1999; 106:138–43.

Hoheisel, O., et al., “Echinagard treatment shortens the course of the common cold: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial,” Eur Jour Clin Res 1997; 9:261–69.

Klatz, R., The New Anti-Aging Revolution. Laguna Beach, CA: Basic Health Publications, 2003.

Melchart, D., et al., “Echinacea root extracts for the prevention of upper respiratory tract infections: a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial,” Arch Fam Med 1998; 7:541–45.

Mills, S., et al., Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy. London: Churchill Livingstone, 2000.

Nahas, R., et al., “Complementary and alternative medicine for prevention and treatment of the common cold,” Can Fam Physician 2011; 57(1):31-6.

Shah, S., et al., “Evaluation of echinacea for the prevention and treatment of the common cold: a meta-analysis,” Lancet Infect Dis 2007; 7(7):473-80.

Sterer, N., et al., “Oral malodor reduction via palatal mucoadhesive tablet containing herbal formulation,” Jour Dent 2008; 36(7):535-39.

Sucapowal, A., et al., “Echinacea/sage or chlorhexidine/lidocaine for treating acute sore throats: a randomized double-blind trial,” Eur Jour Med Res 2009; 14(9):406-12.

Ulbright, C., et al., Natural Standard Herb and Supplement Reference. St. Louis: Mosby, 2005.

Werbach, M., Botanical Influences on Illness. Tarzana, CA: Third Line Press, Inc. 2000.

Zhai, Z., et al., “Echinacea increases arginase activity and has anti-inflammatory properties in RAW264.7 macrophage cells, indicative of alternative macrophage activation,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 2009; 122(1):976-85.

 

Eleuthero

Braun, L., and Cohen, M., (Eds.) Herbs and Natural Supplements. 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

Bucci, L., “Selected herbals and human exercise performance,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2000; 72(Suppl):624S-636S.

Cicero, A., et al., “Effects of Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus maxim.) on elderly quality of life: a randomized clinical trial,” Arch Gerontol Geriatr Suppl 2004; 9:69-73.

Dasgupta, A., et al., “Effect of Asian and Siberian ginseng on serum digoxin measurement by five digoxin immunoassays. Significant variation in digoxin-like immunoreactivity among commercial ginsengs,” Amer Jour Clin Pathol 2003; 119(2):298-303.

Eschbach, L., et al., “The effect of Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) on substrate utilization and performance,” Int Jour Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2000; 10(4):444-51.

Fugh-Berman, A., “Herb-drug interactions,” Lancet 2000; 355:134-38.

Gabrielian, E., et al., “A double blind, placebo-controlled study of Andrographis paniculata fixed combination Kan Jang in the treatment of acute upper respiratory tract infections including sinusitis,” Phytomedicine 2002; 9:589-97.

Glatthaar-Saalmuller, B., et al., “Antiviral activity of an extract derived from roots of Eleutherococcus senticosus,” Antiviral Res 2001; 50(3):223-28.

Goulet, E., et al., “Assessment of the effects of eleutherococcus senticosus on endurance performance,” Int Jour Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2005; 15(1):75-83.

Gyllenhaal, C., et al., “Efficacy and safety of herbal stimulants and sedatives in sleep disorders,” Sleep Med Rev 2000; 4(2):229-51.

Hartz, A., et al., “Randomized controlled trial of Siberian ginseng for chronic fatigue,” Psychol Med 2004; 34(1):51-61.

Lee, Y., et al., “The effects of A. senticosus supplementation on serum lipid profiles, biomarkers of oxidative stress, and lymphocyte DNA damage in postmenopausal women,” Bio Chem Bio Physico Res Comm 2008; 375(1):44-8.

Lin, Q., et al., “Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase by Acanthopanax senticosus extract in RAW 264.7 macrophages,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 2008; 11892):231-36.

Melchior, J., et al., “Double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot and phase III study of activity of standardized Andrographis paniculata Herba Nees extract fixed combination (Kan jang) in the treatment of uncomplicated upper-respiratory tract infection,” Phytomedicine 2000; 7:341-50.

Panossian, A., et al., “Evidence-based efficacy of adaptogens in fatigue, and molecular mechanisms related to their stress-protective activity,” Curr Clin Pharmacol 2009; 4(3):198-219.

Roxas, M., et al., “Colds and influenza: a review of diagnosis and conventional, botanical, and nutritional considerations,” Altern Med Rev 2007; 12(1):25-48.

Sinclair, S., “Male infertility: nutritional and environmental considerations,” Alt Med Rev 2000; 5(1):28-38.

Williams, M., “Immuno-protection against herpes simplex type II infection by Eleutherococcus root extract,” Int Jour Alt Complement Med 1995; 13:9-12.

Winther, K., et al., “Russian root (Siberian ginseng) improves cognitive functions in middle-aged people, whereas Ginkgo biloba seems effective only in the elderly,” Jour Neurological Sci 1997; 150:S90.

 

Evening Primrose Oil

Abraham, R., et al., “Effects of safflower oil and evening primrose oil in men with a low dihomo-gamma-linolenic level,” Atherosclerosis 1990; 81(3):199-208.

Anstey, A., et al., “Topical evening primrose oil as treatment for atopic eczema,” Jour Dermatol Treat 1990; 1(4):199-201.

Arnold, L., et al., “Gamma-linolenic acid for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: Placebo-controlled comparison to D-amphetamine,” Biol Psychiatry 1989; 25:222-28.

Belch, J., et al., “Effects of altering dietary essential fatty acids on requirements for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: A double blind placebo controlled study,” Ann Rheum Dis 1988; 47:96-104.

Belch, J., et al., “Evening primrose oil and borage oil in rheumatologic conditions,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2000; 71:352S-356S.

Belch, J., et al., “Evening primrose oil (Efamol) in the treatment of Raynaud's phenomenon: a double blind study,” Thromb Haemost 1985; 54(2):490-94.

Bendich, A., “The potential for dietary supplements to reduce premenstrual syndrome (PMS) symptoms,” Jour Amer Coll Nutrition 2000; 19:3-12.

Berth-Jones, J., “Placebo-controlled trial of essential fatty acid supplementation in atopic dermatitis,” Lancet 1993; 341:1557-60.

Blommers, J., et al., “Evening primrose oil and fish oil for severe chronic mastalgia: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial,” Amer Jour Obstet Gynecol 2002; 187:1389-94.

Brzeski, M., et al., “Evening primrose oil in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and side-effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs,” Brit Jour Rheumatol 1991; 30(5):370-72.

Collins, A., et al., “Essential fatty acids in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome,” Obstet Gynecol 1993; 81(1):93-8.

Ebden, P., et al., “A study of evening primrose seed oil in atopic asthma,” Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1989; 35(2):69-72.

Engler, M., et al., “Dietary gamma-linolenic acid lowers blood pressure and alters aortic reactivity and cholesterol metabolism in hypertension,” Jour Hypertens 1992; 10:1197-04.

Garcia, C., et al., “Gamma linolenic acid causes weight loss and lower blood pressure in overweight patients with family history of obesity,” Swed Jour Biol Med 1986; 4:8-11.

Gokhale, L., et al., “The use of food supplements among women attending menopause clinics in the West Midlands,” Jour Brit Menopause Soc 2003; 9(1):32-5.

Greenfield, S., et al., “A randomized controlled study of evening primrose oil and fish oil in ulcerative colitis,” Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1993; 7:159-66.

Guivernau, M., et al., “Clinical and experimental study on the long-term effect of dietary gamma-linolenic acid on plasma lipids, platelet aggregation, thromboxane formation, and prostacyclin production,” Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1994; 51:311-16.

Gupta, H., et al., “A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate efficacy and tolerability of an optimized botanical combination in the management of patients with primary hypercholesterolemia and mixed dyslipidemia,” Phytother Res 2012; 26(2):265-72.

Hoare, C., et al., “Systematic review of treatments for atopic eczema,” Health Technol Assess 2000; 4(37):1-191.

Holman, C., et al., “A trial of evening primrose oil in the treatment of chronic schizophrenia,” Jour Orhtomolecular Psych 1983; 12:302-04.

Horrobin, D., “Evening primrose oil and premenstrual syndrome,” Med Jour Aust 1990; 153:630-31.

Ishikawa, T., et al., “Effects of gammalinolenic acid on plasma lipoproteins and apolipoproteins,” Atherosclerosis 1989; 75(2-3):95-104.

Jamal, G., “Gamma-linolenic acid in diabetic neuropathy,” Lancet 1986; 1(8489):1098.

Jamal, G., “The use of gamma linolenic acid in the prevention and treatment of diabetic neuropathy,” Diabet Med 1994; 11:145-49.

Jamal, G., et al., “The effects of gamma-linolenic acid on human diabetic peripheral neuropathy: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial,” Diabet Med 1990; 7(4):319-23.

Jantti, J., et al., “Evening primrose oil and olive oil in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis,” Clin Rheumatol 1989; 8(2):238-44.

Jenkins, A., et al., “Essential fatty acid supplementation in chronic hepatitis B,” Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1996; 10(4):665-68.

Keen, H., et al., “Treatment of diabetic neuropathy with gamma-linolenic acid. The gamma-Linolenic Acid Multicenter Trial Group,” Diabetes Care 1993; 16:8-15.

Khoo, S., et al., “Evening primrose oil and treatment of premenstrual syndrome,” Med Jour Australia 1990; 153:189-92.

Kleijnen, J., “Evening primrose oil,” BMJ 1994; 309:824-25.

Kokke, K., et al., “Oral omega-6 essential fatty acid treatment in contact lens associated dry eye,” Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2008; 31(3):141-46.

Kronenberg, F., et al., “Complementary and alternative medicine for menopausal symptoms: a review of randomized, controlled trials,” Ann Intern Med 2002; 137:805-13.

Lovell, C., et al., “Treatment of atopic eczema with evening primrose oil,” Lancet 1981; 1(8214):278.

McKendry, R., “Treatment of Sjogren's syndrome with essential fatty acids, pyridoxine and vitamin C,” Prostaglandins Leukot Med 1982; 8:403-08.

Oliwiecki, S., et al., “Evening primrose oil and marine oil in the treatment of psoriasis,” Clin Exp Dermatol 1994; 19(2):127-29.

Oxholm, P., et al., “Patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome treated for two months with evening primrose oil,” Scan Jour Rheumatol 1986; 15:103-08.

Parveen, S., et al., “Danazol versus oil of evening primrose in the treatment of mastalgia,” Pakistan Jour Surg 2007; 23(1):10-13.

Pashby, N., et al. “A clinical trial of evening primrose in mastalgia,” Brit Jour Surg 1981; 68:801.

Peet, M., et al., “Essential fatty acid deficiency in erythrocyte membranes from chronic schizophrenic patients, and the clinical effects of dietary supplementation,” Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1996; 55(1-2):71-5.

Puri, B., “Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and the pathophysiology of myalgic encephalomyelitis (chronic fatigue syndrome),” Jour Clin Pathol 2007; 60(2):122-24.

Qureshi, S., et al., “Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs versus oil of evening primrose in the treatment of mastalgia,” Surgeon 2005; 3(1):7-10.

Rodgers, A., et al., “Evening primrose oil supplementation increases citraturia and decreases other urinary risk factors for calcium oxalate urolithiasis,” Jour Urol 2009; 182(6):2957-63.

Seibel, M., “Treating hot flushes without hormone replacement therapy,” Jour Fam Pract 2003; 52(4):291-96.

Sharpe, G., et al., “Evening primrose oil and eczema,” Lancet 1990; 335(8690):667-68.

Sholkens, B., et al., “Evening Primrose oil, a dietary prostaglandin precursor diminishes vascular reactivity to resin and angiotensin II in rats,” Prostagland Leukotrienes Med 1982; 8:273-85.

Smith, R., et al., “Evaluation and management of breast pain,” Mayo Clin Proc 2004; 79(3):353-72.

Soeken, K. et al., “Herbal medicines for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review,” Rheumatology (Oxf.) 2003; 42(5):652-59.

Srivastava, A., et al., “Evidence-based management of mastalgia: a meta-analysis of randomised trials,” Breast 2007; 16(5):503-12.

Stevinson, C., et al., “Complementary/alternative therapies for premenstrual syndrome: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials,” Amer Jour Obstet Gynecol 2001; 185(1):227-35.

Strong, A., et al., “The effect of combined fish oil and evening primrose oil (Efamol Marine) on the remission phase of psoriasis: a 7-month double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial,” Jour Derm Treat 1993; 4:33-6.

Takahashi, R., et al., “Evening primrose oil and fish oil in non-insulin-dependent-diabetes,” Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1993; 49(2):569-71.

Tang, W., et al., “Clinical observation of Blackcurrant oil Soft Capsule and Evening primrose oil Soft Capsule in treating hyperlipidemia,” Acta Chin Med Pharmacol 1993; 21(4):37-8.

Theander, E., et al., “Gammalinolenic acid treatment of fatigue associated with primary Sjogren's syndrome,” Scand Jour Rheumatol 2002; 31(2):72-9.

Thuluvath, P., et al., “Evening primrose oil in the treatment of severe refractory biliary pruritus,” Eur Jour Gastroenterol Hepatol 1991; 3(1):87-90.

Tomczyk, M., et al., “Phytotherapy of alcoholism,” Nat Prod Commun 2012; 7(2):273-80.

Ulene, A., Dr. Art Ulene’s Complete Guide to Vitamins, Minerals and Herbs. New York, NY: Avery Publishing Group, 2000.

Vaddadi, K., et al., “A double-blind trial of essential fatty acid supplementation in patients with tardive dyskinesia,” Psychiatry Res 1989; 27(3):313-23.

Velentzis, L. et al., “Significant changes in dietary intake and supplement use after breast cancer diagnosis in a UK multicentre study,” Breast Cancer Res Treat 2011; 128(2):473-82.

Vermani, M., et al., “Herbs for mental illness: effectiveness and interaction with conventional medicines,” Jour Fam Pract 2005; 54(9):789-800.

Viikari, J., et al., “Effect of primrose oil on serum lipids and blood pressure in hyperlipidemic subjects,” Int Jour Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 1986; 24(12):668-70.

Williams, H., “Evening primrose oil for atopic dermatitis,” BMJ 2003; 327:1358-59.

 

Eyebright

Anshel, J., What You Must Know About Food and Supplements for Optimal Vision Care. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers, 2015.

Bielory, L., et al., “Review of complementary and alternative medicine in treatment of ocular allergies,” Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2003; 5:395–99.

Dharma, P., et al., “A Review of Plant Species Used to Treat Conjunctivitis. Review article,” Phytother Res 2002; 16:1–22.

Mindell, E., Smith, P., What You Must Know About Allergy Relief. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers, 2016.

Paduch, R., et al., “Assessment of eyebright (Euphrasia officinalis L.) extract activity in relation to human corneal cells using in vitro tests,” Balkan Med Jour 2014; 31(1):29-36.

Stoss, M., et al., “Prospective cohort trial of Euphrasia single-dose eye drops in conjunctivitis,” Jour Altern Complement Med 2000; 6:499–508.

 

Fenugreek

Ahmadiani, A., et al., “Anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of Trigonella foenum greaecum leaves extract in the rat,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 2001; 75(2-3):283-86.

Belfuith-Hadriche, O., et al., “Comparative study on hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant activities of various extracts of fenugreek seeds,” Food Chem 2013; 138:1448-53.

Bin-Hafeez, B., et al., “Immunomodulatory effects of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum greaecum L.) extract in mice,” Int Immunopharmacol 2003; 3(2):257-65.

Bordia, A., et al., “Effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum L.) on blood lipids, blood sugar and platelet aggregation in patients with coronary artery disease,” Prost Leuko EFA 1997; 56:379-84.

Braun, L., and Cohen, M. Herbs and Natural Supplements, 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

Chevassus, H., et al., “A fenugreek seed extract selectively reduces spontaneous fat consumption in healthy volunteers,” Eur Jour Clin Pharmacol 2009; 65(12):1175-78.

Chevassus, H., et al., “A fenugreek seed extract selectively reduces spontaneous fat intake in overweight subjects,” Eur Jour Clin Pharmacol 2010; 66(5):449-55.

Devasena, T., et al., “Fenugreek seeds modulate 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced hepatic oxidative stress during colon carcinogenesis,” Ita Jour Biochem 2007; 56(1):28-34.

DiSilvestro, R., et al., “Anti-heartburn effects of a fenugreek fiber product,” Phytother Res 2011; 25:88-91.

Eidi, A., et al., “Effect of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-greaecum L.) seeds on serum parameters in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats,” Nutri Res 2007; 27(11):728-33.

Forinash, A., et al., “The use of galactogogues in the breastfeeding mother,” Ann Pharmacother 2012; 46(10):1392-1404.

Gaur, V., et al., “Anti-depressant like effect of 4-hydroxyisoleucine from Trigonella foenum greaecum L. seeds in mice,” Biomed Aging Pathol 2012; 2:121-25.

Gupta, A., et al., “Effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seeds on glycaemic control and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a double blind placebo controlled study,” Jour Assoc Physicians India 2001; 49:1057-61.

Hasani-Ranjbar, S., et al., “The efficacy and safety of herbal medicines used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia; a systematic review,” Curr Pharm Des 2010; 16(26):2935-47.

Hassanzadeh-Bashtian, M., et al., “Evaluation of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graceum L.), effects seeds extract on insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome,” Iran Jour Pharm Res 2013; 12(2):475-81.

Ikeuchi, M., et al., “Effects of fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum greaecum) extract on endurance capacity in mice,” Jour Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2006; 52(4):287-92.

Kaczmar, T., “Herbal support for diabetes management,” Clin Nutr Insights 1998; 6(8):1-4.

Kassaian, N., et al., “Effect of fenugreek seeds on blood glucose and lipid profiles in type 2 diabetic patients,” Int Jour Vitam Nutr Res 2009; 79(1):34-9.

Kochhar, A., et al., “Effect of supplementation of traditional medicinal plants on blood glucose in non-insulin-dependent diabetics: a pilot study,” Jour Med Food 2005; 8(4):545-49.

Kuppu, R., et al., “Hypoglycaemic and hypotriglyceridemic effects of 'methica churna' (Fenugreek),” Antiseptic 1998; 95:78-9.

Lambert, J., et al., “Potential interaction between warfarin and boldo-fenugreek,” Pharmacotherapy 2001; 21:509-12.

Losso, J., et al., “Fenugreek bread: a treatment for diabetes mellitus,” Jour Med Food 2009; 12(5):1046-49.

Low Dog, T., “The use of botanicals during pregnancy and lactation,” Altern Ther Health Med 2009; 15(1):54-8.

Lu, F., et al., “Clinical observation on trigonella foenum-graecum L. total saponins in combination with sulfonylureas in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Chin Jour Integr Med 2008; 14(1):56-60.

Madar, Z., et al., “Effect of extracted fenugreek on post-prandial glucose levels in human diabetic subjects,” Nutr Res 1989; 9:691-92.

Mathern, J., et al., “Effect of fenugreek fiber on satiety, blood glucose and insulin response and energy intake in obese subjects,” Phytother Res 2009; 23(11):1543-48.

Mohan, V., et al., “Fenugreek and insulin resistance,” Jour Assoc Physicians India 2001; 49:1055-56.

Morani, A., et al., “Ameliorative effects of standardized extract from Trigonella foenum greaecum L. seeds on painful peripheral neuropathy in rats,” Asian Pacific Jour Tropical Med 2012; p. 385-90.

Nahas, R., et al., “Complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of type 2 diabetes,” Can Fam Physician 2009; 55(6):591-96.

Nathan, J., et al., “Efficacy and safety of standardized extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum L seeds as an adjuvant tocL-Dopa in the management of patients with Parkinson's disease,” Phytother Res 2014; 28(2):172-78.

Neelakantan, N., et al., “Effect of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) intake on glycemia: a meta-analysis of clinical trials,” Nutr Jour 2014;13:7.

Neeraja, A., et al., “Hypoglycemic effect of processed fenugreek seeds in humans,” Jour Food Sci Technol 1996; 33(5):427-30.

O'Mahony, R., et al., “Bactericidal and anti-adhesive properties of culinary and medicinal plants against Helicobacter pylori,” World Jour Gastroenterol 2005; 11(47):7499-7507.

Panda, S., et al., “Inhibition of triiodothyronine production by fenugreek seed extract in mice and rats,” Pharmacol Res 1999; 40(5):405-09.

Pandian, R., et al., “Gastroprotective effect of fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum greaecum) on experimental gastric ulcer in rats,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 2002; 81(3):393-97.

Parildar, H., et al., “Diabetes mellitus and phytotherapy in Turkey,” Jour Pak Med Assoc 2011; 61(11):1116-20.

Platel, K., et al., “Influence of dietary spices or their active principles on digestive enzymes of small intestinal mucosa in rats,” Int Jour Food Sci Nutri 1996; 47(1):55-9.

Prasanna, M., “Hypolipidemic effect of fenugreek: a clinical study,” Indian Jour Pharmacol 2000; 32:34-6.

Ruby, B., et al., “The addition of fenugreek extract (Trigonella foenum-graecum) to glucose feeding increases muscle glycogen resynthesis after exercise,” Amino Acids 2005; 28(1):71-6.

Satheesh-Kumar, N., et al., “Acetylcholinesterase enzyme inhibitory potential of standardized extract of Trigonella foenum greaecum L. and its consituents,” Phyto Med 2010; 17:292-95.

Sharma, R., “Effect of fenugreek seeds and leaves on blood glucose and serum insulin responses in human subjects,” Nutr Res 1986; 6:1353-64.

Sharma, R., et al., “Hypoglycaemic effect of fenugreek seeds in non-insulin dependent diabetic subjects,” Nutr Res 1990; 10:731-39.

Sharma, R., et al., “Hypolipidaemic effect of fenugreek seeds: A chronic study in non-insulin dependent diabetic patients,” Phytother Res 1996; 10:332-34.

Sharma, R., et al., “Hypolipidaemic effect of fenugreek seeds. A clinical study,” Phytother Res 1991; 3(5):145-147.

Sharma, R., et al., “Toxicological evaluation of fenugreek seeds: a long term feeding experiment in diabetic patients,” Phytother Res 1996; 10(6):519-20.

Sharma, R., et al., “Use of fenugreek seed powder in the management of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus,” Nutrit Res 1996; 16(8):1331-39.

Shekelle, P., et al., “Are Ayurvedic herbs for diabetes effective?” Jour Fam Pract 2005; 54(10):876-86.

Slivka, D., et al., “Glycogen resynthesis and exercise performance with the addition of fenugreek extract (4-hydroxyisoleucine) to post-exercise carbohydrate feeding,”Amino Acids 2008; 35(2):439-44.

Suksomboon, N., et al., “Meta-analysis of the effect of herbal supplement on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 2011; 137:1328-33.

Thompson-Coon, J., “Herbs for serum cholesterol reduction: a systematic view,” Jour Fam Pract 2003; 52(6):468-78.

Turkyilmaz, C., et al., “The effect of galactagogue herbal tea on breast milk production and short-term catch-up of birthweight in the first week of life,” Alt Complement Med 2011; 17(2):139-42.

Vijayakumar, M., et al., “Hypolipidemic effect of fenugreek seeds is mediated through inhibition of fat accumulation and upregulation of LDL receptor,” Obesity (Silver Spring) 2010; 18(4):667-74.

Vyas, S., et al., “Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Trigonella foenum greaecum (seed) extract,” Acta Pol Pharm 2008; 65(4):473-76.

Wilborn, C., et al., “Effects of Torabolic supplementation on strength and body composition during an 8-week resistance training program,” Jour Intern Soc Sports Nutri 2008; 5(1):11.

Woodgate, D., et al., “Effects of a stimulant-free dietary supplement on body weight and fat loss in obese adults: a six-week exploratory study,” Curr Therapeutic Res 2003; 64(4):248-62.

Zapantis, A., et al., “Use of herbals as galactagogues,” Jour Pharm Pract 2012; 25(2):222-31.

Zuppa, A. et al., “Safety and efficacy of galactogogues: substances that induce, maintain and increase breast milk production,” Jour Pharm Pharm Sci 2010; 13(2):162-74.

 

Feverfew

Barsby, R., et al., “Feverfew and vascular smooth muscle: Extracts from fresh and dried plants show opposing pharmacological profiles, dependent upon sesquiterpene lactone content,” Planta Med1993; 59:20–5.

Biggs, M., et al., “Platelet aggregation in patients using feverfew for migraine,” Lancet 1982; 2:776.

Braun, L., and Cohen, M. Herbs and Natural Supplements, 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

Cady, R., et al., “A double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study of sublingual feverfew and ginger (LipiGesic M) in the treatment of migraine,” Headache 2011; 51:1078-86.

Chavez, M., et al., “Feverfew,” Hosp Pharm 1999; 34:436–61.

Collier, H., et al., “Extract of feverfew inhibits prostaglandin biosynthesis,” Lancet 1980; 2:922–23.

De Weerdt, C., et al., “Herbal medicines in migraine prevention randomized double-blind placebo-controlled crossover trial of a feverfew preparation,” Phytomedicine 1996; 3(3):225-30.

Ernst, E., et al., “The efficacy and safety of feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.): an update of a systematic review,” [Review] Public Health Nutr 2000; 3(4A):509-14.

Ferro, E., et al., “The combined effect of acupuncture and Tanacetum parthenium on quality of life in women with headache: randomised study,” Acupunct Med 2012; 30(4):252-57.

Groenewejen, W., et al., “A comparison of the effects of an extract of feverfew and parthenolide, a component of feverfew, on human platelet activity in-vitro,” Jour Pharma Pharmacol 1990; 42(8):553-57.

Hayes, N., et al., “The activity of compounds extracted from feverfew on histamine release from rat mast cells,” Jour Pharm Pharmacol 1987; 39:466–70.

Heck, A., et al., “Potential interactions between alternative therapies and warfarin,” Amer Jour Health Syst Pharm 2000; 57(13):1221-27.

Heptinstall, S., et al., “Inhibition of platelet behaviour by feverfew: A mechanism of action involving sulphydryl groups,” Folia Haematol Int Mag Klin Morphol Blutforsch 1988; 115:447–49.

Johnson, E., et al., “Efficacy of feverfew as prophylactic treatment of migraine,” Brit Med Jour 1985; 291:569–73.

Kim, I., et al., “Parthenolide-induced apoptosis of hepatic stellate cells and anti-fibrotic effects in an in vivo rat model,” Exp Mol Med 2012; 44(7):448-56.

Kim, S., et al., “Parthenolide suppresses tumor growth in a xenograft model of colorectal cancer cells by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis,” Int Jour Oncol 2012; 41(4):1547-53.

Kuritzky, A., et al., “Feverfew in the treatment of migraine: its effect on serotonin uptake and platelet activity,” Neurology 1994; 44(Suppl 2):A201.

Kwok, B., et al., “The anti-inflammatory natural product parthenolide from the medicinal herb feverfew directly binds to and inhibits IkappaB kinase,” Chem Biol 2001; 8:759–66.

Long, C., et al., “Bioactive flavonoids of Tanacetum parthenium revisited,” Phytochemistry2003; 64:567–69.

Maizels, M., et al., “A combination of riboflavin, magnesium, and feverfew for migraine prophylaxis: a randomized trial,” Headache 2004; 44:885-90.

Makheja, A., et al., “A platelet phospholipase inhibitor from the medicinal herb feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium),” Prostaglandins Leukot Med1982; 8:653–60.

Martin, K., et al., “Parthenolide-depleted Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) protects skin from UV irradiation and external aggression,” Arch Dermatol Res 2008; 300(2):69-80.

Mathema, V., et al., “Parthenolid, a sesquitermene lactone, expresses multiple anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities,” Inflammation 2012; 35(2):560-65.

Miller, L., “Herbal medicinals: Selected clinical considerations focusing on known or potential drug-herb interactions,” Arch Intern Med1998; 158:2200–11.

Miyata, N., et al., “Inhibitory effects of parthenolide on antigen-induced microtubule formation and degranulation in mast cells,” Int Immunopharmacol 2008; 8(6):874-80.

Modi, S., et al., “Medications for migraine prophylaxis,” Amer Fam Physician 2006; 73(1):72-8.

Murphy, J., et al., “Randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial of feverfew in migraine prevention,” Lancet1988; 2:189–92.

Palevitch, D., “Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) as prophylactic treatment for migraine: A double-blind placebo-controlled study,” Phytother Res1997; 11:508–11.

Pareck, A., et al., “Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.): A systematic review,” Pharmacognosy Rev 2011; 5(9):103-10.

Pattrick, M., et al., “Feverfew in rheumatoid arthritis: a double blind, placebo controlled study,” Ann Rheum Dis 1989; 48(7):547-49.

Pittler, M., et al., “Feverfew for preventing migraine,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev2004; 1:2286.

Pugh, W., et al., “Prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors in feverfew,” Jour Pharm Pharmacol1988; 40:743–45.

Saranitzky, E., et al., “Feverfew for migraine prophylaxis: a systematic review,” Jour Diet Suppl 2009; 6(2):91-103.

Schiapparelli, P., et al., “Non-pharmacological approach to migraine prophylaxis: part II,” Neurol Sci 2010; 31(Suppl 1):S137-S139.

Setty, A., et al. “Herbal medications commonly used in the practice of rheumatology: Mechanisms of action, efficacy, and side effects,” Semin Arthritis Rheum2005; 34:773–84.

Silberstein, S., “Preventive treatment of headaches,” Curr Opin Neurol 2005; 18(3):289-92.

Sumner, H., et al., “Inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase and cyclo-oxygenase in leukocytes by feverfew.Involvement of sesquiterpene lactones and other components,” Biochem Pharmacol1992; 43:2313–20.

Vickers, H., “Feverfew and migraine,” Brit Med Jour 1985; 291:827.

Yasenetskaya, T., et al., “Effects of an extract of feverfew on endothelial cell integrity and on cAMP in rabbit perfused aorta,” Jour Pharm Pharmacol1988; 40:501–02.

Zhang, S., et al., “Critical roles of intracellular thiols and calcium in parthenolide-induced apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells,” Cancer Lett2004; 208:143–53.

 

Garlic

Ackermann, R., et al., “Garlic shows promise for improving some cardiovascular risk factors,” Arch Inter Med 2001; 151:813-24.

Adler, A., et al., “Effect of garlic and fish-oil supplementation on serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in hypercholesterolemic men,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1997; 65(2):445-50. 

Arora, R., et al., “Comparative effects of clofibrate, garlic and onion on alimentary hyperlipemia,” Atherosclerosis 1981; 39: 447-52.

Arora, R., et al., “The long-term use of garlic in ischemic heart disease,” Atherosclerosis 1981; 40:175-79.

Asdaq, S., et al., “Potential of garlic and its active constituent, S-allyl cysteine, as antihypertensive and cardioprotective in presence of captopril,” Photomed 2010; 17:1016-26.

Banergiee, S., et al., “Effect of garlic on cardiovascular disorders: a review,” Nutr Jour 2002; 1:4.

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.

Bordia, A., et al., “Effect of essential oil of garlic on serum fibrinalytic activity in patients with coronary artery disease,” Atheroselerosis 1977; 28:155.

Bordia, A., et al., “Essential oil of garlic on blood lipids and fibribolytic activity in patients with coronary artery disease,” Jour Assoc Phys Ind 1978; 26:327-33.

Borek, C., “Antioxidant health effect of aged garlic extract,” Jour Nutr 2001; 131:1010S-1015S.

Boullin, D., “Garlic as a platelet inhibitor,” Lancet 1981; 1: 776-77.

Braun, L., and Cohen, M., Herbs and Natural Supplements, 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

Burnham, B., “Garlic as a possible risk for postoperative bleeding,” Plast Recon Surg 1995; 95:213.

Chen, C., et al., “Induction of detoxifying enzymes by garlic organosulfur compounds through transcription factor Nrf2: effect of chemical structure and stress signals,” Free Radic Biol Med 2004; 37(10):1578-90.

Chi, M., et al., “Effect of garlic on lipid metabolism in rats fed cholesterol or lard,” Jour Nutr 1982; 112:41-48.

Chutani, s., et al., “The effect of fried versus Raw garlic on fibrinolytic activity in man,” Atherosclerosis 1988; 38:417-21.

Crayhon, R., Robert Crayhon’s Nutrition Made Simple New York, NY: M. Evans and Company, 1994.

Davis, L., et al., “In vitro synergism of concentrated Allium sativum extract and amphotericin B against Cryptococcus neoformans,” Planta Med 1994; 60(6):546-49.

Fugh-Berman, A., “Herb-drug interactions,” Lancet 2000; 355:134-38.

Gebhardt, R., et al., “Differential inhibitory effects of garlic-derived organosulfur compounds on cholesterol biosynthesis in primary rat hepatocyte culture,” Lipids 1996; 31:1269-76.

Harenberg, J., et al., “Effect of dried garlic on blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, platelet aggregation and serum cholesterol levels in patients with hyperlipoproteinemia,” Atherosclerosis 1988; 74:247-29.

Harris, J., et al., “Antimicrobial properties of Allium sativum (garlic),” Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2001; 57(3):282-86.

Hattori, A., eta l., “Antidiabetic effects of ajoene in genetically diabetic KK-A(y) mice,” Jour Nutr Sci Vitaminal 2005; 51(5):382-40.

Jarrell, S., et al., “Effects of wild garlic (allium ursinum) on blood pressure in systolic hypertension,” Jour Amer Coll Nur 1996; 15:532.

Josling, P., “Preventing the common cold with a garlic supplement: a double-blind, placebo-controlled survery,” Adv Ther 2001; 18(4):189-93.

Klatz, R., The New Anti-Aging Revolution. Laguna Beach, CA: Basic Health Publications, 2003.

Legnani, C., et al., “Effects of a dried garlic preparation on fibrinolysis and platelet aggregation in healthy subjects,” Arzneimittelforschung 1993; 43:119-22.

Lieberman, S., The Real Vitamin and Mineral Book. New York, NY: Avery Publishing Group, 1997.

McMahon, F., et al. “Can garlic lower blood pressure? A pilot study,” Pharmacotherapy 1993; 13:406–407.

Orckhov, A., et al., “Effects of garlic on atherosclerosis,” Nutrition 1997; 13:656–63.

Pedraza-Chaverri, J., et al. “Garlic prevents hypertension induced by chronic inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis,” Life Sci 1998; 62:71–7.

Ried, K., et al., “Aged garlic extract reduces blood pressure in hypertensives: a dose-response trial,” Eur Jour Clin Nutr 2013; 67(1):64-70.

Ried, K., et al., “Effect of garlic on serum lipids: an updated meta-analysis,” Nutr Rev 2013; 71(5):282-99.

Rountree, R., Immunotics. New York, NY: Berkley Publishing Group, 2000.

Sendl, A., et al., “Inhibition of cholesterol synthesis in vitro by extracts and isolated compounds prepared from garlic and wild garlic,” Atherosclerosis 1992; 94:79–86.

Silagy, C, et al. “A meta-analysis of the effect of garlic on blood pressure,” Jour Hypertens 1994; 12:463–68.

Srivsatava, K., “Evidence for the mechanism by which garlic inhibitors platelet aggregation,” Prostaglandin Leukot Med 1986; 22: 13-21.

Steiner, M., et al., “Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract,” Jour Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1998; 31:904-08.

Sunter, W., “Warfarin and garlic,” Pharm Jour 1991; 246:722.

Vanderhock, J., et al., “Inhibition of fatty acid oxygenases by onion and garlic acts. Evidence for the mechanism by which these oils inhibit platelet aggregation,” Biochem Pharmacol 1980; 29:3169-73.

Yang, C., et al., “Mechanisms of inhibition of chemical toxicity and carcinogenesis by diallyl sulfide (DAS) and related compounds from garlic,” Jour Nutr 2001; 13193):S1041-S1045.

You, W., et al., “Allium vegetables and reduced risk of stomach cancer,” Jour Natl Cancer Inst 1989; 81(2):162-64.

Youn, H., et al., “Garlic (Allium sativum) extract inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced Toll-like receptors for dimerization,” Bio Psy Bio Technol Bio Chem 2008; 72(2):368-75.

Yu-Yan, Y., et al., “Cholesterol lowering effect of garlic extracts and organosulfur compounds: human and animal studies,” Jour Nutr 2001; 131:989S-993S.

 

Ginger

Ajith, T., et al., “Protective effect of Zingiber officinale Roscoe against anticancer drug doxorubicin-induced nephrotoxicity,” Food Chem Toxicol 2008; 46(9):3178-81.

Al-Amin, Z., et al., “Anti-diabetic and hypolipidaemic properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats,” Brit Jour Nutri 2006; 96(4):660-66.

Ali, B., et al., “Some phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe): a review of recent research,” Food Chem Toxicol 2008; 46(2):409-20.

Alizadeh-Navaei, R., et al., “Investigation of the effect of ginger on the lipid levels. A double blind controlled clinical trial,” Saudi Med Jour 2008; 29(9):1280-84.

Altman, R., et al., “Effects of a ginger extract on knee pain in patients with osteoarthritis,” Arthritis Rheum 2001; 44(11):2531-38.

Apariman, S., et al., “Effectiveness of ginger for prevention of nausea and vomiting after gynecological laparoscopy,” Jour Med Assoc Thai 2006; 89(12):2003-09.

Bhandari, U., et al., “Antihepatotoxic activity of ginger ethanol extract in rats,” Pharm Biol 2003; 41(1):68-71.

Black, C., et al., “Ginger (Zingiber officinale) reduces muscle pain caused by eccentric exercise,” Jour Pain 2010; 11(9):894-903.

Bliddal, H., et al., “A randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study of ginger extracts and ibuprofen in osteoarthritis,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2000; 8:9-12.

Bordia A., et al., “Effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum L.) on blood lipids, blood sugar, and platelet aggregation ion patients with coronary heart disease,” Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1997; 56(5):379-84.

Braun, L., and Cohen, M., (Eds.) Herbs and Natural Supplements. 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

Cady, R., et al., “Gelstat Migraine (sublinguially administered feverfew and ginger compound) for acute treatment of migraine when administered during the mild pain phase,” Med Sci Monitor Int Med Jour Exp Clin Res 2005; 11(9):P165-P169.

Chaiyakunapruk, N., “The efficacy of ginger for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a meta-analysis,” Amer Jour Obstet Gynecol 2006; 194(1):95-9.

Dabaghzadeh, F., et al., “Ginger for prevention or treatment of drug-induced nausea and vomiting,” Curr Clin Pharmacol 2014; 9(4):387-94.

El-Abhar, H., et al., “Modulating effect of ginger extract on rats with ulcerative colitis,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 2008; 118(3):367-72.

Ernst, E., “Efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials,” Brit Jour Anaesth 2000; 84(3):367-71.

Fuhrman, B., et al., “Ginger extract consumption reduces plasma cholesterol, inhibits LDL oxidation, and attenuates development of atherosclerosis in atherosclerotic, apolipoprotein E-deficient mice,” Jour Nutr 2000; 130(5):1124-31.

Ghayur, M., et al., “Pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of ginger in gastrointestinal disorders,” Dig Dis Sci 2005; 50(10):1889-97.

Glacosa, A., et al., “Can nausea and vomiting be treated with ginger extract?” Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2015; 19(7):1291-96.

Gonlachanvit, S., et al., “Ginger reduces hyperglycemia-evoked gastric dysrhythmias in healthy humans: possible role of endogenous prostaglandins,” Jour Pharmacol Exp Ther 2003; 307(3):1098-1103.

Gregory, P., et al., “Dietary supplements for osteoarthritis,” Amer Fam Physician 2008; 77(2):177-84.

Grontved, A., et al., “Ginger root against seasickness: a controlled trial on the open sea,” Acta Otolaryngol 1988; 105:45-49.

Gupta, Y., et al., “Reversal of pyrogallol-induced delay in gastric emptying in rats by ginger (Zingiber officinale),” Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 2001; 23(9):501-03.

Haniadka, R., et al., “Zingiber officinale (ginger) as an anti-emetic in cancer chemotherapy: a review,” Jour Altern Complet Med 2012; 18(5):440-44.

Hasai-Ranjbar, S., et al., “A systematic review of the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines used in the treatment of obesity,” World Jour Gastroenterol 2009; 15(25):3073-85.

Hasenohrol, R., et al., “Anxiolytic-like effect of combined extracts of Zingiber officinal and Ginkgo biloba in the elevated plus-maze,” Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1996; 53(2):271-75.

Heck, A., et al., “Potential interactions between alternative therapies and warfarin,” Amer Jour Health Syst Pharm 2000; 57(13):1221-27.

Huang, Q., et al., “Anti-5-hydroxytryptomine 3 effect of galanolactone, diterpenoid isolated from ginger,” Chem Pharm Bull 1991; 39(2):397-99.

Imanishi, N., et al., “Macrophage-mediated inhibitory effect of Zingiber officinale Rosc, a traditional oriental herbal medicine, on the growth of influenza A/Aichi/2/68 virus,” Amer Jour Chin Med 2006; 34(1):157-69.

Jeyakumar, S., et al., “Antioxidant activity of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) in rats feed a high fat diet,” Med Sci Res 1999; 27(5):341-44.

Kalava, A., et al., “Efficacy of ginger on intraoperative and postoperative nausea and vomiting in elective cesarean section patients,” Eur Jour Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2013; 169(2):184-88.

Langner, E., et al., “Ginger: history and use,” Adv Ther 1998; 15(1):25-44.

Lu, C., “Function of ginger on cerebral vascular disease and its gateway,” Chin Jour Clin Rehab 2005; 9(45):187-89.

Mahady, G., et al., “Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and the gingerols inhibit the growth of Cag A+ strains of Helicobacter pylori,Anticancer Res 2003; 23(5A):3699-3702.9-92.

Marx, W., et al., “Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting: a systematic literature review,” Nutri Rev 2013; 71(4):245-54.

Mindell, E., Smith, P., What You Must Know About Allergy Relief. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers, 2016.

Mozaffari-Khosravi, H., et al., “The effect of ginger powder supplementation on insulin resistance and the glycemic indices in patients with Type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,” Complem Ther Med 2014; 22(1):9-16.

Mustafa, T., et al., “Possible leads for arachidonic acid metabolism altering drug from natural products,” Jour Drug Dev 1990; 3(1):47-60.

Nostro, A., et al., “Effects of combining extracts (from propolis or Zingiber officinale) with clarithromycin on Helicobacter pylori,” Phytother Res 2006; 20(3):187-90.

Nurtjahja-Tjendraputra, E., et al., “Effective anti-platelet and COX-1 enzyme inhibitors from pungent constituents of ginger,” Thromb Res 2003; 111(4-5):259-65.

Phillips, S., et al., “Zingiber officinale (ginger)—an antiemetic for day case surgery,” Anaesthesia 1993; 48(8):715-17.

Platel, K., et al., “Studies on the influence of dietary species on food transit time in experimental rats,” Nutr Res 2001; 21(9):1309-14.

Rhode, J., et al., “Ginger inhibits cell growth and modulates angiogenic factors in ovarian cancer cells,” BMC Complet Altern Med 2007; 7:44.

Saenghong, N., et al., “Zingiber officinale improves cognitive function of the middle-aged healthy women,” Evid Based Comple Altern Med 2012; 2012:ID383062.

Schnitzler, P., et al., “Susceptibility of drug-resistant clinical herpes simplex virus type 1 stains to essential oils of ginger, thyme, hyssop, and sandalwood,” Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2007; 51(5):1859-62.

Shoji, N., et al., “Cardiotonic principles of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe),” Jour Pharm Sci 1982; 71(10):1174-75.

Therkleson, T., “Ginger compress therapy for adults with osteoarthritis,” Jour Adv Nurs 2010; 66(10):2225-33.

Thomson, M., et al., “The use of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) as a potential anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic agent,” Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2002; 67(6):475-78.

Vaes, L., et al., “Interactions of warfarin with garlic, ginger, ginkgo, or ginseng: nature of the evidence,” Ann Pharmacother 2000; 34(12):1478-82.

White, B., “Ginger: an overview,” Amer Fam Physician 2007; 75(11):1689-91.

Wu, K., et al., “Effects of ginger on gastric emptying and motility in healthy humans,” Eur Jour Gastrolenterol Hepatol 2008; 20(5):436-440.

Yamahara, J., et al., “The anti-ulcer effect in rats of ginger constituents,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 1988; 23(2-3):299-304.

 

Ginkgo Biloba

Akiba, S., et al., “Inhibitory effect of the leaf extract of ginkgo biloba on oxidative stress-induced platelet aggregation,” Biochem Mol Bio Int 1998; 46(6):1243-48.

Ao, Q., et al., “Protective effects of extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb761) on nerve cells after spinal cord injury in rats,” Spinal Cord 2006; 44(11):662-67.

Bhidayasiri, R., et al., “Evidence-based guideline: treatment of tardive syndromes: report of the Guideline Development Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology,” Neurology 2013; 81(5):463-69.

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.

Braun, L., and Cohen, M. Herbs and Natural Supplements, 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

Chang, H., et al., “Ginkgo biloba extract increases ocular blood flow velocity,” Jour Ocul Pharmaol Therapy 1999; 1593):233-40.

Chen, J., et al., “NRF-2 mediated hemoxygenase-1 expression, an antioxidant-independent mechanism, contributes to anti-atherogenesis and vascular protective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract,” Atherosclerosis 2011; 214:301-09.

Chevez, M., et al., “Evidence-based drug: herbal interactions,” Life Sci 2006; 78(18):2146-57.

Doruk, A., et al., “A placebo-controlled study of extract of ginkgo biloba added to clozapine in patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia,” Int Clin Psychopharmacol 2008; 23(4):223-27.

Eli, R., et al., “An adjunctive preventative treatment for cancer: ultraviolet light and ginkgo biloba, together with other antioxidants, are a safe and powerful, but largely ignored, treatment option for the prevention of cancer,” Med Hypothesis 2006; 66(6):1152-56.

Esposito, M., et al., “Ginkgolid B complex efficacy for brief prophylaxis of migraine in school-aged children: an open-label study,” Neurol Sci 2011; 32:79-81.

Gulec, M., et al, “The effects of ginkgo biloba extract on tissue adenosine deaminase, xanthine oxidase, myeloperoxidase, malondialdehyde, and nitric oxide in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity,” Toxicol Ind Health 2006; 22(3):125-30.

Haramski, N., et al., “Effects of natural antioxidant ginkgo biloba extract (EGB 761) on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury,” Free Raddic Biol Med 1994; 1696):789-94.

Horsch, S., et al., “Ginkgo biloba special extract EGb761 in the treatment of peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD): a review based on randomized controlled studies,” Int Jour Clin Pharmacol Ther 2004; 42(2):63-72.

Ke, T., et al., “Effect of acetazolamide and Ginkgo biloba on the human pulmonary vascular response to an acute altitude ascent,” High Alt Med Biol 2013; 14(2):162-67.

Kleijnen, J., et al., “Ginkgo biloba for cerebral insufficiency,” Brit Jour Clin Pharmcol 1992; 34(4):352-58.

LeBars, P., et al., “A placebo-controlled, double-blind, random trial of an extract of ginkgo biloba for dementia,” JAMA 1997; 278:1327-32.

LeBars, P., et al., “Ginkgo biloba for dementia,” JAMA 1997; 278:1327-32.

Li, X., et al., “Effect of Ginkgo leaf extract on vascular endothelial function in patients with early stage diabetic nephropathy,” Chin Jour Integr Med 2009; 15:26-9.

Meyer, B., et al., “A multi-center, double-blind, drug vs. placebo study of gingko biloba extract in the treatment of tinnitus,” Prese Med 1986; 5:1562-64.

Naidu, M., et al., “Protective effect of Ginkgo biloba extract against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxcity in mice,” Indian Jour Exp Biol 2002; 40(8):894-900.

Packer, L., The Antioxidant Miracle. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 1999.

Parsad, D., et al, “Effective of oral Ginkgo biloba in treating limited slowly spreading vitiligo,” Clin Exp Dermatol 2003; 28(3):285-87.

Sikora, R., et al., “Ginkgo biloba extract in the therapy of erectile dysfunction,” Jour Urol 1989; 141:188A.

Tambourini, A., et al., “Value of standardized Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761) in the management of congestive symptoms of premenstrual syndrome,” Rev Fer Gynecol Obstet 1993; 88(7-9):447-57.

Tang, Y., et al., “The effect off Ginkgo biloba extract on the expression of PKC-alpha in the inflammatory cells and the level of IL-5 in induced sputum of asthmatic patients,” Jour Huazhong Univ Sci Techolog Med Sci 2007; 27(4):375-80.

von Boetticher A., “Ginkgo biloba extract in the treatment of tinnitus: a systematic review,” Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2011; 7:441-47.

Woelk, H., et al., “Ginkgo biloba special extract EGb761 (R) in generalized anxiety disorder and adjustment disorder with anxious mood: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,” Jour Psychiatr Res 2007; 41:472-80.

 

Ginseng

American Ginseng

Adams, L., et al., “Complementary and alternative medicine: applications and implications for cognitive functioning in elderly populations,” Alt Ther 2000; 7(2):52-61.

Andrade, A., et al., “Pharmacokinetic and metabolic effects of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) in healthy volunteers receiving the HIV protease inhibitor indinavir,” BMC Complement Altern Med 2008; 8:50.

Ang-Lee, M., et al., “Herbal medicines and perioperative care,” JAMA 2001; 286(2):208-26.

Barton, D., et al., “Pilot study of Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng) to improve cancer-related fatigue: a randomized, double-blind, dose-finding evaluation: NCCTG trial N03CA,” Support Care Cancer 2010; 18(2):179-87.

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.

Braun, L., and Cohen, M. Herbs and Natural Supplements, 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

Carai, M., et al., “Potential use of medicinal plants in the treatment of alcoholism,” Fitoterapia 2000; 71:S38-S42.

Collins, J., What’s Your Menopause Type? Roseville, CA: Prima Publishing, 2000.

Dey, L., et al., “Anti-hyperglycemic effects of ginseng: comparison between root and berry,” Phytomedicine 2003; 10(6-7):600-05.

Dougherty, U., et al., “American ginseng suppresses Western diet-promoted tumorigenesis in model of inflammation-associated colon cancer: role of EGFR,” BMC Complement Altern Med 2011; 11:111.

Fu, Y., et al., “Chronic ginseng consumption attenuates age-associated oxidative stress in rats,” Jour Nutr 2003; 133(11):3603-09.

Heck, A., et al., “Potential interactions between alternative therapies and warfarin,” Amer Jour Health Syst Pharm 2000; 57(13):1221-27.

Hsu, C., et al., “American ginseng supplementation attenuates creatine kinase level induced by submaximal exercise in human beings,” World Jour Gastroenterol 2005; 11(34):5327-31.

Ichikawa, T., et al., “American ginseng preferentially suppresses STAT/iNOS signaling in activated macrophages,” Jour Ethnopharmocal 2009; 125(1):145-50.

Izzo, A., et al., “Interactions between herbal medicines and prescribed drugs: a systematic review,” Drugs 2001; 61(15):2163-75.

Karmazyn, M., et al., “Therapeutic potential of ginseng in the management of cardiovascular disorders,” Drugs 2011; 71(15):1989-2008.

King, M., et al., “Extraction-dependent effects of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium) on human breast cancer cell proliferation and estrogen receptor activation,” Integr Cancer Ther 2006; 5(3):236-43.

Klatz, R., The New Anti-Aging Revolution. Laguna Beach, CA: Basic Health Publications, 2003.

Lyon, M., et al., “Effect of the herbal extract combination Panax quinquefolius and Ginkgo biloba on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a pilot study,” Jour Psychiatry Neurosci 2001; 26(3):221-28.

Mantle, D., et al., “Medicinal plant extracts for the treatment of dementia: a review of their pharmacology, efficacy, and tolerability,” CNS Drugs 2000; 13:201-13.

Mantle, D., et al., “Therapeutic applications of medicinal plants in the treatment of breast cancer: a review of their pharmacology, efficacy and tolerability,” Adverse Drug React Toxicol Rev 2000; 19(3):2223-240.

McElhaney, J., et al. “Efficacy of COLD-fX in the prevention of respiratory symptoms in community-dwelling adults: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled trial,” Jour Altern Complement Med 2006; 12(2):153-57.

Mucalo, I., et al., “Effect of American ginseng (panax quinquefolius L.) on arterial stiffness in subjects with diabetes and concomitant hypertension,” Jour Ethnopharmaco. 2013; 150(1):148-53.

Ossoukhova, A., et al., “Improved working memory performance following administration of a single dose of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) to healthy middle-age adults,” Hum Psychopharmacol 2015 ;30(2):108-22.

Predy, G., et al., “Efficacy of an extract of North American ginseng containing poly-furanosyl-pyranosyl-saccharides for preventing upper respiratory tract infections: a randomized controlled trial,” CMAJ 2005; 173(9):1043-48.

Scholey, A., et al., “Effects of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) on neurocognitive function: an acute, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study,” Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2010; 212(3):345-56.

Sen, S., et al., “Preventative effects of North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium) on diabetic nephropathy.” Phytomedicine. 2012;19(6):494-505.

Sen, S., et al., “Preventative effects of North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium) on diabetic retinopathy and cardiomyopathy,” Phytother Res 2013; 27(2):290-98.

Sung, J., et al., “Effects of red ginseng upon vascular endothelial function in patients with essential hypertension,” Amer Jour Chin Med 2000; 28(2):205-16.

Vaes, L., et al., “Interactions of warfarin with garlic, ginger, ginkgo, or ginseng: nature of the evidence,” Ann Pharmacother 2000; 34(12):1478-82.

Vladimir, V., et al., “American ginseng (Panax quinquifolius L) reduces postprandial glycemia in nondiabetic subjects and subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Arch Intern Med 2000; 160(7):1009-13.

Vohra, S., et al., “Safety and tolerability of North American ginseng extract in the treatment of pediatric upper respiratory tract infection: a phase II randomized, controlled trial of 2 dosing schedules,” Pediatrics 2008; 122(2):e402-e410.

Vuksan, V., et al., “American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L) reduces postprandial glycemia in nondiaetic subjects and subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Arch Intern Med 2000; 160:1009-13.

Vuksan, V., et al., “Konjac-mannan and American ginseng: emerging alternative therapies for type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Jour Amer Coll Nutr 2001; 20(5):370S-380S.

Vuksan, V., et al., “Similar postprandial glycemic reactions with escalation of dose and administration time of American ginseng in type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes Care 2000; 23:1221-26.

Wang, M., et al., “A proprietary extract from North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium) enhances IL-2 and IFN-gamma productions in murine spleen cells induced by Con-A,” Int Immunopharmacol 2004; 4(2):311-15.

Wargovich, M., “Colon cancer chemoprevention with ginseng and other botanicals,” Jour Korean Med Sci 2001; 16 Suppl:S81-S86.

Yeh, G., et al., “Systematic review of herbs and dietary supplements for glycemic control in diabetes,” Diabetes Care 2003; 26(4):1277-94.

Yuan, C., et al., “Brief communication: American ginseng reduces warfarin's effect in healthy patients: a randomized, controlled Trial,” Ann Intern Med 2004; 141(1):23-7.

 

Asian Ginseng

Adams, L., et al., “Complementary and alternative medicine: applications and implications for cognitive functioning in elderly populations,” Alt Ther 2000; 7(2):52-61.

Ang-Lee, M., et al., “Herbal medicines and perioperative care,” JAMA 2001; 286(2):208-16.

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.

Braun, L., and Cohen, M. Herbs and Natural Supplements, 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

Bucci, L., “Selected herbals and human exercise performance,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2000; 72(2 Suppl):624S-636S.

Buettner, C., et al., “Systematic review of the effects of ginseng on cardiovascular risk factors,” Ann Pharmacother 2006; 40(1):83-95.

Coleman, C., et al., “The effects of Panax ginseng on quality of life,” Jour Clin Pharm Ther 2003; 28(1):5-15.

Ernst, E., “The risk-benefit profile of commonly used herbal therapies: ginkgo, St. John's wort, ginseng, echinacea, saw palmetto, and kava,” Ann Intern Med 2002; 136(1):42-53.

Fugh-Berman, A., “Herb-drug interactions,” Lancet 2000; 355:134-38.     

Gross, D., et al., “Ginseng improves pulmonary functions and exercise capacity in patients with COPD,” Monaldi Arch Chest Dis 2002; 57(5-6):242-46.

Hartley, D., et al., “Gincosan (a combination of Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng): the effects on mood and cognition of 6 and 12 weeks' treatment in post-menopausal women,” Nutr Neurosci 2004; 7(5-6):325-33.

Heck, A., et al., “Potential interactions between alternative therapies and warfarin,” Amer Jour Health Syst Pharm 2000; 57(13):1221-27.

Heo, J., et al., “An open-label trial of Korean red ginseng as an adjuvant treatment for cognitive impairment in patients with Alzheimer's disease,” Eur Jour Neurol 2008; 15(8):865-68.

Im G., et al. “Protective effect of Korean red ginseng extract on cisplatin ototoxicity in HE1-OC1 auditory cells,” Phytother Res 2010; 24:614-21.

Izzo, A., et al., “Interactions between herbal medicines and prescribed drugs: a systematic review,” Drugs 2001; 61(15):2163-75.

Kennedy, D., et al., “Modulation of cognition and mood following administration of single doses of Ginkgo biloba, ginseng, and a ginkgo/ginseng combination to heathy young adults,” Physiol Behav 2002; 75:739-51.

Kim, H., et al., “Comparison of the effects of Korean ginseng and heat-processed Korean ginseng on diabetic oxidative stress,” Amer Jour Chin Med 2008; 36(5):999-1004.

Kim, J.H., et al., “Protective effects of ginseng sapnonins on 3-nitropropionic acid-induced striatal degeneration in rats,” Neuropharmacol 2005; 48(5):743-56.

Kim, N., et al., “Antidepressant-like effect of altered Korean red ginseng in mice,” Beh Med 2011; 37:42-6.

Kim, S., et al., “Effects of Panex ginseng extract on lipid metabolism in humans,” Pharmacol Res 2003; 48(5):511-13.

Kwon, Y., et al., “The effects of Korean red ginseng (ginseng radix rubra) on liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy in dogs,” Jour Vet Sci 2003; 4(1):83-92.

Lee, J., “Panex ginseng induces human Type-I collagen synthesis through activation of Smad signaling,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 2007; 109(1):29-34.

Mantle, D., et al., “Medicinal plant extracts for the treatment of dementia: a review of their pharmacology, efficacy, and tolerability,” CNS Drugs 2000; 13:201-13.

Park, K., et al., “Possible role of ginsenoside RB1 on regulation of rat liver triglycerides,” Biol Pharm Bull 2002; 25(4):457-60.

Park, S., et al., “Rescue of Helicobacter pylori-induced cytotoxicity by red ginseng,” Dig Dis Sci 2005; 50(7):1218-27.

Price, A., et al., “Korean red ginseng effective for treatment of erectile dysfunction,” Jour Fam Pract 2003; 52(1):20-1.

Reay, J., et al., “Panax ginseng (G115) improves aspects of working memory performance and subjective ratings of calmness in healthy young adults,” Hum Psychopharmaco 2010; 25(6):462-71.

Smith, M., et al., “An open trial of nifedipine-herb interactions: nifedipine with St. John’s wort, ginseng, or Ginkgo biloba,” Clin Pharmacol Ther 2001; 69(2):86.

Sung, H., et al., “Korean red ginseng slows depletion of CD4 T cells in human immunodeficiency virus-1 infected patients,” Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2005; 12(4):497-501.

Vaes, L., et al., “Interactions of warfarin with garlic, ginger, ginkgo, or ginseng: nature of the evidence,” Ann Pharmacother 2000; 34(12):1478-82.

Vayghan, H., et al., “Preventive and therapeutic roles of ginseng - focus on colon cancer,” Asian Pac Jour Cancer Prev 2014; 15(2):585-88.

Vuksan, V., et al., “Korean red ginseng (Panex ginseng) improves glucose and insulin regulation in well-controlled, type 2: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of efficacy and safety,” Nutra Med Cardiovasc Dis 2008; 18(1):46-56.

 

Goldenseal

Abidi, P., et al., “The medicinal plant goldenseal is a natural LDL-lowering agent with multiple bioactive components and new action mechanisms,” Jour Lipid Res 2006; 47(10):2134-47.

An, Y., et al., “The use of berberine for women with polycystic ovary syndrome undergoing IVF treatment,” Clin Endocrinol (Oxf.) 2014; 80(3):425-31.

Ang, E., et al., “Evaluating the role of alternative therapy in burn wound management: randomized trial comparing moist exposed burn ointment with conventional methods in the management of patients with second-degree burns,” Med Gen Med 2001; 3:3.

Asai, M., et al., “Berberine alters the processing of Alzheimer’s amyloid precursor protein to decrease a-beta secretion,” Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2007; 352(2):498-502.

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.

Braun, L., and Cohen, M. Herbs and Natural Supplements, 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

Cech, N., et al., “Quorum quenching and antimicrobial activity of goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis) against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA),” Planta Med 2012; 78(14):1556-61.

Chen, S., et al. “Mechanism study of goldenseal-associated DNA damage,” Toxicol Lett 2013; 221(1):64-72.

Clement-Kruzel, S., et al., “Immune modulation of macrophage pro-inflammatory response by goldenseal and Astragalus extracts,” Jour Med Food 2008; 11(3):493-98.

Gupte, S., “Use of berberine in the treatment of giardiasis,” Amer Jour Dis Child 1975; 129(7):866.

Hwang, B., et al., “Antimicrobial constituents from goldenseal (the Rhizomes of Hydrastis canadensis) against selected oral pathogens,” Planta Med 2003; 69(7):623-27.

Inbaraj, J., et al., “Photochemistry and photocytotoxicity of alkaloids from Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis L.). 2. Palmatine, hydrastine, canadine, and hydrastinine,” Chem Res Toxicol 2006; 19(6):739-44.

Janbaz, K., et al., “Studies on preventive and curative effects of berberine on chemical-induced hepatotoxicity in rodents,” Fitoterapia 2000; 71:25-33.

Jiang, X., et al.,”Effects of berberine gelatin on recurrent aphthous stomatitis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in a Chinese cohort,” Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Path Oral Radiol 2013; 115(2):212-17.

Kim, S., et al., “Berberine inhibits TPA-induced MMP-9 and IL-6 expression in normal human keratinocytes,” Phytomedicine 2008; 15(5):340-47.

Klatz, R., The New Anti-Aging Revolution. Laguna Beach, CA: Basic Health Publications, 2003.

Kulkarni, S., et al., “On the mechanism of antidepressant-like action of berberine chloride,” Eur Jour Pharmacol 2008; 589(1-3):163-72.

Lau, C., et al., “Cardiovascular actions of berberine,” Cardiovasc Drug Rev 2001; 19(3):234-44.

Lee, C., et al., “Berberine suppresses inflammatory agents-induced interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production via the inhibition of I(kappa)B degradation in human lung cells,” Pharmacol Res 2007; 56(3):193-201.

Li, G., et al., “Berberine inhibits acute radiation intestinal syndrome in human with abdomen radiotherapy,” Med Oncol 2010; 27(3):9919-25.

Li, H., et al., “Effect of berberine on bone mineral density in SAMP6 as a senile osteoporosis model,” Biol Pharm Bull. 2003; 26(1):110-11.

Liu, Y., et al., “Protective effects of berberine on radiation-induced lung injury via intracellular adhesion molecular-1 and transforming growth factor-beta-1 in patients with lung cancer,” Eur Jour Cancer 2008; 44(16):2425-32.

Mahady, G., et al., “In vitro susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to isoquinoline alkaloids from Sanguinaria canadensis and Hydrastis Canadensis,” Phytother Res 2003; 17(3):217-21.

Palanisamy, A., “Photosensitivity reaction in a woman using an herbal supplement containing ginseng, goldenseal, and bee pollen,” Jour Toxicol Clin Toxicol 2003; 41(6):865-67.

Periera da Silva A., et al., “Antioxidants in medicinal plant extracts. A research study of the antioxidant capacity of Crataegus, Hamamelis and Hydrastis,” Phytother Res 2000; 14(8):612-16.

Sandhu, R., et al., “Influence of goldenseal root on the pharmacokinetics of indinavir,” Jour Clin Pharmacol 2003; 43(11):1283-88.

Scazzocchio, F., et al., “Antibacterial activity of Hydrastis canadensis extract and its major isolated alkaloids,” Planta Med 2001; 67(6):561-64.

Teodoro, J., et al., “Berberine reverts hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction in high-fat fed rats: a possible role for SirT3 activation,” Mitochondrion 2013; 13(6):636-46.

Wang, Y., et al., “Berberine and plant sterols synergistically inhibit cholesterol absorption enhancers,” Atherosclerosis 2010; 209(1):11-17.

Weber, H., et al., “Chemical comparison of goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis L.) root powder from three commercial suppliers,” Jour Agric Food Chem 2003; 51(25):7352-58.

Werbach, M., Botanical Influences on Illness. Tarzana, CA: Third Line Press, Inc, 2000.

Wu, X., et al., “Effects of berberine on the blood concentration of cyclosporine A in renal transplanted recipients: clinical and pharmacokinetic study,” Eur Jour Clin Pharmacol 2005; 61(8):567-72.

Yin, J., et al., “Effects of berberine of glucose metabolism in vitro,” Metabolism 2002; 51(11):1439-43.

Zeng, X., et al., “Efficacy and safety of berberine for congestive heart failure secondary to ischemic or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy,” Amer Jour Cardiol 2003; 92(2):173-76.

Zhang, H., et al., “Berberine lowers blood glucose in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients through increasing insulin receptor expression,” Metabolism 2010; 59(2):285-92.

 

Gotu Kola

Ahshawat, M., et al., “Preparation and characterization of herbal creams for improvement of skin viscoelastic properties,” Int Jour Cosmet Sci 2008; 30(3):183-93.

Allegra, C., “Comparative capillaroscopic study of certain bioflavonoids and total triterpenic fraction of ccentella asiatica in venous insufficiency,” Clin Therap 1984; 110:555-59.

Bonnett, G., “Treatment of localized cellulitis with Asiaticoside madecassol,” Progr Ed 1974; 102:109010.

Brinkhaus, B., et al., “Chemical, pharmacological and clinical profile of the East Asian medical plant Centella asiatica,” Phytomed 2000; 7(5):427-48.

Bylka, W., et al., “Centella asiatica in dermatology: an overview,” Phytother Res 2014; 28(8):1117-24.

Cauffield, J., et al., “Dietary supplements used in the treatment of depression, anxiety, and sleep disorders,” Lippincotts Prim Care Pract 1999; 3(3):290-304.

Cesarone, M., et al., “Evaluation of treatment of diabetic microangiopathy with total triterpenic fraction of Centella asiatica: a clinical prospective randomized trial with a microcirculatory model,” Angiology 2001; 52(10 suppl 2):S49-S54.

Cesarone, M., et al., “Flight microangiopathy in medium- to long-distance flights: prevention of edema and microcirculation alterations with total triterpenic fraction of Centella asiatica,” Angiology 2001; 52 Suppl 2:S33-S337.

Cesarone, M., et al., “Increase in echogenicity of echolucent carotid plaques after treatment with total triterpenic fraction of Centella asiatica: a prospective, placebo-controlled, randomized trial,” Angiology 2001; 52(10 suppl 2):S19-S25.

Chandrika, U., et al., “Gotu kola (Centella asiatica): nutritional properties and plausible health benefits,” Adv Food Nutr Res 2015; 76:125-57.

Chen, Y., et al., “The effect of tetrandrine and extracts of Centella asiatica on acute radiation dermatitis in rats,” Biol Pharm Bull 1999; 22(7):703-06.

Danese, P., et al., “Allergic contact dermatitis due to Centella asiatica extract,” Contact Dermatitis 1994; 31(3):201.

Herbert, D., et al., “In vitro experiments with Centella asiatica: investigation to elucidate the effect of an indigenously prepared powder of this plant on the acid- fastness and viability of M. tuberculosis,” Indian Jour Lepr 1994; 66(1):65-8.

Incandela, L., et al., “Treatment of diabetic microangiopathy and edema with total triterpenic fraction of Centella asiatica: a prospective, placebo-controlled randomized study,” Angiology 2001; 52(10 Suppl 2):S27-S31.

Jana, U., et al., “A clinical study on the management of generalized anxiety disorder with Centella asiatica,” Nepal Med Coll Jour 2010; 12(1):8-11.

Jorge, O., et al., “Hepatotoxicity associated with the ingestion of Centella asiatica,” Rev Esp Enferm Dig 2005; 97:115-24.

Pittella, F., et al., “Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of Centella asiatica (L) Urb,” Int Jour Mol Sci 2009; 10(9):3713-21.

Pointel, J., et al., “Titrated extract of Centella asiatrica (TECA) in the treatment of venous insufficiency of the lower limbs,” Angiology 1987; 38:46-50.

Ramanathan, M., et al., “Neuroprotective evaluation of standardized extract of Centella asciatica in monosodium glutamate treated rats,” Indian Jour Exp Biol 2007; 45(5):425-31.

Sarma, D., et al., “Anti-stress activity of Tinospora cordifolia and Centella asiatica extracts,” Phytother Res 1996; 10(2):181-89.

Sasaki, S., et al., “Studies on the mechanism of action of asiaticoside (Madecassol) on experimental granulation tissue and cultured fibroblasts and its clinical application in systemic scleroderma,” Acta Derm Venereol 1972; 52(2):141-50.

Shukla, A., et al., “Asiaticoside-induced elevation of antioxidant levels in healing wounds,” Phytother Res. 1999; 13(1):50-4.

Subathra, M., et al., “Emerging role of Centella asiatica in improving age-related neurological antioxidant status,” Exp Gerontol 2005; 40(8-9):707-15.

Tenailleau, A., “On 80 cases of cellulitis treated with the standard extract of Centella asiatica,” Quest Med 1978; 31:919-24.

Widgerow, A., et al., “New innovations in scar management,” Aesthetic Plast Surg 2000; 24:227-34.

Yoosook, C., et al., “Anti-herpes simplex virus activities of crude water extracts of Thai medicinal plants,” Phytomedicine 2000; 6(6):411-19.

Young, G., et al., “Creams for preventing stretch marks in pregnancy,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000; (2):CD000066.

 

Green Coffee Bean Extract

Bharath, W., et al., “Determination of antibacterial activity of green coffee bean extract on periodontogenic bacteria like Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: An in vitro study,” Contemp Clin Dent 2015; 6(2):166-69.

Blum, J., et al., “Effect of a green decaffeinated coffee extract on glycemia: a pilot prospective clinical study,” Nutrafoods2007; 6(3):13–7.

Choi, B., et al., “Green coffee bean extract improves obesity by decreasing body fat in high-fat diet-induced obese mice,” Asian Pac Jour Trop Med 2016; 9(7):635-43.

Farah, A., et al., “Chlorogenic acids from green coffee extract are highly bioavailable in humans,” Jour Nutri2008; 138(12):2309–15.

Hemmerle, H., et al., “Chlorogenic acid and synthetic chlorogenic acid derivatives: novel inhibitors of hepatic glucose-6-phosphate translocase,” Jour Med Chem1997; 40(2):137–45.

Johnston, K., et al., “Coffee acutely modifies gastrointestinal hormone secretion and glucose tolerance in humans: glycemic effects of chlorogenic acid and caffeine,” Amer Jour Clin Nutri2003; 78(4):728–33.

Monteiro, M., et al., “Chlorogenic acid compounds from coffee are differentially absorbed and metabolized in humans,” Jour Nutr 2007; 137(10):2196–2201.

Ochiai, R., et al., “Green coffee bean extract improves human vasoreactivity,” Hypertens Res 2004; 27(10):731-37.

Onakpoya, I., et al., “The use of green coffee extract as a weight loss supplement: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials,” Gastroenterol Res Pract 2011; 2011: 382852.

Revuelta-Iniesta, R., et al., “Consumption of green coffee reduces blood pressure and body composition by Influencing 11β-HSD1 enzyme activity in healthy individuals: A pilot crossover study using green and black coffee,” Biomed Res Int 2014; 2014:482704.

Shimoda, H., et al., “Inhibitory effect of green coffee bean extract on fat accumulation and body weight gain in mice,” BMC Complement Altern Med 2006; 6(9).

Thom, E., “The effect of chlorogenic acid enriched coffee on glucose absorption in healthy volunteers and its effect on body mass when used long-term in overweight and obese people,” Jour Int Med Res2007; 35(6):900–08.

Watanabe, T., et al., “The blood pressure-lowering effect and safety of chlorogenic acid from green coffee bean extract in essential hypertension,” Clin Exp Hyperten 2006; 28(5):439–49.

 

Green Tea and EGCG

Baladia, E., et al., “Effect of green tea or green tea extract consumption on body weight and body composition: systematic review and meta-analysis,” Nutr Hosp. 2014; 29(3):479-90.

Bettuzzi, S., et al., “Chemoprevention of human prostate cancer by oral administration of green tea catechins in volunteers with high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia: a preliminary report from a one-year proof-of-principle study,” Cancer Res 2006; 66(2):1234-40.

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.

Bogdanski, P., et al., “Green tea extract reduces blood pressure, inflammatory biomarkers, and oxidative stress and improves parameters associated with insulin resistance in obese, hypertensive patients,” Nutri Res 2012; 32:421-47.

Borrelli, F., et al., “Systematic review: green tea and gastrointestinal cancer risk,” Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2004; 19(5):497-510.

Boschmann, M., et al., “The effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate on thermogenesis and fat oxidation in obese men: a pilot study,” Jour Am Coll Nutr 2007; 26(4):389S-395S.

Braun, L., and Cohen, M.  Herbs and Natural Supplements, 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

Chang, C., et al., “Inhibitory effects of polyphenolic catechins from Chinese green tea on HIV reverse transcriptase activity,” Jour Biomed Psy 1994; 1(3):163-66.

Cooper, R., et al., “Medicinal benefits of green tea: Part I. Review of noncancer health benefits,” Jour Altern Complement Med 2005; 11(3):521-28.

Fritz, H., et al., “Green tea and lung cancer: a systemic review,” Integr Cancer Ther 2013; 12(1):7-24.

Garcia, F., et al., “Apoptosis induction by green tea compounds in cervical cancer cells,” Eur Jour Cancer Suppl 2006; 4(1):58.

Heck, A., et al., “Potential interactions between alternative therapies and warfarin,” Amer Jour Health Syst Pharm 2000; 57(13):1221-27.

Hibasami, H., et al., “Induction of apoptosis in human stomach cancer cells by green tea catechins,” Oncol Rep 1998; 5(2):527-29.

Hsu, C., et al., “Does supplementation with green tea extract improve insulin resistance in obese type 2 diabetics? A randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled clinical trial,” Altern Med Rev 2011; 16(2):157-63.

Hursel, K., et al., “The effects of green tea on weight loss and weight maintenance: a meta-analysis,” Int Jour Obesity 2009; 33:956-61.

Imai, K., et al., “Cancer-preventive effects of drinking green tea among a Japanese population,” Prev Med 1997; 2696):769-75.

James, K., et al., Potential role of the mitochondria as a target for the hepatotoxic effects of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate in mice,” Food Chem Toxicol 2018; 111:302-09.

Jian, L., et al., “Protective effect of green tea against prostate cancer: a case-control study in southeast China,” Inter Jour Cancer 2004; 108(1):130-35.

Jin, X., et al., “Green tea consumption and liver disease: a systematic review,” Liver Intern 2008; 28(7):990-96.

Khalesi, S., et al., “Green tea catechins and blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials,” Eur Jour Nutr 2014; 53(6):1299-311.

Kim, H., et al., New insights into the mechanisms of polyphenols beyond antioxidant properties; lessons from the green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin 3-gallate,” Redox Biol 2014; 2:187-95.

Kimura, K., et al., “L-Theanine reduces psychological and physiological stress responses,” Biol Psychol 2007; 74(1):39-45.

Klatz, R., The New Anti-Aging Revolution. Laguna Beach, CA: Basic Health Publications, 2003.

Koo, S., et al., “Green tea as inhibitor of the intestinal absorption of lipids: potential mechanism for its lipid-lowering effect,” Jour Nutr Biochem 2007; 18(3):179-83.

Kovacs, E., et al., “Effects of green tea on weight maintenance after body-weight loss,” Brit Jour Nutr 2004; 91(3):431-37.

Kuriyama, S., et al., “Green tea consumption and mortality due to cardiovascular disease, cancer and all causes in Japan: the Ohsaki study,” JAMA 2006; 296(10):1255-65.

Liu, K., et al., “Effect of green tea on glucose control and insulin sensitivity: a meta-analysis of 17 randomized controlled trials,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2013; 98(2):340-48.

Low Dog, T., et al., “Traditional and alternative therapies for breast cancer,” Alt Ther 2001; 7(3):36-47.

Luo, M., et al., “Inhibition of LDL oxidation by green tea extract,” Lancet 1997; 349:360-61.

McKenna, D., et al., “Green tea monograph,” Alt Ther 2000; 6(3):61-84.

Nagao, T., et al., “A green tea extract high in catechins reduces body fat and cardiovascular risks in humans,” Obesity 2007; 15(6):1473-83.

Narotzki, B., et al., “Green tea: a promising natural product in oral health,” Arch Oral Biol 2012; 57(5):429-35.

Quillin, P., Beating Cancer With Nutrition. Tulsa, OK: Nutrition Times Press, Inc, 2000.

Rakel. Integrative Medicine. 3rd Ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders, 2012.

Ryu, O., et al., “Effects of green tea consumption on inflammation, insulin resistance and pulse wave velocity in type 2 diabetes patients,” Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2006; 71(3):356-58.

Sano, T., et al., “Green tea and gastric cancer,” NEJM 2001; 344(9):675-76.

Sasazuki, S., et al., “Relation between green tea consumption and the severity of coronary atherosclerosis among Japanese men and women,” Ann Epidemiol 2000; 10:401-08.

Setiawan, V., et al., “Protective effect of green tea on the risks of chronic gastritis and stomach cancer,” Int Jour Cancer 2001; 92(4):600-04.

Shankar, S., et al., “EGCG inhibits growth, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis of pancreatic cancer,” Front Biosci 2008; 13:440-52.

Steptoe, A., et al., “The effects of chronic tea intake on platelet activation and inflammation: a double-blind placebo controlled trial,” Atherosclerosis  2007; 193(2):277-82.

Trudel, D., et al., “Green tea for ovarian cancer prevention and treatment: a systemic review of the in vitro, in vivo and epidemiological studies,” Gynecol Oncol 2012; 126(3):491-98.

Tsubono, Y., et al., “Green tea and the risk of gastric cancer in Japan,” NEJM 2001; 344(9):632-36.

Vinson, J., et al., “Green and black teas inhibit atherosclerosis by lipid, antioxidant, and fibrinolytic mechanisms,” Jour Agric Food Chem 2004; 52(11):3661-65.

Wargovich, M., et al., “Herbals, cancer prevention and health,” Jour Nutr 2001; 131(11 Suppl):3034S-3036S.

Werbach, M., Botanical Influences on Illness. Tarzana, CA: Third Line Press, Inc, 2000.

Westerterp-Plantenga, M., et al., “Body weight and weight maintenance in relation to habitual caffeine intake and green tea,” Obes Res 2005; 13(7):1195-204.

Yang, G., et al., “Prospective cohort study of green tea consumption and colorectal cancer risk in women,” Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2007; 16(6):1219-23.

Yuan, J., “Cancer prevention by green tea: evidence from epidemiologic studies,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2013; 98(6 Suppl):1676S-1681S.

Yuan, J., “Green tea and prevention of esophageal and lung cancers,” Mol Nutr Food Res 2011; 55(6):886-904.

Zhang, M., et al., “Green tea consumption enhances survival of epithelial ovarian cancer,” Int Jour Cancer 2004; 112(3):465-69.

Zheng, X., et al., “Effects of green tea catechins with or without caffeine on glycemic control in adults: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2013; 97(4):750-62.

Zhou, B., et al., “The association of tea consumption with ovarian cancer risk: a meta-analysis,” Amer Jour Obstet Gynecol 2007; 197(6):594.e1-6.

 

Gugulipid

Al Faraj, S., “Antagonism of the anticoagulant effect of warfarin caused by the use of Commiphora molmol as a herbal medication: a case report,” Ann Trop Med Parasitol 2005; 99:219-20.

Almazari, I., et al., “Cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic potential of guggulsterone,” Top Curr Chem 2013; 329:35-60.

Antonio, J., et al., “Effects of a standardized guggulsterone phosphate supplement on body composition in overweight adults: A pilot study,” Curr Ther Res 1999; 60:220-27.

Arora, R., et al., “Isolation of a crystalline steroidal compound from Commiphora mukul & its anti-inflammatory activity,” Indian Jour Exp Biol 1971; 9(3):403-04.

Baldwa, V., et al., “Effect of Commiphora mukul (guggul) on fibrinolytic activity and platelet aggregation in coronary artery disease,” Rajas Med Jour 1980; 19(2):84-6.

Beg, M., et al., “A study of effect of guggulsterone on hyperlipidemia of secondary glomerulopathy,” Indian Jour Physiol Pharmacol 1996; 40(3):237-40.

Bhatt, A., et al., “Conceptual and methodologic challenges of assessing the short-term efficacy of Guggulu in obesity: data emergent from a naturalistic clinical trial,” Jour Postgrad Med 1995; 41(1):5-7.

Bordia, A., et al., “Effect of gum guggulu on fibrinolysis and platelet adhesiveness in coronary heart disease,” Indian Jour Med Res 1979; 70:992-96.

Burris, T., et al., “The hypolipidemic natural product guggulsterone is a promiscuous steroid receptor ligand,” Mol Pharmacol 2005; 67(3):948-54.

Cornick, C., et al., “Identification of a novel agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha and gamma that may contribute to the anti-diabetic activity of guggulipid in Lep(ob)/Lep(ob) mice,” Jour Nutr Biochem 2009; 20(10):806-15.

Dalvi, S., et al., “Effects of gugulipid on bioavailability of diltiazem and propranolol,” Jour Assoc Physicians India 1994; 42(6):454-55.

Deng, R., “Therapeutic effects of guggul and its constituent guggulsterone: cardiovascular benefits,” Cardiovasc Drug Rev 2007; 25(4):375-90.

Dogra, J., “Oral gugulipid in acne vulgaris management,” Ind Joue Dermatol Venereol Leprol 1990; 56(1):381-83.

Francis, J., et al., “Bioactive terpenoids and guggulusteroids from Commiphora mukul gum resin of potential anti-inflammatory interest,” Chem Biodivers 2004; 1(11):1842-53.

Gaur, S., et al., “Gugulipid, a new hypolipidaemic agent, in patients of acute ischaemic stroke: effect on clinical outcome, platelet function and serum lipids,” Asia Pacif Jour Pharm 1997; 12:65-9.

Gelfand, J., et al., “Adverse cutaneous reactions to guggulipid,” Jour Amer Acad Dermatol 2005; 52(3 Pt 1):533-34.

Hasani-Ranjbar, S., et al., “The efficacy and safety of herbal medicines used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia; a systematic review,” Curr Pharm Des 2010; 16(26):2935-47.

Kesava, R., et al., “Urinary excretion of connective tissue metabolites under the influence of a new non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent in adjuvant induced arthritis,” Agents Actions 1987; 22(1-2):99-105.

Khanna, D., “Natural products as a gold mine for arthritis treatment,” Curr Opin Pharmacol 2007; 7(3):344-51.

Kuppurajan, K., “Effect of guggulu (Commiphora mukul--Engl.) on serum lipids in obese, hypercholesterolemic and hyperlipemic cases,” Jour Assoc Physicians India 1978; 26(5):367-73.

Mahesh, S., et al., “A study of Shuddha Guggulu on rheumatoid arthritis,” Rheumatism 1981; 16(2):54-67.

Majumdar, K., “Role of gum guggulu with gold in rheumatic and other allied disorders,” Rheumatism 1984; 20(1):9-15.

Miller, A., “Botanical influences on cardiovascular disease,” Altern Med Rev 1998; 3(6):422-31.

Nies, L. et al., “Complementary and alternative therapies for the management of dyslipidemia,” Ann Pharmacother 2006; 40(11):1984-92.

Nityanand, S., et al., “Cholesterol lowering activity of the various fractions of the guggal,” Indian Jour Exp Biol 1973; 11(5):395-96.

Nityanard, S., et al., “Clinical trials with gugulipid. A new hypolipidaemic agent,” Jour Assoc Physicians India 1989; 37(5):323-28.

Nohr, L., et al., “Resin from the mukul myrrh tree, guggul, can it be used for treating hypercholesterolemia? A randomized, controlled study,” Complement Ther Med 2009; 17(1):16-22.

Panda, S., et al., “Gugulu (commiphora mukul) induces triiodothyronine production: possible involvement of lipid peroxidation,” Life Sci 1999; 65(12):PL137-41.

Posadzki, P., et al., “Adverse effects of herbal medicines: an overview of systematic reviews,” Clin Med 2013; 13(1):7-12.

Rahimi, R., et al., “A review of the efficacy of traditional Iranian medicine for inflammatory bowel disease,” World Jour Gastroenterol 2010; 16(36):4504-14.

Rose, J, et al. “Herbal support for a healthy cardiovascular system.” Clin Nutri Insights 1999; 6(16):1–6.

Satyavati, G., et al., “Guggulipid: a promising hypolipidemic agent from gum guggul (commiphora wightii),” Econ Med Plant Res 1991; 5:48-82.

Saxena, G., et al., “Gugulipid, an extract of Commiphora whighitii with lipid-lowering properties, has protective effects against streptozotocin-induced memory deficits in mice,” Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2007; 86(4):797-805.

Shah, R., et al., “Pharmacological properties of guggulsterones, the major active components of gum guggul,” Phytother Res 2012; 26(11):1594-1605.

Shields, K., et al., “Guggul for hypercholesterolemia,” Amer Jour Health Syst Pharm 2005; 62(10):1012-14.

Shishodia, S., et al., “The guggul for chronic diseases: ancient medicine, modern targets,” Anticancer Res 2008; 28(6A):3647-64.

Singh, B., et al., “Ayurvedic and collateral herbal treatments for hyperlipidemia: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials and quasi-experimental designs,” Altern Ther Health Med 2007; 13(4):22-8.

Singh, B., et al., “The effectiveness of Commiphora mukul for osteoarthritis of the knee: an outcomes study,” Altern Ther Health Med 2003; 9(3):74-9.

Singh, R., et al., “Hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of Commiphora mukul as an adjunct to dietary therapy in patients with hypercholesterolemia,” Cardiovasc Drug Ther 1994; 8(4):659-64.

Sosa, S., et al., “Anti-inflammatory activity of Commiphora mukul extracts,” Pharmacol Res 1993; 27(suppl 1):89-90.

Thappa, D., et al., “Nodulocystic acne: oral gugulipid versus tetracycline,” Jour Dermatol 1994; 21:729-31.

Tripathi, Y., et al., “Thyroid stimulating action of Z-guggulsterone obtained from Commiphora mukul,” Planta Med 1984; (1):78-80.

Ulbricht, C., et al., “Guggul for hyperlipidemia: a review by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration,” Complement Ther Med 2005; 13(4):279-90.

Urizar, N., et al., “Gugulipid: a natural cholesterol-lowering agent,” Annu Rev Nutr 2003; 23:303-13.

Urizar, N, et al. “A natural product that lowers cholesterol as an antagonist ligand for FXR.” Science 2002; 296(5573):1703–06.

Xiao, D., et al., “Reactive oxygen species-dependent apoptosis by gugulipid extract of ayurvedic medicine plant Commiphora mukul in human prostate cancer cells is regulated by c-Jun N-terminal kinase,” Mol Pharmacol 2011; 79(3):499-507.

 

Gynema Sylvestre

Agarwal, S., et al., “Chemistry and medicinal uses of Gymnema sylvestre (gur-mar) leaves: a review,” Indian Drugs2000; 37:354–60.

Al-Romaiyan, Ad., et al., “A novel extract of Gymnema sylvestre improves glucose tolerance in vivo and stimulates insulin secretion and synthesis in vitro,” Phytother Res 2013; 27(7):1006-11.

Ananthan, R., et al., “Antidiabetic effect of Gymnema montanum leaves: effect on lipid peroxidation induced oxidative stress in experimental diabetes,” Pharmacol Res 2003; 48:551-56.

Baskaran, K., et al., “Antidiabetic effect of a leaf extract from Gymnema sylvestre in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus patients,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 1990; 30:295-305.

Braun, L., and Cohen, M. Herbs and Natural Supplements, 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

Claire, S., “The hormone resistin links obesity to diabetes,” Nature2001; p.307.

Gholap, S., et al., “Effects of Inula racemosa root and Gymnema sylvestre leaf extracts in the regulation of corticosteroid induced diabetes mellitus: involvement of thyroid hormones,” Pharmazie 2003; 58(6):413-15.

Hsia, S., et al., “Effect of pancreas tonic (an Ayurvedic herbal supplement) in type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Med Clin Exp 2004; 53(9):1166-73.

Kamei, K., et al., “Amino acid sequence of sweet-taste-suppressing peptide (gurmarin) from the leaves of Gymnema sylvestre,” Jour Biochem 1992; 111:109-12.

Khare, A., et al., “Hypoglycemic activity of an indigenous drug Gymnema sylvestre in normal and diabetic persons,” Ind Jour Physiol Pharmacol 1983; 27:257–61.

Lawless, H., “Evidence for neural inhibition in bittersweet taste mixtures,” Jour Comp Physiol Psychol 1979; 93(3):538-47.

Leach, M., “Gymnema sylvestre for diabetes mellitus: a systematic review,” Jour Altern Complement Med 2007; 13(9):977-83.

Liu, H., et al., “Isolation and structure elucidation of Gymnemic acids, antisweet principles of Gymnema sylvestre,” Chem Pharm Bull 1992; 40:1366–75.

Luo, H., et al., “Decreased bodyweight without rebound and regulated lipoprotein metabolism by gymnemate in genetic multifactor syndrome animal,” Mol Cell Biochem 2007; 299:93-8.

Maeda, M., et al., “Studies on taste modifiers II: Purification and structure determination of gymnemic acids, antisweet active principle from Gymnema sylvestre leaves,” Tetr Lett1989; 30:1547–50.

Manjunatha, K., et al., “Studies on snake venoma enzymes. Part II: partial characterization of ATPases from Russell’s vipor (Vipera russelli) venom and their interaction with potassium gymnemate,” Indian Jour Biochem Biophys 1982; 19(5):342-46.

Manni, P., et al., “Constituents from Gymnema sylvestre leaves,” Jour Pharm Sci1965; 54:1541–44.

Murakami, N., et al., “New hypoglycemic constituents in "gymnemic acid" from Gymnema sylvestre.” Chem Pharm Bull 1996; 44(2):469-71.

Nakamura, Y., et al., “Fecal steroid excretion is increased in rats by oral administration of gymnemic acids contained in Gymnema sylvestre leaves,” Jour Nutr1999; 129:1214–22.

Parijat, K., et al., “Gymnema sylvestre: A memoir,” Jour Clin BIochem Nutri 2007; 41(2):77-81.

Persaud, S., et al., “Gymnema sylvestre stimulates insulin release in vitro by increased membrane permeability,” Jour Endocrinol1999; 163:207–12.

Porchezhian, E., et al., “An overview on the advances of Gymnema sylvestre: chemistry, pharmacology and patents,” Pharmazie 2003; 58(1):5-12.

Pothuraju, R., et al., “A systematic review of Gymnema sylvestre in obesity and diabetes management,” Jour Sci Food Agric 2014; 94(5):834-40.

Preuss, H., et al., “Comparative effects of chromium, vanadium and gymnema sylvestre on sugar-induced blood pressure elevations in SHR.,” Jour Amer Coll Nutri 1998; 17(2):116-23.

Reddy, R., et al., “The saponin-rich fraction of a Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. Aqueous leaf extract reduces cafeteria and high-fat diet-induced obesity,” Z Naturforsch C 2012; 6(1-2):39-46.

Sahu, N., et al., “Triterpenoid Saponins from Gymnema sylvestre,” Phytochem1996; 41:1181–85.

Satdive, R., et al., “Antimicrobial activity of Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract,” Phytoterapia 2003; 74(7):699-701.

Shanmugasundaram, E., et al., “Possible regeneration of the islets of Langerhans in streptozotocin-diabetic rats given Gymnema sylvestre leaf extracts,” Jour Ethnopharm 1990; 30:265-79.

Shanmugasundaram, E., et al., “Use of Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract in the control of blood glucose in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 1990; 30(3):281-94.

Sinsheimer, J., et al., “Constituents from Gymnema sylvestre leaves,” Jour Pharm Sci1965; 54:1541–44.

Syiyovich, A., et al., “Toxic hepatitis induced by Gymnema sylvestre, a natural remedy for type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Amer Jour Med Sci 2010; 340(6):514-17.

Terasawa, H., et al., “Effects of long-term administration of Gymnema sylvestre watery-extract on variations of body weight, plasma glucose, serum triglyceride, total cholesterol and insulin in Wistar fatty rats,” Yonago Acta Med 1994; 37:117-27.

Tinari, P., et al., Phytochemical and Pharmacological Properties of Gymnema sylvestre: An Important Medicinal Plant,” Biomed Res Int 2014; 2014:830285.

Xie, J., et al., “Anti-diabetic effects of Gymnema yunnanense extract,” Pharmacol Res 2003; 47(4):323-29.

Ye, W., et al., “Antisweet saponins from Gymnema sylvestre,” Jour Nat Prod 2001; 64(2):232-35.

Yeh, G., et al., “Systematic review of herbs and dietary supplements for glycemic control in diabetes,” Diabetes Care 2003; 26:1277-94.

Yoshikawa, K., et al., “Matsuura K. Structure studies of new antisweet constituents from Gymnema sylvestre,” Tetr Lett 1989; 30:1103–06.

 

Hawthorn

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.

Braun, L., and Cohen, M. Herbs and Natural Supplements, 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

Garjani, A., et al., “Effects of extracts from flowering tops of crataegus meyeri A. Pojark, on ischemic arrhythmias in anaesthetized rats,” Phytother Res 2000; 14(6):428-31.

Holubarsch, C., et al., “Survival and Prognosis: Investigation of Crataegus Extract WS 1442 in CHF (SPICE) trial study group. The efficacy and safety of Crataegus extract WS 1442 in patients with heart failure: the SPICE trial,” Eur Jour Heart Fail 2008; 10(12):1255-63.

Klatz, R., The New Anti-Aging Revolution. Laguna Beach, CA: Basic Health Publications, 2003.

Miller, L., “Herbal medicinals: selected clinical considerations focusing on known or potential drug-herb interactions,” Arch Intern Med 1998; 158(20):2200-11.

Pittler, M., et al., “Hawthorn extract for treating chronic heart failure: meta-analysis of randomized trials,” Amer Jour Med 2003; 114(8):665-74.

Rakel: Integrative Medicine, 3rd Ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders, 2012.

Rigelsky, J., et al., “Hawthorn: pharmacology and therapeutic uses,” Amer Jour Health Syst Pharm 2002; 59(5):417-22.

Tadic, V., et al., “Anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, free-radical-scavenging, and antimicrobial activities of hawthorn berries ethanol extract,” Jour Agric Food Chem 2008; 56(17):7700-09.

Tankanow, R., et al.,” Interaction study between digoxin and a preparation of hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha),” Jour Clin Pharmacol 2003; 43(6):637-42.

Walker, A., et al., “Hypotensive effects of hawthorn for patients with diabetes taking prescription drugs: a randomised controlled trial,” Brit Jour Gen Pract 2006; 56(527):437-43.

Zapfe, J., “Clinical efficacy of crataegus extract WS 1442 in congestive heart failure NYHA class II,” Phytomedicine 2001; 8(4):262-66.

 

Horse Chestnut

Annoni, F., et al., “Venotonic activity of escin on the human saphenous vein,” Arzneimittelforschung 1979; 29:672-75.

Bielanski, T., et al., “Horse-chestnut seed extract for chronic venous insufficiency,” Jour Fam Pract 1999; 48(3):171-72.

Blaschek, W., “Aesculus hippocastanum: Horse chestnut seed extract in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency,” Z Phytother 2004; 25(1):21-30.

Braga, P., et al., “Characterisation of the antioxidant effects of Aesculus hippocastanum L. bark extract on the basis of radical scavenging activity, the chemiluminescence of human neutrophil bursts and lipoperoxidation assay,” Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2012; 16(S-3):1-9.

Braun, L., and Cohen, M. Herbs and Natural Supplements, 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

Diehm, C., et al., “Comparison of leg compression stocking and oral horse-chestnut seed extract therapy in patients with chronic venous insufficiency,” Lancet 1996; 347(8997):292-94.

Fujimura, T., et al., “A horse chestnut extract, which induces contraction forces in fibroblasts, is a potent anti-aging ingredient,” Jour Cosmetic Sci 2006A 57(5):369-76.

Guillaume, M., et al., “Veinotonic effect, vascular protection, anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging properties of horse chestnut extract,” Arzneimittelforschung 1994; 44(1):25-35.

Incadela, L., et al., “Treatment of superficial vein thrombosis:” clinical evaluation of Essaven gel: a placebo-controlled, 8-week, randomized study,” Angiology 2001; 52(Suppl 3):S69-S72.

Murray, M., “Varicose Veins.” In Textbook of Natural Medicine, Pizzorno, J., and Murray, M., (Eds.) St. Louis: Elsevier, 2013.

Pittler, M., et al., “Horse chestnut seed extract for chronic venous insufficiency,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012; 4:CD003230.

Pittler, M., et al., “Horse-chestnut seed extract for chronic venous insufficiency: a criteria-based systematic review,” Arch Dermatol 1998; 134:1356-60.

Pohlmann, G., et al., “Studies on dose dependency of the edema effect of extracts from horse chestnut in female patients suffering from chronic venous insufficiency,” Vaso Med 2000; 12(2):69-75.

Siebert, U., et al., “Efficacy, routine effectiveness, and safety of horse chestnut seed extract in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and large observational studies,” Int Angiol 2002; 21(4):305-15.

Sirtori, C., “Aescin: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and therapeutic profile,” Pharmacol Res 2001; 44(3):183-93.

 

Ivy Gourd

Azad Khan, A., “Coccinia indica in the treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus,” Bangladesh Med Res Counc Bull 1979; 5(2):60-6.

Bunkrongcheap, R., et al., “Ivy gourd (Coccinia grandis L. Voigt) root suppresses adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells,” Lipids Health Dis 2014; 13:88.

Cefalu, W., et al., “Efficacy of dietary supplementation with botanicals on carbohydrate metabolism in humans,” Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets 2008; 8(2):78-81.

Chandrasekar, B., et al., “Blood sugar lowering potentiality of selected Cucurbitaceae plants of Indian origin,” Indian Jour Med Res 1989; 90:300-05.

Eshrat, M., “Effect of Coccinia indica (L.) and Abroma augsta (L.) on glycemia, lipid profile and on indicators of end-organ damage in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats,” Indian Jour Clin Biochem 2003; 18:54-63.

Hossain, M., et al., “Hypoglycemic effects of Coccinia indica: inhibition of key gluconeogenic enzyme, glucose-6-phosphatase,” Indian Jour Exp Biol 1992; 30(5):418-20.

Kahn, A., et al., “Treatment of diabetes with Coccinia indica,” Brit Med Jour 1980; 280:1044.

Kar, A., et al., “Comparative evaluation of hypoglycaemic activity of some Indian medicinal plants in alloxan diabetic rats,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 2003; 84:105-08.

Kumar, G., et al., “Hypoglycaemic effect of Coccinia indica: mechanism of action.” Planta Med 1993; 59:330-32.

Kuriyan, R., et al., “Effect of supplementation of Coccinia cordifolia extract on newly detected diabetic patients,” Diabetes Care 2008; 31:216-20.

Munasinghe, M., et al., “Blood Sugar Lowering Effect of Coccinia grandis (L.) J. Voigt: Path for a New Drug for Diabetes Mellitus,” Exp Diab Res 2011; (2011):978762.

Nahas, R., “Type 2 Diabetes.” In Rakel, D., Integrative Medicine. 3rd Ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier, 2012.

Pari, L., et al., “Protective effect of Coccinia indica on changes in the fatty acid composition in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats,” Pharmazie 2003; 58(6):409-12.

Venkateswaran, S., et al., “Effect of Coccinia indica leaf extract on plasma antioxidants in streptozotocin- induced experimental diabetes in rats,” Phytother Res 2003; 17(6):605-08.

Yeh, G., et al., “Systematic review of herbs and dietary supplements for glycemic control in diabetes,” Diabetes Care, 2003; 26(4):1277-94.

 

Jujube

Baoli, L., et al., “Jujube promotes learning and memory in a rat model by increasing estrogen levels in the blood and nitric oxide and acetylcholine levels in the brain,” Exper Therapeutic Med 203; 5(6).

Fujiwara, Y., et al., “Triterpenoids isolated from Zizyphus jujuba inhibits foam cell formation in macrophages,” Jour Agric Food Chem 2011; 59(9):4544-52.

Huang, Y., et al., “Effects of water-soluble carbohydrate concentrate from Chinese jujube on different intestinal and fecal indices,” Jour Agric Food Chem 2008; 56(5):1734-39.

Huang, X., et al., “Green tea extract enhances the selective cytotoxic activity of Zizyphus jujuba extracts in HepG2 cells,” Amer Jour Chin Med 2008; 36(4):729-44.

Huang, X., et al., “Mechanism of the anti-cancer activity of Zizyphus jujuba in HepG2 cells,” Amer Jour Chin Med 2007; 35(3):517-32.

Jiang, J., et al., “Comparison of the sedative and hypnotic effects of flavonoids, saponins, and polysaccharides extracted from Semen Ziziphus jujube,” Nat Prod Res 2007; 21(4):310-20.

Lombardi, C., et al., “Latex-jujube cross-reactivity: case report and immunological study,” Allergy 2005; 60(7):971-72.

Naftali, T., et al., “Ziziphus jujuba extract for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation: a controlled clinical trial,” Digestion 2008; 78(4):224-28.

Pahuja, M., et al., “Hydroalcoholic extract of Zizyphus jujuba ameliorates seizures, oxidative stress, and cognitive impairment in experimental models of epilepsy in rats,” Epilepsy Behav 2011; 21:356-63

Peng, W., et al., “Anxiolytic effect of seed of Ziziphus jujuba in mouse models of anxiety,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 2000; 72(3):435-41.

Vahedi, F., et al., “Evaluation of inhibitory effect and apoptosis induction of Zyzyphus jujube on tumor cell lines, an in vitro preliminary study,” Cytotechnology 2008; 56(2):105-11.

Yeung, W., et al., “Chinese herbal medicine for insomnia: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials,” Sleep Med Rev 2012; 16(16):497-507.

Zhang, M., et al., “Inhibitory effect of jujuboside A on glutamate-mediated excitatory signal pathway in hippocampus,” Planta Med 2003; 69(8):692-95.

 

Licorice

Acharya, S., et al., “A preliminary open trial on interferon stimulator (SNMC) derived from Glycyrrhiza glabra in the treatment of subacute hepatic failure,” Indian Jour Med Res 1993; 98:69-74.

Amato, P., et al., “Estrogenic activity of herbs commonly used as remedies for menopausal symptoms,” Menopause 2002; 9:145-50.

Arase, Y., et al., “The long term efficacy of glycyrrhizin in chronic hepatitis C patients,” Cancer 1997; 79(8):1494-1500.

Arjumand, W., et al., “Glycyrrhizic acid: A phytochemical with a protective role against cisplatin-induced genotoxicity and nephrotoxicity,” Life Sciences 2011; 89(13-14):422-29.

Armanini, D., et al., “Effect of licorice on reduction of body fat mass in healthy subjects,” Jour Endocrinol Invest 2003; 26:646-50.

Armanini, D., et al., “Further studies on the mechanism of the mineralocorticoid action of licorice in humans,” Jour Endocrinol Invest 1996; 19:624-29.

Armanini, D., et al., “Glycyrrhetinic acid, the active principle of licorice, can reduce the thickness of subcutaneous thigh fat through topical application,” Steroids 2005; 70(8):538-42.

Armanini, D., et al., “Licorice consumption and serum testosterone in healthy man.” Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2003;111:341-43.

Armanini, D., et al., “Licorice reduces serum testosterone in healthy women,” Steroids 2004; 69(11-12):763-66.

Asl, M., et al., “Review of pharmacological effects of Glycyrrhiza sp. and its bioactive compounds,” Phytotherapy Res 2008; 22(6):709–24.

Balakrishnan, V., et al., “Deglycyrrhizinated liquorice in the treatment of chronic duodenal ulcer,” Jour Assoc Physicians India 1978; 26(9):811-14.

Bannister, B., et al., “Cardiac arrest due to liquorice-induced hypokalaemia,” Brit Med Jour 1977; 2(6089):738-39.

Bardhan, K., et al., “Clinical trial of deglycyrrhizinised liquorice in gastric ulcer,” Gut 1978; 19(9):779-82.

Baschetti, R., “Chronic fatigue syndrome and licorice,” New Zealand Med Jour 1995; 108:156-57.

Bell, Z., et al., “A dual investigation of the effect of dietary supplementation with licorice flavonoid oil on anthropometric and biochemical markers or health and adiposity,” Lipids Health Dis 2011; 10:29.

Beretta-Piccoli, C., et al., “Body-sodium and blood volume in a patient with licorice-induced hypertension,” Jour Hypertens 1985; 3(1):19-23.

Birari, R., et al., “Antiobesity and lipid lowering effects of Glycyrrhiza chalcones: Experimental and computational studies,” Phytomed 2011; 18(8-9):795-801.

Braun, L., and Cohen, M. Herbs and Natural Supplements, 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

Celik, M., et al., “Licorice induced hypokalemia, edema, and thrombocytopenia,” Hum Exp Toxicol 2012; 31(12):1295-98.

Chin, Y., et al., “Anti-oxidant constituents of the roots and stolons of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra),” Jour Agric Food Chem 2007; 55(12):4691-97.

Choi, E., “The licorice root derived isoflavin glabridin increases the function of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells,” Biochem Pharmacol 2005; 70(3):363-68.

Da Nagao, Y., et al., “Effectiveness of glycyrrhizin for oral lichen planus in patients with chronic HCV infection,” Jour Gastroenterol 1996; 31(5):691-95.

Das, S., et al., “Deglycyrrhizinated liquorice in aphthous ulcer,” Jour Assoc Physicians India 1989; 37(10):647.

Davis, E., et al., “Medicinal uses of licorice through the millennia: the good and plenty of it,” Mol Cell Endocrinol 1991; 78(1-2):1-6.

deKlerk, G., et al., “Pontefact cakes can be bad for  you: refractory hypertension and liquorice excess,” Nephrol Dial Transplant 1999; 14:218-20.

Dhingra, D., et al., “Antidepressant-like activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. in mouse models of immobility tests,” Prog Neurophyschopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2006; 30(3):449-54.

Dhingra, D., et al., “Memory enhancing activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra in mice,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 2004; 91(2-3):361-65.

Engqvist, A., et al., “Double-blind trial of deglycyrrhizinated liquorice in gastric ulcer,” Gut 1973; 14(9):711-15.

Farese, R., et al., “Licorice-induced hypermineralocorticoidism,” NEJM 1991; 325:1223-27.

Farese, S., et al., “Glycyrrhetinic acid food supplementation lowers serum potassium concentrations in chronic hemodialysis patients,” Kidney Int 2009; 76(8):877-84.

Fiore, C., et al., “Antiviral effects of Glycyrrhiza species,” Phytother Res 2008; 2292):141-48.

Firenzuoli, F., et al., “Rhabdomyolysis due to licorice ingestion,” Recenti Prog Med 2002; 93:9.

Francini-Pesenti, F., et al., “Liquorice-induced hypokalaemia and water retention in the absence of hypertension,” Phytother Res 2008; 22:563-65.

Fu, Y., et al., “Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the flavonoids separated from licorice,” Food Chem 2013; 141(2):1963-71.

Fugh-Berman, A., “Herb-drug interactions,” Lancet 2000; 355(9198):134-38.

Fuhrman, B., etal., “Antiatherosclerotic effects of licorice extract supplementation on hypercholesterolemic patients: increased resistance of LDL to atherogenic modifications, reduced plasma lipid levels, and decreased systolic blood pressure,” Nutrition 2002; 18(3):268-73.

Goultschin, J., etal., “Effect of glycyrrhizin-containing toothpaste on dental plaque reduction and gingival health in humans. A pilot study,” Jour Clin Periodontol 1991; 18(3):210-12.

Gupta, D., et al., “Effect of preoperative licorice lozenges on incidence of postextubation cough and sore throat in smokers undergoing general anesthesia and endotracheal intubation,” Middle East Jour Anaesthesiol 2013; 22(2):173-78.

Hajiaghamohammadi, A.s, et al., “The efficacy of licorice root extract in decreasing transaminase activities in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized controlled clinical trial,” Phytother Res 2012; 26(9):1381-84.

Harada, T., et al., “Congestive heart failure caused by digitalis toxicity in an elderly man taking a licorice-containing Chinese herbal laxative,” Cardiology 2002; 98(4):218.

Hasani-Ranjbar, S., et al., “The efficacy and safety of herbal medicines used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia; a systematic review,” Curr Pharm Des 2010; 16(26):2935-47.

Hatano, T., et al., “Phenolic constituents of licorice. VII: structure of glicophenone and glicosioflavone and effects of licorice phenolics on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus,” Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2000; 48(9):1286-92.

Hattori, T., et al., “Preliminary evidence for inhibitory effect of glycyrrhizin on HIV replication in patients with AIDS,” Antiviral Res 1989; 11(5-6):255-61.

Hawrelak, J., et al., “Effects of two natural medicine formulations on irritable bowel syndrome symptoms: a pilot study,” Jour Altern Complement Med 2010; 16(10):1065-71.

Ito, M., et al., “Mechanism of inhibitory effect of glycyrrhizin on replication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV),” Antiviral Res 1988; 10(6):289-98.

Jiang, L., et al., “Discovery of glycyrrhetinic acid as an orally active, direct inhibitor of blood coagulation factor xa,” Thromb Res 2014; 133(3):501-06.

Kang, O., et al., “Inhibition of interleukin-8 production in the human colonic epithelial cell line HT-29 by 18 beta-glycyrrhetinic acid,” Inter Jour Molecular Med 2005; 15(6):981-85.

Kroes, B., et al., “Inhibition of human complement by beta-glycyrrhetinic acid,” Immunology 1997; 90(1):115-20.

Larkworthy, W., et al., “Deglycyrrizinised licorice in the treatment  of chronic duodenal ulcer,” Practitioner 1975; 215(1290):787-92.

Lee, C., et al., “Protective mechanism of glycyrrhizin on acute liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice,” Biol Pharm Bull 2007; 30(10):1898-1904.

Lee, I., et al., “Combined extractives of red yeast rice, bitter gourd, chlorella, soy protein, and licorice improve total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride in subjects with metabolic syndrome,” Nutr Res 2012; 32(2):85-92.

Lin, J., “Mechanism of action of glycyrrhizic acid in inhibition of Epstein-Barr virus replication in vitro,” Antiviral Res 2003; 59(1):41-7.

Lin, S., et al., “Glycyrrhizin and licorice significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of methotrexate in rats,” Jour Agric Food Chem 2009; 57(5):1854-59.

Luper, S., “A review of plants used in the treatment of liver disease: part two,” Altern Med Rev 1999; 4(3):178-88.

Madisch, A., et al., “Treatment of functional dyspepsia with a herbal preparation. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial,” Digestion 2004; 69:45-52.

Messier, C., et al., “Effect of licorice compounds licohalcone A, glabridin and glycyrrhizic acid on growth and virulence properties of Candida albicans,” Mycoses 2011; 54(6):e801-e806.

Messier, C., et al., “Licorice and its potential beneficial effects in common oro-dental diseases,” Oral Dis 2012; 18(1):32-9.

Mitscher, L., et al., “Antimicrobial agents from higher plants. Antimicrobial isoflavanoids and related substances from Glycyrrhiza glabra L. var. typical,” Jour Nat Prod 1980; 43(2):259-69.

Mumoli, N., et al., “Licorice-induced hypokalemia,” Int Jour Cardiol 2008; 124(3):e42-e44.

Nabeshima, S., et al., “A randomized, controlled trial comparing traditional herbal medicine and neuraminidase inhibitors in the treatment of seasonal influenza,” Jour Infect Chemother 2012; 18(4):534-43.

Nokhodchi, A., et al., “The effect of glycyrrhizin on the release rate and skin penetration of diclofenac sodium from topical formulations,” Farmaco 2002; 57(11):883-88.

Peters, M., et al., “Clinical reduction of S. mutans in pre-school children using a novel liquorice root extract lollipop: a pilot study,” Eur Arch Paediatr Dent 2010; 11(6):274-78.

Rafi, M., et al., “Novel polyphenol molecule of Beel-2 and cytotoxicity by licochalcone-A, a novel estrogenic flavonoid,” Anticancr Res 2000; 20(4):101-13.

Rahnama, M., et al., “The healing effect of licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) on Helicobacter pylori infected peptic ulcers,” Jour Res Med Sci 2013; 18(6):532-33.

Ram, A., et al., “Glycyrrhizin alleviates experimental allergic asthma in mice,” Int Immunopharmacol 2006; 6(9):1468-77.

Rees, W., et al., “Effect of deglycyrrhizinated liquorice on gastric mucosal damage by aspirin,” Scand Jour Gastroenterol 1979; 14(5):605-07.

Rosenblat, M., et al., “Paraoxonases role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases,” Biofactors 2009; 35(1):98-104.

Setchell, K., et al., “Dietary isoflavones: botanical effects and relevance to human health,” Jour Nutr 1999; 129:758S-767S.

Shi, Y., et al., “Analgesic and uterine relaxing effects of isoliquirtigenin, a flavone from Glycyrrhiza glabra,” Pytother Res 2012; 26(9):1410-17.

Tacconi, P., et al., “Carpal tunnel syndrome triggered by excessive licorice consumption,” Jour Peripher Nerv Syst 2009; 14(1):64-5.

Thom, E., et al., “A controlled clinical study of kanjang mixture in the treatment of uncomplicated upper respiratory tract infections,” Phytotherapy Res 1997; 11:207-10.

Tsai, H., et al., “A review of potential harmful interactions between anticoagulant/antiplatelet agents and Chinese herbal medicines,” PLoS One 2013; 8(5):e64255.

van Rossum, T., et al., “Pharmacokinetics of intravenous glycyrrhizin after single and multiple doses in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection,” Clin Ther 1999; 21(12):2080-90.

Venkata, K., “A review on licorice,” Anc Sci Life 1993; 13(1-2):57-88.

Visavadiya, N., et al., “Hypocholesterolaemic and antioxidant effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Linn) in rat,” Mol Nutr Food Res 2006; 50(11):1080-86.

Werner, S., et al., “Hyperprolactinaemia and liquorice,” Lancet 1979; 1(8111):319.

Wu, F., et al., “Hypoglycemic effect of glabridin, a polyphenolic flavonoid from licorice, in an animal model of diabetes mellitus,” Mol Med Rep 2013; 7(4):1278-82.

Yamashiki, M., et al., “Effects of the Japanese herbal medicine "Sho-saiko-to" (TJ-9) on in vitro interleukin-10 production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with chronic hepatitis C,” Hepatology 1997; 25(6):1390-97.

Zheng, A., et al., “Effect of the combination of ginseng, oriental bezoar and glycyrrhiza on autonomic nervous activity and immune system under mental arithmetic stress,” Jour Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 2008; 54(3):244-49.

 

Milk Thistle

Agarwal, R., et al., “Anticancer potential of silymarin: from bench to bed side,” Anticancer Res 2006; 26(6B):4457-98.

Barve, A., et al., “Treatment of alcoholic liver disease,” Ann Hepatol 2008; 7(1):5-15.

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.

Blumenthal, M., Goldberg, A., Brinckmann J., Herbal Medicine: Expanded Commission E Monographs. Newton, MA: Integrative Medicine Communications; 2000.

Bokemeyer, C., et al., “Silibinin protects against cisplantin-induced nephrotoxicity without compromising cisplatin or iposfamide anti-tumor activity,” Brit Jour Cancer 1996; 74:2036-41.

Brantley, S., et al., “Two flavonolignans from milk thistle (silybum marianum) inhibit CYP2C9-mediated warfarin metabolism at clinically achievable concentrations,” Jour Pharmacol Exp Ther 2010; 332(3):1081-87.

Dehmlow, C., et al., “Inhibition of Kepffer cell functions as an explanation for the hepatoprotene properties of silibinin,” Hepatology 1996; 23(4):749–54.

Dehmlow, C., et al., “Scavenging of reactive oxygen species and inhibition of arachidonic acid metabolism by silibinin in human cells,” Life Sci 1996; 58:1591–1600.

Ferenci, P., et al., “Silibinin is a potent antiviral agent in patients with chronic hepatitis C not responding to pegylated interferon/ribavirin therapy,” Gastroenterology 2008; 135(5):1561-67.

Gazak, R., et al., “Silybin and silymarin—new and emerging applications in medicine,” Curr Med Chem 2007; 14(3):315-38.

Gordon, A., et al., “Effects of Silybum marianum on serum hepatitis C virus RNA, alanine aminotransferase levels and well-being in patients with chronic hepatitis C,” Jour Gastroenterol Hepatol 2006; 21(1 Pt 2):275-20.

Hoh, C., et al., “Pilot study of oral silibinin, a putative chemopreventive agent, in colorectal cancer patients: silibinin levels in plasma, colorectum, and liver and their pharmacodynamic consequences,” Clin Cancer Res 2006; 12(9):2944-50.

Jiang, C., et al., “Anti-angiogenic potential of a cancer chemopreventive flavonoid antioxidant, Silymairn: inhibition of key attributes of vascular endothelial cells and angiogenic cytokine secretion by cancer epithelial cells,” Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2000; 276:371-38.

Köksal, E., et al., “In vitro antioxidant activity of silymarin,” Jour Enzyme Inhib Med Chem 2009; 24(2):395-405.

Leng-Peschlow, E., et al., “Properties and medical use of flavonolignans (silymarin) from silybum marianum,” Phytother Res 1996; 10(Suppl):S24–S26.

Low Dog, T., “Traditional and alternative therapies for breast cancer,” Altern Ther Health Med 2001; 7(3):36-47.

Mayer, K., et al., “Silymarin treatment of viral hepatitis: a systematic review,” Jour Viral Hepat 2005; 12(6):559-67.

Michelfelder, A, et al., “Integrative medicine and gastrointestinal disease.” Prim Care. 2010; 37(2):255-67.

Polyak, S., et al., “Silymarin for HCV infection,” Antivir Ther 2013; 18(2):141-47.

Rainone, F., “Milk thistle,” Amer Fam Physician 2005; 72(7):1285-88.

Rakel: Integrative Medicine, 3rd Ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, 2012.

Ramasamy, K., et al., “Multitargeted therapy of cancer by silymarin,” Cancer Lett 2008; 269(2):352-62.

Rambaldi, A., et al., “Milk thistle for alcoholic and/or hepatitis B or C liver diseases -- a systematic cochrane hepato-biliary group review with meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials,” Amer Jour Gastroenterol 2005; 100(11):2583-91.

Rotblatt M, and Ziment, I. Evidence-Based Herbal Medicine. Philadelphia, PA: Hanley & Belfus, 2002.

Sadava, D., et al., “Silibinin reverses drug resistance in human small-cell lung carcinoma cells,” Cancer Lett 2013; 339(1):102-06.

Siegel, A., et al., “Milk thistle: early seeds of potential,” Lancet Oncology Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier. 2013; 14(10).

Skottowa, N., et al., “Silymarin as a potential hypocholesterolemic drug,” Physiol Res 1998; 47:1–7.

Skuttowa, M., et al., “Activity of silymarin and its flavonolignans upon low density lipoproteins oxidizability in vitro,” Phytother Res 1999; 12:535–37.

Velussi, M., et al., “Long-term treatment with antioxidant drug (silymarin) is effective on hyperinsulinemia exogenous insulin need and malondialdehyde in cirrhotic diabetic patients,” Jour Hepatol 1997; 26(4):871-79.

Wu, J., et al., “Drug-drug interactions of silymarin on the perspective of pharmacokinetics.,” Jour Ehtnopharmacol 2009; 121(2):185-93.

Yu, H., et al., “Silymarin inhibits cervical cancer cell through an increase of phosphatase and tensin homolog,” Phytother Res 2012; 26(5):709-15.

 

Olive Leaf Extract

Acquaviva, R., et al., “Antiproliferative effect of oleuropein in prostate cell lines,” Int Jour Oncol 2012; 41(1):31-8.

Al-Azzawie, H., et al., “Hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect of oleuropein in alloxan-diabetic rabbits,” Life Sci 2006; 78(12):1371-77.

Anter, J., et al., “A pilot study on the DNA-protective, cytotoxic, and apoptosis-inducing properties of olive-leaf extracts,” Mutat Res 2011; 723(2):165-70.

Cherif, S., et al., “A clinical trial of a titrated Olea extract in the treatment of essential arterial hypertension,” J Pharm Belg 1996; 51(2):69-71.

Daccache, A., et al., “Oleuropein and derivatives from olives as Tau aggregation inhibitors,” Neurochem Int 2011; 58(6):700-07.

Dewitte, B., “Natural extracts lower blood pressure,” Life Extensions Oct. 2014; p. 56-64.

Eidi, A., et al., “Antidiabetic effect of Olea europaea L. in normal and diabetic rats,” Phytother Res 2009; 23(3):347-50.

El, S., et al., “Olive tree (Olea europaea) leaves: potential beneficial effects on human health,” Nutr Rev 2009; 67(11):632-38.

Everson, J., “Unexpected benefits of olive leaf extract,” Life Extension 2013:28-35.

Goldsmith, C., et al., “Phytochemical properties and anti-proliferative activity of Olea europaea L. leaf extracts against pancreatic cancer cells,” Molecules 2015; 20(7):12992-3004.

Gong, D., et al., “Mechanisms of olive leaf extract-ameliorated rat arthritis caused by kaolin and carrageenan,” Phytother Res 2012; 26(3):397-402.

Gonzalez, M., et al., “Hypoglycemic activity of olive leaf,” Planta Med 1992; 58(6):513-15.

Goulas, V., et al., “Phytochemicals in olive-leaf extracts and their antiproliferative activity against cancer and endothelial cells,” Mol Nutr Food Res 2009; 53(5):600-08.

Hamdi, H., et al., “Oleuropein, a non-toxic olive iridoid, is an anti-tumor agent and cytoskeleton disruptor,” Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2005; 334(3):769-78.

Hansen, K., et al., “Isolation of an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor form Olea europaea and Olea lancea,” Phytomedicine 1996; 2(4):319-25.

Impellizzeri, D., et al., “Oleuropein aglycone, an olive oil compound, ameliorates development of arthritis caused by injection of collagen type II in mice,” Jour Pharmacol Exp Ther 2011; 339(3):859-69.

Jemai, H., et al., “Antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein from olive leaves in alloxandiabetic rats,” Jour Agric Food Chem 2009; 57(19):8798-804.

Menendez, J., et al., “Analyzing effects of extra-virgin olive oil polyphenols on breast cancer-associated fatty acid synthase protein expression using reverse-phase protein microarrays,” Int Jour Mol Med 2008; 22(4):433-39.

Mohagheghi, F., et al., “The neuroprotective effect of olive leaf extract is related to improved blood-brain barrier permeability and brain edema in rat with experimental focal cerebral ischemia,” Phytomedicine 2011; 18(2-3):170-75.

Palmieri, D., et al., “Effects of polyphenol extract from olive pomace on anoxia-induced endothelial dysfunction,” Microvasc Res 2012; 83(3):281-89.

Parzonko, A., et al., “Oleuropein and oleacein may restore biological functions of endothelial progenitor cells impaired by angiotensin II via activation of Nrf2/heme oxygenase-1 pathway,” Phytomedicine 2013; 20(12):1088-94.

Poudyal, H., et al., “Olive leaf extract attenuates cardiac, hepatic, and metabolic changes in high carbohydrate-high fat-fed rats,” Jour Nutr 2010; 140(5):946-53.

Scoditti, E., et al., “Mediterranean diet polyphenols reduce inflammatory angiogenesis through MMP-9 and COX-2 inhibition in human vascular endothelial cells: A potentially protective mechanism in atherosclerotic vascular disease and cancer,” Arch Biochem Biophys 2012; 527(2):81-9.

Simon, D., et al., “Diabetes mellitus, hyperglycaemia and cancer,” Diabetes Metab 2010; 36(3):182-91.

Singh, I., et al., “The effects of polyphenols in olive leaves on platelet function,” Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2008; 18(2):127-32.

Sirianni, R., et al., “Oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol inhibit MCF-7 breast cancer cell proliferation interfering with ERK1/2 activation,” Mol Nutr Food Res 2010; 54(6):833-40.

Somova, L., et al., “Antihypertensive, antiatherosclerotic and antioxidant activity of triterpenoids isolated from Olea europaea, subspecies africana leaves,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 2003; 84(2-3):299-305.

Susalit, E., et al., “Olive (Olea europaea) leaf extract effective in patients with stage-1 hypertension: comparison with Captopril,” Phytomedicine 2011; 18(4):251-58.

Turner, R., et al., “Antioxidant and anti-atherogenic activities of olive oil phenolics,” Int Jour Vitam Nutr Res 2005; 75(1):61-70.

Vogel, P., et al., “Polyphenols benefits of olive leaf (Olea europaea L.) to human health,” Nutr Hosp 2014; 31(3):1427-33.

Wang, L., et al., “The anti-atherosclerotic effect of olive leaf extract is related to suppressed inflammatory response in rabbits with experimental atherosclerosis,” Eur Jour Nutr 2008; 47(5):235-43.

 

Passionflower

Akhondzadeh, S., et al., “Passionflower in the treatment of generalized anxiety: a pilot double-blind randomized controlled trial with oxazepam,” Jour Clin Pharm Ther 2001; 26(5):363-67.

Akhondzadeh, S., et al., “Passionflower in the treatment of opiates withdrawal: a double-blind randomized controlled trial,” Jour Clin Pharm Ther 2001; 26(5):369-73.

Braun, L., and Cohen, M. Herbs and Natural Supplements, 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

Brievogel, C., et al., “Passion flower extract antagonizes the expression of nicotine locomotor sensitization in rats,” Pharm Biol 2012; 50(10):1310-16.

Gupta, K., et al., “Anti-diabetic activity of Passiflora incarnate Linn. In streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 2012; 139:801-06.

Kaviani, N., et al., “The efficacy of passiflora incarnata linnaeus in reducing dental anxiety in patients undergoing periodontal treatment,” Jour Dent (Shiraz) 2013; 14(2):68-72.

Lakhan, S., et al., “Nutritional and herbal supplements for anxiety and anxiety-related disorders: systematic review,” Nutr Jour 2010; 9:42.

Movafegh, A., et al., “Preoperative oral Passiflora incarnata reduces anxiety in ambulatory surgery patients: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study,” Anesth Analg 2008; 106(6):1728-32.

Ngan, A., et al., “A double-blind, placebo-controlled investigation of the effects of Passiflora incarnata (passionflower) herbal tea on subjective sleep quality,” Phyto Ther Res 2011; 25(8):1153-59.

Nojoumi, M., et al., “Effects of Passion flower extract, as an add-on treatment to sertraline, on reaction time in patients ‎with generalized anxiety disorder: A double-blind placebo-controlled study,” Iran Jour Psychiatry 2016; 11(3):191-97.

Singh, B., et al., “Dual protective effect of Passiflora incarnata in epilepsy and associated post-ictal depression,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 2012; 139(1):273-79.

 

Perilla Seed Extract

Braun, L., and Cohen, M. Herbs and Natural Supplements, 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

Buchwald-Werner, S., et al., “Perilla extract improves gastrointestinal discomfort in a randomized placebo controlled double blind human pilot study,” BMC Complement Alt Med 2014: 14:173.

Kim, M., et al., “Perilla leaf extract ameliorates obesity and dyslipidemia induced by high-fat diet,” Phytother Res 2009; 12(12):1685-90.

Kimata, M, et al. “Effects of luteolin and other flavonoids on IgE mediated allergic reactions.” Planta Med 2000; 66(1):25–19.

Kwak, Y., et al., “Inhibitory activities of Perilla frutescens britton leaf extract against the growth, migration, and adhesion of human cancer cells,” Nutr Res Pract 2003; 9(1):11-16.

Makino, T., et al., “Anti-allergic effect of Perilla frutescens and its active constituents,” Phytother Res 2003; 17(3):240-43.

Osakabe, N., et al., “Rosmarinic acid, a major polyphenolic component of Perilla frutescens, reduces lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury in D-galactosamine (D-GalN)-sensitized mice,” Free Radic Biol Med 2002; 33(6):798–806.

Sanbongi, C., et al., “Rosmarinic acid in perilla extract inhibits allergic inflammation induced by mite allergen, in a mouse model,” Clin Exp Allergy 2004; 34(6):971-77.

Shimoi, K, et al. “Radioprotective effect of antioxidative flavonoids in gamma-ray irradiated mice.” Carcinogenesis 1994; 15(11):2669–72.

Shin, T., et al., “Inhibitory effect of mast cell-mediated immediate-type allergic reactions in rats by Perilla frutescens,” Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 2000; 22(3):489–500.

Takano, H., et al., “Extract of Perilla frutescens enriched for rosmarinic acid, a polyphenolic phytochemical, inhibits seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in humans,” Exp Bio Med (Maywood) 2004; 229(3):247-54.

Ueda, H., et al., “Anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic actions by oral administration of a perilla leaf extract in mice,” Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2001; 65(7):1673–75.

Ueda, H., et al., “Luteolin as an anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic constituent of Perilla frutescens,” Biol Pharm Bull 2002; 25(9):1197– 1202.

Yamamoto, H., et al., “Antimicrobial activity of perilla seed polyphenols against oral pathogenic bacteria,” Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2002; 66:921-24.

 

Rhodiola

Abidov, M., et al., “Effect of extracts from Rhodiola rosea and Rhodiola crenulata (Crassulaceae) roots on ATP content in mitochondria of skeletal muscles,” Bull Exp Biol Med 2003; 136(6):585-87.

Abidov, M., et al., “Extract of rhodiola rosea radix reduces the level of C-reactive protein and creatinine kinase in the blood,” Bull Exp Biol Med 2004; 138(1):63–4.

Amsterdam, J., et al., “Rhodiola rosea L. as a putative botanical antidepressant,” Phytomed 2016; 23(7):770-83.

Anon, “Rhodiola rosea,” Monograph. Altern Med Rev 2002; 7(5):421–23.

Braun, L., and Cohen, M. Herbs and Natural Supplements, 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

Brown, R., et al., “Rhodiola rosea: a phytomedicinal overview,” HerbalGram 2002; 56:40–52.

Bystritsky, A., et al., “A pilot study of Rhodiola rosea (Rhodax) for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD),” Jour Alter Complement Med 2008; 14(2):175-80.

Cropley, M., et al., “The effects of Rhodiola rosea L. extract on anxiety, stress, cognition and other mood symptoms,” Phytother Res 2015; 29(12):1934-39.

Darbinvan V., et al., “Rhodiola rosea in stress induced fatigue--a double blind cross-over study of a standardized extract SHR-5 with a repeated low-dose regimen on the mental performance of healthy physicians during night duty,” Phytomed 2000; 7(5):365-71.

De Bock K., et al., “Acute Rhodiola rosea intake can improve endurance exercise performance,” Int Jour Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2004; 14(3):298-307.

Edwards, D., et al., “Therapeutic effects and safety of Rhodiola rosea extract WS 1375 in subjects with life-stress symptoms—results of an open-label study,” Phytother Res 2012; 26(8):1220-25.

Iovieno, N., et al., “Second-tier natural antidepressants: review and critique,” Jour Effect Disord 2011; 130(3):343-57.

Kelly, G., “Rhodiola rosea: a possible plant adaptogen,” Altern Med Rev 2001; 6(3):293– 302.

Kim, S., et al., “Antioxidative effects of Cinnamomi cassiae and Rhodiola rosea extracts in liver of diabetic mice,” Biofactors 2006; 26(3):209-19.

Mao, J., et al., “Rhodiola rosea therapy for major depressive disorder: a study protocol for a randomized, double-blind, placebo- controlled trial,” Jour Clin Trials 2014; 4:170.

Noreen, E., et al., “The effects of an acute dose of Rhodiola rosea on endurance exercise performance,” Jour Strength Cond Res 2013; 27(3):839-47.

Olsson, E., et al., “A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of the standardised extract shr-5 of the roots of Rhodiola rosea in the treatment of subjects with stress-related fatigue,” Planta Med 2009;75(2):105-12.

Panossian, A., et al., “Rosenroot (Rhodiola rosea): traditional use, chemical composition, pharmacology and clinical efficacy,” Phytomed 2010; 17(7):481-93.

Panossian, A., et al., “Stimulating effect of adaptogens: an overview with particular reference to their efficacy following single dose administration,” Phytother Res 2005; 19(10):819–38.

Parisi, A., et al., “Effects of chronic Rhodiola Rosea supplementation on sport performance and antioxidant capacity in trained male: preliminary results,” Jour Sports Med Phys Fitness 2010; 50(1):57-63.

Sarris, J., “Herbal medicines in the treatment of psychiatric disorders: a systematic review,” Phytother Res 2007; 28(1):703-16.

Shevtsov, V., et al., “A randomized trial of two different doses of a SHR-5 Rhodiola rosea extract versus placebo and control of capacity for mental work,” Phytomedicine 2003; 10(2–3): 95–105.

Spanakis, M., et al., “Pharmacokinetic interaction between Losartan and Rhodiola rosea in rabbits,” Pharmacology 91(1-2):112-16.

Walker, T., et al., “Does Rhodiola rosea possess ergogenic properties?” Int Jour Sport Nutr Exercise Met 2006; 16(3):305-15.

 

Rosemary

al-Sereiti M., et al., “Pharmacology of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linn.) and its therapeutic potentials,” Indian Jour Exp Biol 1999; 37(2):124-30.

Bakirel, T., et al., “In vivo assessment of antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) in alloxan-diabetic rabbits,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 2008; 116(1):64-73.

Blumenthal, M., et al., (Ed.) Herbal Medicine: Expanded Commission E Monographs. Austin, Tx: American Botanical Council, 2000.

Braun, L., and Cohen, M., (Eds.) Herbs and Natural Supplements. 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

Chan, M., et al., “Effects of three dietary phytochemicals from tea, rosemary and turmeric on inflammation-induced nitrite production,” Cancer Lett 1995; 96(1):23-9.

Del Campo, J., et al., “Antimicrobial effect of rosemary extracts,” Jour Food Protect 2000; 63(10):1359-68.

Galisteo, M., et al., “Antihepatotoxic activity of Rosmarinus tomentosus in a model of acute hepatic damage induced by thioacetamide,” Phytother Res 2000; 14(7):522-26.

Ghasemzadeh Rahbardar, M., et al., “Anti-inflammatory effects of ethanolic extract of Rosmarinus officinalis L. and rosmarinic acid in a rat model of neuropathic pain,” Biomed Pharmacother 2017; 86:441-49.

Hugel, H., “Brain food for Alzheimer-free ageing: Focus on herbal medicines” Adv Exp Med Biol 2015; 863:95-116.

Karthik, D., et al., “Administration of rosmarinic acid reduces cardiopathology and blood pressure through inhibition of p22phoxNADPH oxidase in fructose-feed hypertensive rats,” Jour Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2011; 58(8):514-21.

Kosaka, K., et al., “Carnosic acid, a component of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), promotes synthesis of nerve growth factor in T-98g human glioblastoma cells,” Biol Pharm Bull 2003; 26(11):1620-22.

Machado, D., et al., “Antidepressant-like effect of the extract of Rosmarinus officinalis in mice: Involvement of the monoaminergic system,” Prog Neuro-Psychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2009; 33(4):642-50.

Mahady, G., et al., “In vitro susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to botanical extracts used traditionally for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders,” Phytother Res 2005; 19(11):988-91.

Murata, K., et al., “Promotion of hair growth by Rosmarinus officinalis leaf extract,” Phytother Res 2013; 27(2):212-17.

Nolkemper, S., et al., “Antiviral effect of aqueous extracts from species of the Lamiaceae family against herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in vitro,” Planta Med 2006; 72(15):1378-82.

Organisciak, D., et al., “Prevention of retinal light damage by zinc oxide combined with rosemary extract,” Mol Vis 2013; 19:1433-45.

Ouraini, D., et al., “Therapeutic approach to dermatophytoses by essential oils of some Moroccan aromatic plants,” Phytotherapie 2005; 3(1):3-12.

Panahi, Y., et al., “Rosemary oil vs minoxidil 2% for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia: a randomized comparative trial,” Skinmed 2015; 13(1)15-21.

Petersen, M., et al., “Rosmarinic acid,” Phytochem 2003; 6292):121-25.

Plouzek, C., et al., “Inhibition of P-glycoprotein activity and reversal of multidrug resistance in vitro by rosemary extract,” Eur Jour Cancer 1999; 35(10):1541-45.

Raskovic, A., et al., “Antioxidant activity of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) essential oil and its hepatoprotective potential,” BMC Complet Alter Med 2014; 14:225.

Romo-Vaquero, Ms., et al., “Bioavailability of the major bioactive diterpenoids in a rosemary extract: Metabolic profile in the intestine, liver, plasma, and brain of Zucker rats,” Mol Nutr Food Res 2013; 57:1834-46.

Seyedemadi, P., “The neuroprotective effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.). Hydro-alcoholic extract on cerebral ischemic tolerance in experimental stroke,” Iranian Jour Pharmaceutical Res 2016; 15(4), 875-83.

Svoboda, K., et al., “Case study: the effectives of essential selected oils on mood, concentration, and sleep in a group of 10 students monitored for 5 weeks,” Int Jour Aromather 2002; 12(3):157-61.

Tsai, T., et al., “Rosmarinus officinalis extract suppresses Propioni bacterium acnes-induced inflammatory responses,” Jour Med Food 2013; 16(4):324-33.

Ventura-Martinez, R., et al., “Spasmolytic activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. involves calcium channels in the guinea pig ileum,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 2011; 137(3):1528-32.

Vijayan, P., et al., “Antiviral activity of medicinal plants of Nilgiris,” Indian Jour Med Res 2004; 120(1):24-9.

 

Sage

Akhondzadeh, S., et al., “Herbal medicine in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease,” Amer Jour Alzheimers Dis Other Demen 2006; 21(2):113-18.

Akhondzadeh, S., et al., “Salvia officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: A double blind, randomized and placebo controlled trial,” Jour Clin Pharm Ther 2003; 28(1):53-9.

Aleksovski, A., et al., “Supercritical Co2 extraction of Salvia officinalis L,” Jour Supercrit Fluids 2007; 40:239–45.

Avato, P., et al., “Glandular hairs and essential oils in micro propagated plants of Salvia officinalis L,” Plant Sci 2005; 169:29–36.

Baricevic, D., et al., “Topical anti-inflammatory activity of Salvia officinalis L. leaves: The relevance of ursolic acid,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 2001; 75:125–32.

Bauer, J., et al., “Carnosol and carnosic acids from Salvia officinalis inhibit microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1,” Jour Pharmacol Exp Therapeut 2012; 342(1):169-76.

Behradmanesh, S., et al., “Effect of Salvia officinalis on diabetic patients,” Jour Renal Inj Prev 2013; 2(2):5-4.

Bommer, S., et al., “First time proof of sage's tolerability and efficacy in menopausal women with hot flashes,” Adv Ther 2011; 28:490–500.

Bozin, B., et al., “Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of rosemary and sage (Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) essential oils,” Jour Agric Food Chem 2007; 55(19):7879-85.

Braun, L., and Cohen, M. Herbs and Natural Supplements, 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

Capek, P., et al., “Scavenging and antioxidant activities of immunomodulating polysaccharides isolated from Salvia officinalis L.,” Int Jour Biol Macromol 2009; 44(1):75-80.

Christensen, K., et al., “Activation of the nuclear receptor PPARγ by metabolites isolated from sage (Salvia officinalis L.),” Jour Ethnopharmacol 2010; 132:127–33.

Eidi, M., et al., “Effect of Salvia officinalis L. leaves on serum glucose and insulin in healthy and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats,” Jour Ethnopharmcol 2005; 100:310–13.

Eidi, M., et al., “Effects of Salvia officinalis L. (sage) leaves on memory retention and its interaction with cholinergic system,” Nutrition 2006; 22:321–26.

Ferreira, A., et al., “The in vitro screening for acetylcholinesterase inhibition and antioxidant activity of medicinal plants from Portugal,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 2006; 108:31–7.

Hamidpour, M., et al., “Chemistry, pharmacology, and medicinal property of sage (Salvia) to prevent and cure illnesses such as obesity, diabetes, depression, dementia, lupus, autism, heart disease, and cancer,” Jour Trad Comp Med 2014; 4(2):82-8.

Hohmann, J., et al., “Phenylpropanoid glycosides and diterpenoids from Salvia officinalis,” Biochem Syst Ecol 2003; 31(4):427-29.

Horiuchi, K., et al., “Antimicrobial activity of oleanolic acid from Salvia officinali s and related compounds on vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE),” Biol Pharm Bull 2007; 30(6):1147-49.

Imanshadi, M., et al., “The pharmacological effects of Salvia species on the central nervous system,” Phytother Res 2006; 20:427–37.

Jedinak, A., et al., “Antiprotease and antimetastatic activity of ursolic acid isolated from Salvia officinalis,” Z Naturforsch C 2006; 61:777–82.

Kamatou, P., et al., “Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory activities and HPLC analysis of South African Salvia species,” Food Chem 2010; 119:684–88.

Kennedy, D., et al., “Effects of cholinesterase inhibiting sage (Salvia officinalis) on mood, anxiety and performance on a psychological stressor battery,” Neuropsychopharmacology 2006; 31(4):845-52.

Kennedy, D., et al., “Herbal extracts and phytochemicals: Plant Secondary Metabolites and the enhancement of human brain function,” Adv Nutri 2011; 2(1):32-50.

Kennedy, D., et al., “The pharmacology of European herbs with cognition enhancing properties,” Curr Pharm Des 2006; 12(35):4613-23.

Kermanshah, H., et al., “In vitro evaluation of antibacterial activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Salvia officinalis and Pimpinella anisum against cariogenic bacteria,” Jour Dent Med 2009; 22:149–54.

Keshavarz, M., et al., “Anti-tumor activity of Salvia officinalis is due to its anti-angiogenic, anti-migratory and anti-proliferative effects,” Cell Jour 2011; 12:477–82.

Khan, A., et al., “Antidiarrheal andantispasmodic activities of Salvia officinalis are mediated through activation of K + channels,” Jour Bangladesh Pharmacol Soc 2011; 6:111–16.

Kianbakht, S., et al., “Antihyperlipidemic effects of Salvia officinalis L.) leaf extract in patients with hyperlipidemia: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial,” Phytother Res 2011; 25(12):1849-53.

Kontogianni, V., et al., “Phytochemical profile of Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis extracts and correlation to their antioxidant and anti-proliferative activity,” Food Chem 2013; 13691):120-29.

Lima, C., et al., “The drinking of a Salvia officinalis infusion improves liver antioxidant status in mice and rats,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 2005; 97(2):383-89.

Lima, C., et al., “Metformin-like effect of Salvia officinalis (common sage): is it useful in diabetes prevention?” Brit Jour Nutr 2006; 96(2):326-33.

Loizzo, M., et al., “In vitro inhibitory activities of plants used in Lebanon traditional medicine against angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and digestive enzymes related to diabetes,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 2008; 119(1):109-16.

Lu, Y., et al., “Flavonoid and phenolic glycosides from Salvia officinalis,” Phytochemistry 2000; 55:263–67.

Luvone, T., et al., “The spice sage and its active ingredient rosmarinic acid protect PC12 cells from amyloid-beta Peptide-induced neurotoxicity,” Jour Pharmacol Exp Ther 2006; 317:1143–49.

Mayer, B., et al., “Gastroprotective constituents of Salvia officinalis L.,” Fitoterapia. 2009; 80(7):421-26.

Mayer, E., et al., “Allergic contact dermatitis caused by Salvia officinalis extract,” Contact Dermatitis 2011; 64(4):237-38.

Moss, L., et al., “Differential effects of the aromas of Salvia species on memory and mood,” Hum Psychopharmacol 2010; 25:388–96.

Nickavar, B., et al., “In vitro free radical scavenging activity of five Salvia species,” Pak Jour Pharm Sci 2007; 20:291–94.

Ninomiya, K., et al., “Carnosic acid, a new class of lipid absorption inhibitor from sage,” Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2004; 14:1943–46.

Orhan, I., et al., “Assessment of anticholinesterase and antioxidant properties of selected sage (Salvia) species with their total phenol and flavonoid contents,” Industrial Crops Prod 2013; 41:21-30.

Perry, N., et al., “Salvia for dementia therapy: Review of pharmacologyical activity and pilot tolerability clinical trial,” Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2003; 75:651–59.

Petersen, M., et al., “Rosmarinic acid,” Phytochemistry 2003; 62(2):121-25.

Poeckel, D., et al., “Carnosic acid and carnosol potently inhibit human 5-lipoxygenase and suppress pro-inflammatory responses of stimulated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes,” Biochem Pharmacol 2008; 76(1):91-7.

Rami, K., et al., “Antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Salvia officinalis L. collected in Syria,” Afr Jour Biotech 2011; 10:8397–402.

Sa, C., et al., “Sage tea drinking improves lipid profile and antioxidant defenses in humans,” Int Jour Mol Sci 2009; 10:3937–50.

Sajjadi, F., et al., “The effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Salvia officinal on diabetic patients,” Jour Res Med Sci2003; 4:318–24.

Schapowal, A., et al., “Echinacea/sage or chlorhexidine/lidocaine for treating acute sore throats: a randomized double-blind trial,” Eur Jour Med Res 2009; 14(9):406-12.

Scholey, A., et al., “An extract of Salvia (sage) with anticholinesterase properties improves memory and attention in healthy older volunteers,” Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2008; 198(1):127-39.

Smidling, D., et al., “Evaluation of antiviral activity of fractionated extracts of Sage Salvia officinalis L (Lamiaceae),” Arch Biol Sci Belgrade 2008; 60:421-29.

Stanojevic, D., et al., “In vitro synergistic antibacterial activity of Salvia officinalis and some preservatives,” Arch Biol Sci Belgrade 2010; 62:175–83.

Tildesley, N., “Salvia lavandulaefolia (Spanish sage) enhances memory in healthy young volunteers,” Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2003; 75:669–74.

Walch, S., et al., “Antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic composition as quality indicators for aqueous infusions of Salvia officinalis L,” Front Pharmacol 2011; 2:29.

Wang, Z., et al., “Treating type 2 diabetes mellitus with traditional Chinese and Indian medicinal herbs,” Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013; 2013:343594.

Witchl, M., Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1993.

Yurtseven, S., et al., “Effect of sage extract (Salvia officinalis) on growth performance, blood parameters, oxidative stress and DNA damage in partridges,” South Afr Jour Anim Sci 2008; 38:145–52.

 

Saw Palmetto

Agbabiaka, T., et al., “Serenoa repens (saw palmetto): a systematic review of adverse events,” Drug Saf 2009; 32(8):637-47.

Al Shukri, S., et al., “Early urodynamic effects of the lipido-sterolic extract of Serenoa repens (Permixon(R)) in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms due to benign prostatic hyperplasia,” Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 2000; 3(3):195-99.

Avins, S., et al., “A detailed safety assessment of a saw palmetto extract,” Complement Ther Med 2008; 16:147-54.

Barry, M., et al., “Effect of increasing doses of saw palmetto on lower urinary tract symptoms: a randomized trial,” JAMA 2011; 306:1344-51.

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.

Bonnar-Pizzorno, R., et al., “Saw palmetto supplement use and prostate cancer risk,” Nutr Cancer 2006; 55(1):21-7.

Braeckman, J., “The extract of serenoa repens in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a multicenter open study,” Curr Ther Res 1994; 55:776-85.

Braeckman, J., et al., “A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the plant extract Serenoa repens in the treatment of benign hyperplasia of the prostate,” Eur Jour Clin Res 1997; 9:247-59.

Braeckman, J., et al., “Efficacy and safety of the extract of Serenoa repens in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: therapeutic equivalence between twice and once daily dosage forms,” Phytother Res 1997; 11:558-63.

Braun, L., and Cohen, M., (Eds.) Herbs and Natural Supplements. 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

Breu, W., et al., “Anti-inflammatory activity of sabal fruit extracts prepared with supercritical carbon dioxide: in vitro antagonist of cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase metabolism,” Arzneimittelforschung 1992; 42(4):547-51.

Buck, A., “Phytotherapy for the prostate,” Brit Jour Urol 1996; 78(3):325-36.

Casner, P., “Saw palmetto for benign prostatic hyperplasia,” NEJM 2006; 354(18):1950-51.

Chan, J., et al., “Total and specific complementary and alternative medicine use in a large cohort of men with prostate cancer,” Urology 2005; 66(6):1223-28.

Cheema, P., et al., “Intraoperative haemorrhage associated with the use of extract of Saw Palmetto herb: a case report and review of literature,” Jour Intern Med 2001; 250:167-69.

Dedhia, R., et al., “Phytotherapy for lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia,” Jour Urol 2008; 179(6):2119-25.

Di Silverio, F., et al., “Effects of long-term treatment with Serenoa repens (Permixon) on the concentration and regional distribution of androgens and epidermal growth factor in benign prostatic hyperplasia,” Prostate 1998; 37(2):77-83.

Di Silverio, F., et al., “Zonal distribution of androgens and epidermal growth factor (EGF) in human BPH tissue: responsiveness to flutamide, finasteride, and Serenoa repens administration,” Brit Jour Urol 1997; 80(Suppl 2):214.

Dimitrakov, J., “Saw palmetto for benign prostatic hyperplasia,” NEJM 2006; 354(18):1950-51.

Djavan, B., et al., “Progression delay in men with mild symptoms of bladder outlet obstruction: a comparative study of phytotherapy and watchful waiting,” World Jour Urol 2005; 23(4):253-56.

el Sheikh, M., et al., “The effect of Permixon on androgen receptors,” Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1988; 67(5):397-99.

Gerber, G., Saw palmetto for the treatment of men with lower urinary tract symptoms,” Jour Urol 2000; 163(5):1408-12.

Gerber, G. et al., “Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of saw palmetto in men with lower urinary tract symptoms,” Urology 2001; 58(6):960-64.

Giannakopoulos, X., et al., “The lipidosterolic extract of Serenoa repens in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a comparison of two dosage regimens,” Adv Ther 2002; 19(6):285-96.

Giulianelli, R., et al.,”Multicentre study on the efficacy and tolerability of an extract of Serenoa repens in patients with chronic benign prostate conditions associated with inflammation,” Arch Ital Urol Androl 2012; 84(2):94-8.

Goldmann, W., et al., “Saw palmetto berry extract inhibits cell growth and Cox-2 expression in prostatic cancer cells,” Cell Biol Int 2001; 25:1117-24.

Gordon, E., et al., “Saw palmetto for prostate disorders,” Amer Fam Phys 2003; 67(6):1281-83.

Greca, P., et al., “Experience with a new drug in the medical treatment of prostatic adenoma,” Urologia 1985; 52:532-35.

Ishii, K., et al., “Extract from Serenoa repens suppresses the invasion activity of human urological cancer cells by inhibiting urokinase-type plasminogen activator,” Biol Pharm Bull 2001; 24(2):188-90.

Jibrin, I., et al., “Saw palmetto-induced pancreatitis,” South Med Jour 2006; 99:611-12.

Lapi, F., et al., “Acute liver damage due to Serenoa repens: a case report,” Brit Jour Clin Pharmacol 2010; 69(5):558-60.

Lee, J., et al., “Recruitment of participants to a clinical trial of botanical therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia,” Jour Altern Complement Med 2011; 17(5):469-72.

Levin, R., et al., “A scientific basis for the therapeutic effects of Pygeum africanum and Serenoa repens,” Urol Res 2000; 28(3):201-09.

Magri, V., et al., “Efficacy of repeated cycles of combination therapy for the eradication of infecting organisms in chronic bacterial prostatitis,” Int Jour Antimicrob Agents 2007; 29(5):549-56.

Magri, V., et al., “Reduction of PSA values by combination pharmacological therapy in patients with chronic prostatitis: implications for prostate cancer detection,” Arch Ital Urol Androl 2007; 79(2):84-92.

Mandressi, A., “Treatment of uncomplicated benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) by an extract of Serenoa repens: clinical results,” Jour Endocrinol Invest 1987; 10 (Suppl 2):49.

Marks, L., et al., “Effects of a saw palmetto herbal blend in men with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia,” Jour Urol 2000; 163:1451-56.

Morgia, G., et al., “Treatment of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome category IIIA with Serenoa repens plus selenium and lycopene (Profluss) versus S. repens alone: an Italian randomized multicenter-controlled study,” Urol Int 2010; 84(4):400-06.

Paoletti, P., et al., “Medical treatment of prostatic hypertrophy. Experience with Serenoa repens extract,” Urologia 1986; 53:182-87.

Plosker, G., et al., “Serenoa repens (Permixon). A review of its pharmacology and therapeutic efficacy in benign prostatic hyperplasia,” Drugs Aging 1996; 9(5):379-95.

Prager, N., et al., “A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of botanically derived inhibitors of 5-alpha-reductase in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia,” Jour Altern Complement Med 2002; 8:143-52.

Reece-Smith, H., et al., “The value of Permixon in benign prostatic hypertrophy,” Brit Jour Urol 1986; 58(1):36-40.

Scholtysek, C., et al., “Characterizing components of the Saw palmetto berry extract (SPBE) on prostate cancer cell growth and traction,” Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2009; 379(3):795-98.

Shi, R., et al., “Effect of saw palmetto soft gel capsule on lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia: a randomized trial in Shanghai, China,” Jour Urol 2008; 179(2):610-15.

Van Coppenolle, F., et al., “Pharmacological effects of the lipidosterolic extract of Serenoa repens (Permixon) on rat prostate hyperplasia induced by hyperprolactinemia: comparison with finasteride,” Prostate 2000; 43(1):49-58.

Vela Navarrete, R., et al., “BPH and Inflammation: pharmacological effects of Permixon on histological and molecular inflammatory markers. Results of a double blind pilot clinical assay,” Eur Urol 2003; 44:549-55.

Villanueva, S., et al., “Coagulopathy induced by saw palmetto: a case report,” Bol Asoc Med P.R. 2009; 101(3):48-50.

Wargo, K., et al., “A possible case of saw palmetto-induced pancreatitis,” South Med Jour 2010; 103(7):683-85.

Webber, R., “Benign prostatic hyperplasia,” Clin Evid. 2005; (14):1076-91.

Willetts, K., et al., “Serenoa repens extract for benign prostate hyperplasia: a randomized controlled trial,” BJU Int 2003; 92:267-70.

 

Skullcap

American Skullcap

Awad, R., et al., “Phytochemical and biological analysis of skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora L.): a medicinal plant with anxiolytic properties,” Phytomed 2003; 10(8):640-49.

Brock, C., et al., “American Skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora): a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study of its effects on mood in healthy volunteers,” Phytother Res 2014; 28(5):692-98.

Sarris, J., et al., “Herbal medicine for depression, anxiety and insomnia: a review of psychopharmacology and clinical evidence,” Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2011; 21(12):841-60.

Wolfson, P., et al., “An investigation into the efficacy of Scutellaria lateriflora in healthy volunteers,” Altern Ther Health Med 2003; 9:74-8.

Zhang, Z., et al., “Characterization of chemical ingredients and anticonvulsant activity of American skullcap,” Phytomedicine 2009; 16:485-93.

 

Chinese Skullcap

Amosova, E., et al., “The search for new anti-ulcer agents from plants in Siberia and the Far East,” Eksp Clin Farmakol 1998; 61(6):31-5.

Arweiler, N., et al., “Clinical and antibacterial effect of anti-inflammatory toothpaste formulation with Scutellaria baicalensis extract on experimental gingivitis,” Clin Oral Investig 2011; 15(6):909-13.

Bak, E., et al., “Wogonin ameliorates hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia via PPARalpha activation in db-db mice,” Clin Nutri 2013; S0261-5614(13):00091-5.

Blaszczyk, T., et al., “Screening for antimycotic properties of 56 traditional Chinese drugs” Phytother Res 2000; 14(3):210-12.

Braun, L., and Cohen, M. Herbs and Natural Supplements, 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

Butenko, I., et al., “Anti-inflammatory properties and inhibition of leukotriene C4 biosynthesis in vitro by flavonoid baicalein from Scutellaria baicalensis georgi roots,” Agents Actions 39(spect no) 1993; C49-51.

Chan, B., et al., “Synergistic effects of baicalein with ciprofloxacin against NorA over-expressed methylcillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and inhibition of MRSA pyruvate kinase,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 2011; 137:767-73.

Chang, W., et al., “Baicalein protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by attenuation of mitochondrial oxidant injury and JNK activation,” Jour Cell Biochem 2011; 112(10):2873-81.

Chang, W., et al., “Different effects of baicalein, baicalin and wogonin on mitochondrial function, glutathione content and cell cycle progression in human hepatoma cell lines,” Planta Med 2002; 68(2):128-32.

Chen, L., et al., “Wogonin, a bioactive flavonoid in herbal tea, inhibits inflammatory cyclooxyagenase-2 gene expression in human lung epithelial cancer cells,” Mol Nutri Food Res 2008; 52(11):1349-57.

Cheng, P., et al., “Protective effect of baicalein against endotoxic shock in rats in vivo and in vitro,” Biochem Pharmacol 2007; 73(6):793-804.

Gasiorowski, K., et al., “Flavones from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi: drugs of the future in neurogeneration,” CNS Neur Disorders Drug Targets 2011; 10(2):184-91.

Hirayama, C., et al., “A multicenter randomized clinical controlled clinical trial of Sho-Saiko-to in chronic active hepatitis” Gastroenterol Jpn 1989; 24(6):715-19.

Hour, M., “Baicalein, ethyl acetate, and chloroform extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis inhibit the neuraminidase activity of pandemic 2009 H1N1 and seasonal influenza A viruses,” Evidenced-based Complement Altern Med 2013.

Huang, R., et al., “Anti-hepatitis B virus effects of wogonin isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis,” Planta Med 2000; 66:694-98.

Hui, K., et al., “Anxiolytic effect of wogonin, a benzodiazepine receptor ligand isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis Gorgi,” Biochem Pharmacol 2002; 64(9):1415-24.

Jung, H., et al., “Antiallergic effects of Scutellaria baicalensis on inflammation in vivo and in vitro,” Jour Ethno Pharmacol 2012; 141(1):345-49.

Kang, T., et al., “Effect of baicalein from Scutellaria baicalensis on prevention of noise-induced hearing loss,” Neurosci Lett 2010; 469(3):298-302.

Kubo, M., et al., “Scutellaria radix. X: Inhibitory effects of various flavonoids on histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells in vitro,” Chem Pharm Bull 1984; 32(12):5051-54.

Kumagai, T., et al., “Scutellaria baicalensis, a herbal medicine: anti-proliferative and apoptotic activity against acute lymphocytic leukemia, lymphoma and myeloma cell lines,” Leuk Res 2007; 31:523-30.

Lai, M., et al., “Significant decrease of cyclosporine bioavailability in rats caused by a decoction of the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis,” Plant Med 2004; 7092):132-37.

Lee, C., et al., “Pharmacological effects and pharmacokinetics properties of radix scutellariae and its bioactive flavones,” Biopharm Drug Dispos 2011; 32:427-45.

Lin, C., et al., “In vivo hepatoprotective effect of baicalin, balcalein and wogonin from Scutellaria rivularis,” Phytother Res 1996; 10(8):451-64.

Linnebur, S., et al., “Hepatotoxicity associated with Chinese skullcap contained in Move Free Advanced dietary supplement: two case reports and review of the literature,” Pharmacotherapy 2010; 30:750, 258e-262e.

Makino, T., et al., “Comparison of the major flavonoid content of S. baicalensis, S. lateriflora, and their commercial products,” Jour Nat Med 2008; 62(3):294-99.

Mehendale, S., et al., “Scutellaria baicalensis and a constituent flavonoid, baicalein, attenuate ritonavir induced gastrointestinal side-effects,” Jour Pharm Pharmcol 2007; 59(11):1567-72.

Nan, G., et al., “Scutellaria baicalensis inhibits liver fibrosis induced by bile duct ligation or carbon tetrachloride in rats,” Jour Pharm Pharmacol 2002; 54(4):555-63.

Narita, Y., et al., “Treatment of epileptic patients with the Chinese herbal medicine ‘Saiko-Keishi-To’ SK,” IRCS Sci 1982; 10(2):88-9.

Regulska-Ilow, B., et al., “Influence of bioflavonoids from the Radix extract of Scutellaria baicalensis on the level of serum lipids, and the development of laboratory rats feed with fresh and oxidized fats,” Nahrung 2004; 48(2):123-28.

Sarris, J., et al., “Herbal medicine for depression, anxiety and insomnia: a review of psychopharmacology and clinical evidence,” Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2011; 21(12):841-60.

Shao, Z., et al., “Baicalein attenuates oxidant stress in cardiomyocytes,” Amer Jour Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2002; 282:H999-H1006.

Shen, Y., et al., “Mechanisms in mediating the anti-inflammatory effects of baicalin and balcalein in human leukocytes,” Eur Jour Pharmacol 2003; 465(1-2):171-81.

Takizawa, H., et al., “Prostaglandin 12 contributes to the vasodepressor effect of baicalein in hypertensive rats,” Hypertension 1998; 31(3):866-71.

Yamashiki, M., et al., “Herbal medicine sho-saiko-to induces in vitro granulocytes colony-stimulating factor production on peripheral blood mononuclear cells,” Jour Clin Lab Immunol 1992; 3792):83-90.

 

                                                                                                                            

St. John’s Wort

Ang-Lee, M., et al., “Herbal medicines and perioperative care,” JAMA 2001; 286:208-16.

Beaubrun, G., et al., “A review of herbal medicines for psychiatric disorders,” Psychiatr Serv 2000; 51:1130-34.

Bennett, D., et al., “Neuropharmacology of St. John’s wort (Hyericum),” Ann Pharmacother 1998; 32(11):1201-08.

Biffignandi, P., et al., “The growing knowledge of St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L) drug interactions and their clinical significance,” Curr Ther Res 2000; 61:389-94.

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.

Blumenthal M, Goldberg A, Brinckmann J. Herbal Medicine: Expanded Commission E Monographs. Newton, MA: Integrative Medicine Communications; 2000.

Braun, L., and Cohen, M. Herbs and Natural Supplements, 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

Breidenbach, T., et al., “Jour Drug interaction with St. John's wort with cyclosporine,” Lancet 2000; 355:576-77.

Brenner, R., et al., “Comparison of an extract of hypericum (LI 160) and sertraline in the treatment of depression: a double-blind, randomized pilot study,” Clin Ther 2000; 22:411-19.

Briese, V., et al., “Black cohosh with or without St. John's wort for symptom-specific climacteric treatment— results of a large-scale, controlled, observational study,” Maturitas 2007; 57:405-14.

Carai, M., et al., “Potential use of medicinal plants in the treatment of alcoholism,” Fitoterapia 2000; 71:538-42.

Carpenter, D., “St. John's wort and S-adenosyl methionine as "natural" alternatives to conventional antidepressants in the era of the suicidality boxed warning: what is the evidence for clinically relevant benefit?” Altern Med Rev 2011; 16:17-39.

Chatterjee, S., et al., “Hyperforin as a possible antidepressant component of hypericum extracts,” Life Sci 1998; 63(6):499-510.

Chung, D., et al., “Black cohosh and St. John's wort (GYNO-Plus) for climacteric symptoms,” Yonsei Med Jour 2007; 48:289-94.

Cott, J., et al., “In vitro receptor binding and enzyme inhibition by Hypericum perforatum extract,” Pharmacopsychiatry 1997; 30:108-112.

Fava M., et al., “A Double-blind, randomized trial of St John's wort, fluoxetine, and placebo in major depressive disorder,” Jour Clin Psychopharmacol 2005; 25(5):441-47.

Food and Drug Administration. Risk of Drug Interactions with St John's Wort and Indinavir and Other Drugs. Rockville, MD: National Press Office, 2000, Public Health Advisory.

Gaster, B., et al., “St. John's wort for depression,” Arch Intern Med 2000; 160:152-56.

Geller, S., et al., “Botanical and dietary supplements for mood and anxiety in menopausal women,” Menopause 2007; 14(3 Pt 1):541-49.

Harrer, G., et al., “Treatment of mild/moderate depression with Hypericum,” Phytomedicine 1994; 1:3-8.

Hypericum Depression Trial Study Group. “Effect of Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort) in major depressive disorder: a randomized controlled trial,” JAMA 2002; 287:1807-14.

Kasper, S., et al., “Superior efficacy of St John's wort extract WS 5570 compared to placebo in patients with major depression: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-center trial,” BMC Med 2006; 4:14.

Kinde, K., et al., “St. John’s wort for depression—an overview and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials,” Brit Med Jour 1996; 313:253-58.

Kobak, K., et al., “St John's wort versus placebo in obsessive-compulsive disorder: results from a double-blind study,” Int Clin Psychopharmacol 2005; 20:299-304.

Kobak, K., et al., “St. John's wort versus placebo in social phobia: results from a placebo-controlled pilot study,” Jour Clin Psychopharmacol 2005; 25:51-8.

Kumar, A., et al., “Protective effect of St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) extract on 72-hour sleep deprivation-induced anxiety-like behavior and oxidative damage in mice,” Planta Med 2007; 73:1358-64.

Linde, K., et al., “St. John’s wort for depression—an overview and meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials,” Brit Med Jour 1996; 313:253–58.

Mischoulon, D., “Update and critique of natural remedies as antidepressant treatments,” Psychiatr Clin North Amer 2007; 30:51-68.

Morelli, V., et al., “Alternative therapies: Part 1. Depression, diabetes, obesity,” Amer Fam Phys 2000; 62:1051-60.

Neary, J., et al., “Hypericum, LI 160 inhibits uptake of serotonin and norephinephrine in astrocytes,” Brain Res 1999; 816(2):358–63.

Obach, R., “Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 enzymes by constituents of St. John's wort, an herbal preparation in the treatment of depression,” Jour Pharmacol Exp Ther 2000; 294:88-95.

Rakel, D., Rakel: Integrative Medicine, 3rd Ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012.

Rotblatt, M., Ziment, I., Evidence-Based Herbal Medicine. Philadelphia, Penn: Hanley & Belfus, Inc. 2002.

Sarino, L., et al., “Drug interaction between oral contraceptives and St. John's wort: appropriateness of advice received from community pharmacists and health food store clerks,” Jour Amer Pharm Assoc 2007; 47:42-7.

Sarrell, E., et al., “Efficacy of naturopathic extracts in the management of ear pain associated with acute otitis media,” Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2001; 155:796-99.

Sarris, J.,” St. John's wort for the treatment of psychiatric disorders,” Psychiatr Clin North Amer 2013; 36:65-72.

Schempp, C., et al., “Topical application of St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L) and of its metabolite hyperforin inhibits the allostimulatory capacity of epidermal cells,” Brit Jour Derm 2000 ; 142:979-84.

Shelton, R., et al., “Effectiveness of St. John's wort in major depression: a randomized controlled trial,” JAMA 2001; 285:1978-86.

Sood, A., et al., “Potential for interactions between dietary supplements and prescription medications,” Amer Jour Med 2008; 121:207-11.

Stevinson, C., et al., “A pilot study of Hypericum perforatum for the treatment of premenstrual syndrome,” Brit Jour Obstetrics Gynaecolog 2000; 107:870-76.

Volz, H., et al., “Potential treatment for subthreshold and mild depression: a comparison of St. John's wort extracts and fluoxetine,” Comp Psych 2000; 41(2 Suppl 1):133-37.

Werbach, M., Botanical Influences on Illness. Tarzana CA: Third Line Press, Inc., 2000.

 

Stinging Nettle

Braun, L., Herbs and Natural Supplements. 4th Ed. Sydney: Elsevier, 2015.

Chrubasik, J., et al., “A comprehensive review on the stinging nettle effect and efficacy profiles. Part II: urticae radix,” Phytomed 2007; 14(7-8):568-79.

Ghorbanibirgani, A., et al.., “The efficacy of Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia: A randomized double-blind study in 100 patients,” Iran Red Crescent Med Jour 2013; 15(1):9-10.

Kantoff, P., and Carrol, P., Prostate Cancer Principles and Practice. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2002.

Koch, E., “Extracts from fruits of saw palmetto (Sabal serrulata) and roots of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica): viable alternatives in the medical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and associated lower urinary tracts symptoms,” Planta Med 2001; 67(6):489-500.

Macfarlane, M., Urology. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2006.

Mills, S., and Bone, K.,  Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy. London: Churchill Livingstone; 2000.

 

Thyme

Ahmad, A., et al., “Reversal of efflux mediated antifungal resistance underlies synergistic activity of two monoterpenes with fluconazole,” Eur Jour Pharm Sci 2013; 48(1-2):80-6.

Bahadoran, P., et al., “Investigating the therapeutic effect of vaginal cream containing garlic and thyme compared to clotrimazole cream for the treatment of mycotic vaginitis,” Iran Jour Nurs Midwifery Res 2010; 15(Suppl 1): 343-49.

Braun, L., and Cohen, M., (Eds.) Herbs and Natural Supplements. 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

Mindell, E., and Smith, P., What You Must Know About Allergy Relief. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers, 2016.

Newell, C., et al., Herbal Medicines: A Guide for Health Care Professionals. London: The Pharmaceutical Press. 1996.

Rana, P., et al., “Antioxidant potential of thyme extract: alleviations of N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced oxidative stress,” Hum Exp Toxicol 2008; 27(3):215-21.

Sienkiewicz, M., et al., “Antibacterial activity of thyme and lavender essential oils,” Med Chem 2011; 7(6):137-48.

Taherian, A., et al., “Antinociceptive effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Thymus vulgaris,Pak Jour Pharm Sci 2009; 2291):83-9.

Tohidpour, A., et al., “Antibacterial effect of essential oils from two medicinal plants against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRS),” Phytomed 2010; 17(2):142-45.

Tsai, M., et al., “Antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of essential oils from five selected herbs,” Biosci Biotechol Biochem 2011; 75(10):1977-83.

Wagner, L., et al., “Herbal medicine for cough: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Forsch Komplementmed 2015 ;22(6):359-68.

Wienkotter, N., et al., “The effect of thyme extract on beta2-receptors and mucociliary clearance,” Planta Med 2007; 73(7):629-35.

Woolard, A., et al., “The influence of essential oils on the process of wound healing: a review of the current evidence,” Jour Wound Care 2007; 16(6):255-57.

World Health Organization Department of Essential Drugs and Medicines Policy (EDM): Essential drugs and medicines policy: Herba Thym Geneva, WHO 2003; 259-66.

Zu, Y., et al., “Activities of ten essential oils towards Propionbacterium acnes and PC-3, A-549, and MCF-7 cancer cells,” Molecules 2010; 15(5):3200-10.

 

Valerian

Anderson, G., et al., “Pharmacokinetics of valerenic acid after administration of valerian in healthy subjects,” Phytother Res 2005; 19(9):801-03.

Andreatini, R., et al., “Effect of valepotriates (valerian extract) in generalized anxiety disorder: a randomized placebo-controlled pilot study,” Phytother Res 2002; 16:650-54.

Bent, S., et al., “Valerian for sleep: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Amer Jour Med 2006; 119(12):1005-12.

Braun, L., and Cohen, M. Herbs and Natural Supplements, 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

Cropley, M., et al., “Effect of kava and valerian on human physiological and psychological responses to mental stress assessed under laboratory conditions,” Phytother Res 2002; 16:23-7.

Cuellar, N., et al., “Does valerian improve sleepiness and symptom severity in people with restless legs syndrome?” Altern Ther health Med 2009; 15(2):22-8.

Ernst, E., et al., The Desk Top Guide to Complementary and Alternative Medicine: An Evidence-Based Approach. St. Louis: Mosby, 2001.

Felgentreff, F., et al., “Valerian extract characterized by high valerenic acid and low acetoxy valerenic acid contents demonstrate anxiolytic activity,” Phytomedicine 2012; 19(13):1216-22.

Hadley, S., et al., “Valerian,” Amer Fam Physician 2003; 67:1755-58.

Kuhlmann, J., et al., “The influence of valerian treatment on ‘reaction time, alertness and concentration’ in volunteers,” Pharmacopsychiatry 1999; 32:235-41.

Leathwood, P., et al., “Aqueous extract of valerian reduces latency to fall asleep in man,” Planta Med 1985; 54:144-48.

Mills, S., and Bone, K., Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy. London: Churchill/Livingstone, 2000.

Mirabi, P., et al., “Effects of valerian on the severity and systemic manifestations of dysmenorrhea,” Int Jour Gynaecol Obstet 2011; 115(3):285-88.

Murray, M., “Valeriana officinalis (Valerian),” In Textbook of Natural Medicine, 4th Ed. by Pizzorno, J., and Murray, M., St. Louis: Elsevier, 2013.

Pakseresht, S., et al., “Extract of valerian root (Valeriana officinalis L.) vs. placebo in treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder: a randomized double-blind study,” Jour Comple Integr Med 2011; 8(1): article 32.

Poyares, D., et al., “Can valerian improve the sleep of insomniacs with benzodiazepine withdrawal?” Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2002; 26:539-45.

Rezvani, M., et al., “Anticonvulsant effect of aqueous extract of Valeriana officinalis in amygdala-kindled rats: possible involvement of adenosine,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 2010; 127(2):313-18.

Stevinson, C., et al., “Valerian for insomnia: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials,” Sleep Med 2000; 1:91-9.

Taavoni, S., et al., “Effect of valerian on sleep quality in postmenopausal women: a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial,” Menopause 2011; 18(9):951-55.

Taibi, D., et al., “Valerian use for sleep disturbances related to rheumatoid arthritis,” Holist Nurs Pract 2004; 18(3):120-26.

Wheatley, D., “Kava and valerian in the treatment of stress-induced insomnia,” Phytother Res 2001; 15(6):549-51.

Yuan, C., et al., “The gamma-aminobutyric acidergic effects of valerian and valerenic acid on rat brainstem neuronal activity,” Anesth Analg 2004; 98(2):353-58.

Ziegler, G., et al., “Efficacy and tolerability of valerian extract L1 156 compared with oxazepam in the treatment of non-organic insomnia—a randomized, double-blind, comparative clinical study,” Eur Jour Med Res 2002; 7:480-86.

 

White Willow Bark Extract

Biegert, C., et al., “Efficacy and safety of Willow bark extract in the treatment of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis: results of 2 randomized double-blind controlled trials,” Jour Rheumatol 2004; 31(11):2121-30.

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.

Braun, L., and Cohen, M., (Eds.) Herbs and Natural Supplements. 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

Cameron, M., et al., “Evidence of effectiveness of herbal medicinal products in the treatment of arthritis Part I: Osteoarthritis,” Phytother Res 2009; 23(11):1497-1515.

Chrubasik, S., et al., “Treatment of low back pain exacerbations with willow bark extract: a randomized double-blind study,” Amer Jour Med 2000; 109:9-14.

Ernst, E., et al., “Phyto-anti-inflammatories. A systematic review of randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials,” Rheum Dis Clin North Amer 2000; 26(1):13-27.

Freischmidt, A., et al., “Contribution of flavonoids and catechol to the reduction of ICAM-1 expression in endothelial cells by a standardised Willow bark extract,” Phytomedicine 2012; 19(3-4):245-52.

Fugh-Berman, A., “Herb-drug interactions,” Lancet 2000; 355:134-38.

Gagnier, J., et al., “Herbal medicine for low back pain,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006; (2):CD004504.

Heck, A., et al., “Potential interactions between alternative therapies and warfarin,” Amer Jour Health Syst Pharm 2000; 57(13):1221-27.

Ischikado, A., et al., “Willow bark extract increases antioxidant enzymes and reduces oxidative stress through activation of Nrf-2 in vascular endothelial cells and Caenorhabditis elegans,” Free Radic Biol Med 2013; 65:1506-15.

Nahrstedt, A., et al., “Willow bark extract: the contribution of polyphenols to the overall effect,” Wien Med Wochenschr 2007; 157(13-14):348-51.

Rountree, R., Immunotics. New York, NY: Berkley Publishing Group, 2000.

Schmid, B., et al., “Efficacy and tolerability of a standardized willow bark extract in patients with osteoarthritis: randomized placebo-controlled, double blind clinical trial,” Phytother Res 2001; 15(4):344-50.

Setty, A., et al., “Herbal medications commonly used in the practice of rheumatology: mechanisms of action, efficacy, and side effects,” Semin Arthritis Rheum 2005; 34(6):773-84.

Shalansky, S., et al., “Risk of warfarin-related bleeding events and supratherapeutic international normalized ratios associated with complementary and alternative medicine: a longitudinal analysis,” Pharmacotherapy 2007; 27(9):1237-47.

Stevans, J., Saper, R., “Chronic Low Back Pain.” In Rakel, D., Integrative Medicine 3rd Ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier, 2012.

Uehleke, B., et al., “Willow bark extract STW 33-I in the long-term treatment of outpatients with rheumatic pain mainly osteoarthritis or back pain,” Phytomedicine 2013; 20(11):980-84.

Ulrich-Merzenich, G., et al., “Novel neurological and immunological targets for salicylate-base phytopharmaceuticals and for the anti-depressant imipramine,” Phytomed 2012; 19(10):930-39.

Vlachojannis, J., et al., “Willow species and aspirin: different mechanism of actions,” Phytother Res 2011; 25(7):1102-04.

 

CHAPTER 6: OTHER NUTRIENTS

Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA)

Alleva, R., et al., “Alpha lipoic acid supplementation inhibits oxidative damage, accelerating chronic wound healing in patients undergoing hyperbaric oxygen therapy,” Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2005; 333:404-10.

Ametov, A., et al., “The sensory symptoms of diabetic polyneuropathy are improved with alpha-lipoic acid,” Diabetes Care 2003; 26:770-76.

Beitner, H., “Randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind study on the clinical efficacy of a cream containing 5% alpha-lipoic acid related to photoaging of facial skin,” Brit Jour Dermatol 2003; 149:841-49.

Berkson, B., The Alpha Lipoic Acid Breakthrough. Rocklin, CA: Prima Publishing 1998.

Berkson, B., “A conservative triple antioxidant approach to the treatment of hepatitis C. Combination of alpha lipoic acid (thioctic acid), silymarin, and selenium: three case histories,” Med Clin 1999; 94(Suppl 3):84-9.

Berkson, B., et al., “The long-term survival of a patient with pancreatic cancer with metastases to the liver after treatment with the intravenous alpha-lipoic acid/low-dose naltrexone protocol,” Integr Cancer Ther 2006; 5(1):83-9.

Berkson, B., et al., “Revisiting the ALA-N (alpha lipoic acid/low dose naltrexone) protocol for people with metastatic and non-metastatic pancreatic cancer: a report of 3 new cases,” Integrative Cancer Ther 2009; 8(4):416-22.

Braun, L., and Cohen, M. (Eds.), Herbs and Natural Supplements. 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

Bruckner, I., et al., “Diabetic neuropathy––choices of treatment,” Rom Jour Intern Med 2002; 40(1-4):53-60.

Chaparro, L. et al., “Combination pharmacotherapy for the treatment of neuropathic pain in adults,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012; 7:CD008943.

Chen, L., et al., “Effects of alpha lipoic acid and prostaglandin E1 on diabetic peripheral neuropathy,” Jour Pract Diabetology 2008; 4:50-1.

Chen, Y., et al., “Alpha-lipoic acid alters post-translational modification and protests the chaperone activity of lens alpha-crystalline in naphthalene-induced cataract,” Curr Eye Res 2010; 35(7):620-30.

Clark, W., et al., “Efficacy of antioxidant therapies in transient focal ischemia in mice,” Stroke 2001; 32(4):1000-04.

Cotlier, E., et al., “The potential value of natural antioxidative treatment in glaucoma,” Survey Ophthalmology 2008; 53(5):479-505.

Crow, H., et al., “Burning mouth syndrome,” Oral Maxillofacial Surg Clin North Amer 2013; 25:67-73.

Dadhania, V., et al., “Intervention of alpha-lipoic acid ameliorates methotrexate-induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity: a study in rat intestine,” Chem Biol Interactions 2010; 183(1):85-97.

de Oliveira, A., et al., “The effects of lipoic acid and alpha-tocopherol supplementation on the lipid profile and insulin sensitivity of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,” Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2011; 92(2):253-60.

Deng, C., et al., “Alpha lipoic acid reduces infarct size and preserves cardiac functions in rat myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury through activation of PI-3K-AkT-NRF2 pathway,” PLoS One 2013; 8(3):e58371.

Di Geronimo, G., et al., “Treatment of tunnel carpel syndrome with alpha-lipoic acid,” Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sciences 2009; 13:133-39.

Dudka, J., “Decrease in NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase activity of the human heart, Liver and lungs in the presence of alpha-lipoic acid,” Ann Nutr Metab 2006; 50(2):121-25.

Estrada, D., et al., “Stimulation of glucose uptake by the natural coenzyme alpha-lipoic acid/thiotic acid: participation of elements of the insulin signaling pathway,” Diabetes 1996; 45(12):1798-1804.

Evans, J., et al., “Alpha-lipoic acid: a multifunctional antioxidant that improves insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes,” Diab Technol Therapeutics 2000; 2(3):401-13.

Femiano, F., “Burning mouth syndrome (BMS): an open trial of comparative efficacy of alpha-lipoic acid (thioctic acid) with other therapies,” Minerva Stomatol 2002; 51(9):405-09.

Fu, Y., “Effects of alpha lipoic acid and mecobalamin on diabetic peripheral neuropathy,” Chin Jour Pract Intern Med 2008; 28:81-3.

Gianturco, V., et al., “Impact of therapy with alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) on the oxidative stress in the controlled NIDDM: a possible preventive way against the organ dysfunction?” Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2009; 49(Suppl 1):129-33.

Haak, E., et al., “Effects of alpha-lipoic acid on microcirculation in patients with peripheral diabetic neuropathy,” Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2000; 108(3):168-74.

Hahm, J. et al., “Clinical experience with thioctacid (thioctic acid) in the treatment of distal symmetric polyneuropathy in Korean diabetic patients,” Jour Diabetes Complications 2004; 18(2):79-85.

Haritoglou, C., et al., “Alpha-lipoic acid for the prevention of diabetic macular edema,” Ophthalmologica 2011; 226(3):127-37.

Head, K., “Natural therapies for ocular disorders, part two: cataracts and glaucoma,” Altern Med Rev 2001; 6(2):141-66.

Heinisch, B., et al., “Alpha-lipoic acid improve vascular endothelial functions in patient with type 2 diabetes: a placebo-controlled, randomized trial,” Eur Jour Clin Invest 2010; 40(2):148-54.

IIbrahimpasic, K., “Alpha lipoic acid and glycaemic control in diabetic neuropathies at type 2 diabetes treatment,” Med Arch 2013; 67(1):7-9.

Janson, M., “Orthomolecular medicine: the therapeutic use of dietary supplements for anti-aging,” Clin Interv Aging 2006; 1(3):261-65.

Kamenova, P., “Improvement of insulin sensitivity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus after oral administration of alpha-lipoic acid,” Hormones (Athens) 2006; 5(4):251-58.

Kaya-Dajistanli, F., et al., “The effects of alpha lipoic acid on liver cell damages and apoptosis induced by polyunsaturated fatty acids,” Food Chem Tox 2013; 53:84-93.

Kim, E., et al., “A preliminary investigation of alpha-lipoic acid treatment of antipsychotic drug-induced weight gain in patients with schizophrenia,” Jour Clin Psychopharmacol 2008; 28(2):138-46.

Koh, E., et al., “Effect of alpha-lipoic acid on body weight in obese subjects,” Amer Jour Med 2011; 124(1):85.e1-85.e8.

Lai, Y., et al., “Antiplatelet activity of alpha-lipoic acid,” Jour Agric Food Chem 2010; 58(15):83596-08.

Lopez-D'alessandro, E., et al., “Combination of alpha lipoic acid and gabapentin, its efficacy in the treatment of Burning Mouth Syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial,” Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2011; 16(5):e635-e640.

López-Jornet, P., et al., “Efficacy of alpha lipoic acid in burning mouth syndrome: a randomized, placebo-treatment study,” Jour Oral Rehabil 2009; 36(1):52-7.

Lukaszuk, J. et al., “R-Alpha Lipoic Acid Effect on HbA1c in Type-2 Diabetics,” Jour Complement Integrat Med 2009; 6(1):1-14.

Lynch, M., “Lipoic acid confers protection against oxidative injury in non-neuronal and neuronal tissue,” Nutr Neurosci 2001; 4(6):419-38.

Maczureck, A., et al., “Lipoic acid as an inflammatory and neuroprotective treatment for Alzheimer’s disease,” Adv Drug Delivery Rev 2008; 60:1463-70.

Magis, D., e t al., “A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of thiotic acid in migraine prophylaxis,” Headache 2007; 4791):52-7.

Marracci, G., et al., “Alpha lipoic acid inhibits human T-cell migration: implications for multiple sclerosis,” Jour Neurosci Res 2004; 78(3):362-70.

Marshall, J., et al., “All women with PCOS should be treated for insulin resistance,” Fertil Steril 2012; 97(1):18-22.

Mazloom, Z., et al., “The effect of alpha-lipoic acid on blood pressure in Type 2 diabetics,” Iranian Jour Endocrinol Metabol 2009; 11(3):245-50.

Melhem, M., et al., “Alpha-lipoic acid attenuates hyperglycemia and prevents glomerular mesangial matrix expansion in diabetes,” Jour Amer Soc Nephrol 2002; 13:108-16.

Melhem, M., et al., “Effects of dietary supplementation of alpha-lipoic acid on early glomerular injury in diabetes mellitus,” Jour Amer Soc Nephrol 2001; 12:124-33.

Memeo, A., et al., “Thiotic acid and acetyl-L-carnitine in the treatment of sciatic pain caused by a herniated disc: a randomized, double-blind, comparative study,” Clin Drug Invest 2008; 28(8):495-500.

Mijnhout, G., et al., “Alpha lipoic acid: a new treatment for neuropathic pain in patients with diabetes?” Neth Jour Med 2010; 68(4):158-62.

Mijnhout, G., et al., “Alpha lipoic Acid for symptomatic peripheral neuropathy in patients with diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials,” Int Jour Endocrinol 2012; 2012:456279.

Mitkov, M., et al., “Effect of transdermal testosterone or alpha-lipoic acid on erectile dysfunction and quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Folia Med (Plovdiv) 2013; 55(1):55-63.

Nagamatsu, M., et al., “Lipoic acid improves nerve blood flow, reduces oxidative stress, and improves distal nerve conduction in experimental diabetic neuropathy,” Diabetes Care 1995; 18:1160-67.

Najm, W., et al., “Herbals used for diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome,” Prim Care 2010; 37(2):237-54.

Nebbioso, M., et al., “Oxidative stress in preretinopathic diabetes subjects and antioxidants,” Diabetes Technol Ther 2012; 14(3):257-63.

Packer, L., The Antioxidant Miracle. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 1999.

Packer, L., et al., “Alpha-lipoic acid: a metabolic antioxidant which regulates NF-kappaB signal transduction and protects against oxidative injury,” Drug Metab Rev 1998; 30(2):245–75.

Packer, L., et al., “Alpha-lipoic acid as a biological antioxidant,” Free Rad Bio Med 1995; 19(2):227-50.

Packer, L., et al., “Molecular aspects of lipoic acid in the prevention of diabetes complications,” Nutrition 2001; 17(10):888-95.

Packer, L., et al., “Neuroprotection by the metabolic antioxidant alpha lipoic acid,” Free-radical Biol Med 1997; 22:359–78.

Rahman, S., et al., “The impact of lipoic acid on endothelial function and proteinuria in quinapril-treated diabetic patient with stage I hypertension: results from the QUALITY Study,” Jour Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 2012; 17(2):139-45.

Rakel, D., Rakel Integrative Medicine. 3rd Ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2012.

Ramos, L., et al., “Effects of combination tocopherols and alpha lipoic acid therapy on oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers in chronic kidney disease,” Jour Ren Nutr 2011; 21(3):211-18.

Rivinius, C., “Burning mouth syndrome: Identification, diagnosis, and treatment,” Jour Amer Acad Nurse Pract 2009; 21(8):423-29.

Segermann, J., et al., “Effect of alpha-lipoic acid on the peripheral conversion of thyroxine to triiodothyronine and on serum lipid-, protein- and glucose levels.” Arzneimittelforschung 1991; 41:1294-98.

Sen, C., et al., “Thiol homeostasis and supplements in physical exercise,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 200; 72(2Suppl): S653-S669.

Shamloul, R., et al., “Erectile dysfunction,” Lancet 2012; 381:153-65.

Suarez, P. et al., “Burning mouth syndrome: an update on diagnosis and treatment methods,” Jour Calif Dent Assoc 2006; 34(8):611-22.

Sun, Y., et al., “Effect of (R)-alpha-lipoic acid supplementation on serum lipids and antioxidative ability in patients with age-related macular degeneration,” Ann Nutri Metab 2012; 60(4):293-97.

Suo, L., “Effects of lipoic acid and mecobalamin on diabetic peripheral neuropathy,” Jour Trad Chin Med 2009; 24:1104-05.

Tang, J., et al., “Alpha-lipoic acid may improve symptomatic diabetic polyneuropathy,” Neurologist 2007; 13(3):164-67.

Tankova, T., et al., “Alpha-lipoic acid in the treatment of autonomic diabetic neuropathy (controlled, randomized, open-label study),” Rom Jour Intern Med 2004; 42(2):457-64.

Tarnopolsky, M., et al., “Mitochondrial myopathies: diagnosis, exercise intolerance, and treatment options,” Med Sci Sports Exerc 2005; 37(12):2086-93.

Wollin, S., et al., “Alpha-lipoic acid and cardiovascular disease,” Jour Nutri 2003; 133(11):3327-30.

Xiang, G., et al., “Alpha-lipoic acid improves endothelial dysfunction in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism,” Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2010; 118(9):625-29.

Xiang, G., et al., “The antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid improves endothelial dysfunction induced by acute hyperglycaemia during OGTT in impaired glucose tolerance,” Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2008; 68(5):716-23.

Xu, J., et al., “Flaxseed oil and alpha-lipoic acid combination ameliorates hepatic oxidative stress and lipid accumulation in comparison to lard,” Lipids Health Dis 2013; 12:58.

Yadav, V., et al., “Pharmacokinetic study of lipoic acid in multiple sclerosis: comparing mice and human pharmacokinetic parameters,” Mult Scler 2010; 16(4):387-97.

Yamada, T., et al., “Alpha-lipoic acid (LA) enantiomers protect SH-SY5Y cells against glutathione depletion,” Eur Chem Intern 2011; 59:1003-09.

Yi, X., et al., “Genetic reduction of lipoic acid synthase expression moderately increases atherosclerosis in male, but no female, apolipoprotein E-deficient mice,” Atherosclerosis 2010; 211(2):424-430.

Yoo, T., et al., “Lipoic acid prevents p53 degradation in colon cancer cells by blocking NF-kB induction of RPS6KA4,” Anticancer Drugs 2013; 24(6):555-65.

Ziegler, D., et al., “Alpha-lipoic acid in the treatment of diabetic peripheral and cardiac autonomic neuropathy,” Diabetes 1997; 46(suppl 2):S62-S66.

Ziegler, D., et al., “Alpha-lipoic acid in the treatment of diabetic polyneuropathy in Germany: current evidence from clinical trials,” Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 1999; 107:421-30.

Ziegler, D., et al., “Oral treatment with alpha-lipoic acid improves symptomatic diabetic polyneuropathy: The SYDNEY 2 trial,” Diabetes Care 2006; 29:2365-70.

Ziegler, D., et al., “Treatment of symptomatic diabetic polyneuropathy with the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid: a meta-analysis,” Diabet Med 2004; 21(2):114-21.

 

Alpha-GPC

Aleppo, G., et al., “Chronic L-alpha-glyceryl-phosphoryl-choline increases inositol phosphate formation in brain slices and neuronal cultures,” Pharmacol Toxicol 1994; 74:95-100.

Amenta, F., et al., “Pathways of acetylcholine synthesis, transport and release as targets for treatment of adult-onset cognitive dysfunction,” Curr Med Chem 2008; 15:488-98.

Barbagallo, S, et al., “Alpha-Glycerophosphocholine in the mental recovery of cerebral ischemic attacks. An Italian multicenter clinical trial.” Ann NY Acad Sci 1994; 717:253–69.

Barclay, L. “Nutritional strategies to preserve memory and cognition.” Life Extension Feb 2007; 59–60.

Bellar, D., et al., “The effect of 6 days of alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine on isometric strength,” Jour Int Soc Sports Nutr 2015; 12:42.

Canal, N., et al., “Effect of L-alpha-glyceryl-phosphorylcholine on amnesia caused by scopolamine,” Int Jour Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 1991; 29:103-07.

DeJesus Moreno, M., “Cognitive improvement in mild to moderate Alzheimer's dementia after treatment with the acetylcholine precursor choline alfoscerate: A multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial,” Clin Ther 2003; 25:178-93.

Di Perri R., et al., “A multicentre trial to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine versus cytosine diphosphocholine in patients with vascular dementia,” Jour Int Med Res 1991; 19:330-41.

Doggrell, S., et al., “Treatment of dementia with neurotransmission modulation," Expert Opin Investig Drugs 2003; 12(10):1633–54.

Drago, F., et al., “Behavioral effects of L-alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine: influence on cognitive mechanisms in the rat,” Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1992; 41(2):445-48.

Furey, M., et al., “Cholinergic enhancement and increased selectivity of perceptual processing during working memory,” Science 2000; 290:2315-19.

Gatti, G., et al., “A comparative study of free plasma choline levels following intramuscular administration of L-alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine and citocholine in normal volunteers,” Int Jour Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 1992; 30:331-35.

Hartmann, P., “L-α-glycerylphosphorylcholine reduces the microcirculatory dysfunction and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase type 4 induction after partial hepatic ischemia in rats.,” Jour Surg Res 2014; 189(1):32-40.

Kawamura, T., et al., “Glycerophosphocholine enhances growth hormone secretion and fat oxidation in young adults,” Nutrition 2012; 28(11-12):1122-26.

Kidd, P., “GPC Injectable: glycerophosphocholine (GPC), orthomolecular nutrient," Clinical Trial Summaries 2005; p. 1-17.

Lopez, C., et al., “Effect of a new cognition enhancer, alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine, on scopolamine-induced amnesia and brain acetylcholine,” Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1991; 39(40:835-40.

Mandat, T., et al., “Preliminary evaluation of risk and effectiveness of early choline alphoscerate treatment in craniocerebral injury,” Neurol Neurochir Pol 2003; 37(6):1231-38.

Marcus, L., et al., “Evaluation of the effects of two doses of alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine on physical and psychomotor performance,” Jour Int Soc Sports Nutr 2017; 14:39.

Muccioli, G., et al., “Effect of L-alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine on muscarinic receptors and membrane microviscosity of aged rat brain,” Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 1996; 20:323-39.

Parnetti, L, et al. “Choline alphoscerate in cognitive decline and in acute cerebrovascular disease: an analysis of published clinical data.” Mech Ageing Dev 2001; 122(16):2041–55.

Parnetti, L., et al., "Cholinergic precursors in the treatment of cognitive impairment of vascular origin: Ineffective approaches or need for re-evaluation?" Jour Neurological Sciences 2007; 257(1–2):264–69.

Parnetti, L, et al. “Multicentre study of l-alpha-glyceryl-phosphorylcholine vs ST200 among patients with probable senile dementia of Alzheimer’s type.” Drugs Aging 1993; 3(2): 159–164.

Sigala, S., et al., “L-alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine antagonizes scopolamine-induced amnesia and enhances hippocampal cholinergic transmission in the rat,” Eur Jour Pharmacol 1992; 211:351-58.

Strifler, G., et al., “Targeting mitochondrial dysfunction with L-Alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine,” PLoS One 2016; 11(11):e0166682.

Tokes, T., et al., “Protective effects of L-alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine on ischaemia-reperfusion-induced inflammatory reactions,” Eur Jour Nutr 2015; 54(1):109-18.

Vega, J, et al. “Nerve growth factor receptor immunoreactivity in the cerebellar cortex of aged rats: effect of choline alfoscerate treatment.” Mech Ageing Dev 1993; 69(1-1):119–27.

Ziegenfuss, T., et al., “Acute supplementation with alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine augments growth hormone response to, and peak force production during, resistance exercise,” Jour Intern Soc Sports Nutri 2008; 5(1).

 

Berberine

Amin, A., et al., “Berberine sulfate: antimicrobial activity, bioassay, and mode of action,” Can Jour Microbiol 1969; 15:1067-76.

Ang, E., et al., “Evaluating the role of alternative therapy in burn wound management: randomized trial comparing moist exposed burn ointment with conventional methods in the management of patients with second-degree burns,” Med Gen Med 2001; 3:3.

Anis, K., et al., “Inhibition of chemical carcinogenesis by berberine in rats and mice,” Jour Pharm Pharmacol 2001; 53:763-68.

Chang, W., “Non-coding RNAs and Berberine: A new mechanism of its anti-diabetic activities,” Eur Jour Pharmacol 2017; 795:8-12.

Cicero, A., et al., “Antidiabetic properties of berberine: from cellular pharmacology to clinical effects,” Hosp Pract (Minneap) 2012; 40(2):56-63.

Dong, H., et al., “Berberine in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systemic review and meta-analysis,” Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2012; 2012:591654.

Freile, M., et al., “Antimicrobial activity of aqueous extracts and of berberine isolated from Berberis heterophylla,” Fitoterapia 2003; 74(7-8):702-05.

Gong, J., et al., “Berberine attenuates intestinal mucosal barrier dysfunction in Type 2 diabetic rats,” Front Pharmacol 2017; 8:42.

Gupte, S., “Use of berberine in treatment of giardiasis,” Amer Jour Dis Child 1975; 129:866.

Hermann, R., et al., “Clinical evidence of herbal drugs as perpetrators of pharmacokinetic drug interactions,” Planta Med 2012; 78(13):1458-77.

Huang, X., et al., “Effect of berberin hydrochloride on blood concentration of cyclosporine A in cardiac transplanted patients,” Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 2008; 28:702-04.

Imanshahidi, M., et al., “Pharmacological and therapeutic effects of Berberis vulgaris and its active constituent, berberine,” Phytother Res 2008; 22:999-1012.

Imenshahidi M., et al., “Berberis vulgaris and berberine: An update review,” Phytother Res 2016; 30(11):1745-64.

Ivanovska, N., et al., “Study on the anti-inflammatory action of Berberis vulgaris root extract, alkaloid fractions and pure alkaloids,” Int Jour Immunopharmacol 1996; 18:553-61.

Kamat, S., et al., “Clinical trials with berberine hydrochloride for the control of diarrhea in acute gastroenteritis,” Jour Assoc Physicians India 1967; 15:525-29.

Kim, W., e al., “Berberine improves lipid dysregulation in obesity by controlling central and peripheral AMPK activity,” Amer Jour Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2009; 296(4):E812-E819.

Ko, W., et al., “Vasorelaxant and antiproliferative effects of berberine,” Eur Jour Pharmacol 2000; 399(2-3):187-96.

Kong, W., et al., “Berberine is a novel cholesterol-lowering drug working through a unique mechanism distinct from statins,” Nat Med 2004; 10(12):1344-51.

Kong, W., et al., “Berberine reduces insulin resistance through protein kinase C-dependent up-regulation of insulin receptor expression,” Metabolism 2009; 58(1):109-19.

Kong, W., et al., “Combination of simvastatin with berberine improves the lipid-lowering efficacy,” Metabolism 2008; 57(8):1029-37.

Kuo, C., et al., “The anti-inflammatory potential of berberine in vitro and in vivo,” Cancer Lett 2004; 203(2):127-37.

Lan, J., et al., “Meta-analysis of the effect and safety of berberine in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, hyperlipemia and hypertension,” Jour Ethanopharmacol 2015; 161:69-81.

Lau, C., et al., “Cardiovascular actions of berberine,” (Review) Cardiovasc Drug Rev 2001; 19(3):234-44.

Liu, L., et al., “Berberine modulates insulin signaling transduction in insulin-resistant cells,” Mol Cell Endocrinol 2010; 317(1-2):148-53.

Liu, Y., et al., “Update on berberine in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease,” Evid Based Complement Altern Med 2013; 2013:308134.

Marazzi, G., et al., “Long-term effects of nutraceuticals (berberine, red yeast rice, policosanol) in elderly hypercholesterolemic patients,” Adv Ther 2011; 28(12):1105-13.

Marin-Neto, J., et al., “Cardiovascular effects of berberine in patients with severe congestive heart failure,” Clin Cardiol 1988; 11(4):253-60.

Pang, B., “Application of berberine on treating type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Int Jour Endorinol 2015; 2015:905749.

Rabbani, G, et al., “Randomized controlled trial of berberine sulfate therapy for diarrhea due to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholera,” Jour Infect Dis 1987; 155:979-84.

Schor, J., Clinical applications for berberine potential therapeutic applications in metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and dyslipidemia,” Natural Med Jour 2012; 4(12).

Sheng, W., et al., “Treatment of chloroquine-resistant malaria using pyrimethamine in combination with berberine, tetracycline, or cotrimoxazole,” East Afr Med Jour 1997; 74:283-84.

Soffar, S., et al., “Evaluation of the effect of a plant alkaloid (berberine derived from Berberis aristata) on Trichomonas vaginalis in vitro,” Jour Egypt Soc Parasitol 2001; 31(3):893-904.

Srivastava, R., et al., “AMP-activated protein kinase: an emerging drug target to regulate imbalances in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism to treat cardio-metabolic diseases,” Jour Lipid Res 2012; 53(12):2490-2514.

Sriwilaijareon, N., et al., “Stage specificity of Plasmodium falciparum telomerase and its inhibition by berberine,” Parasitol Int 2002; 51(1):99-103.

Subbaiah, T., et al., “Effect of berberine sulphate on Entamoeba histolytica,” Nature 1967; 215(100):527-28.

Sun, Y., et al., “A systematic review of the anticancer properties of berberine, a natural product from Chinese herbs,” Anti-Cancer Drugs 2009; 20(9):757-69.

Tan, W., et al., “Berberine hydrochloride: anticancer activity and nanoparticulate delivery system,” Int Jour Nanomed 2011; 6:1773-77.

Tang, W., et al., “Aldose reductase, oxidative stress, and diabetic mellitus,” Front Pharmacol 2012; 3:87.

Trimarco, V., et al., “Nutraceuticals for blood pressure control in patients with high-normal or grade 1 hypertension,” High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev 2012; 19(3):117-22.

Varma, R., “Berberine sulphate in chronic trachoma,” Indian Med Gaz 1933; 68:122.

Wang, Y., et al., “Berberine and plant stanols synergistically inhibit cholesterol absorption in hamster,” Atherosclerosis 2010; 209(1):111-17.

Wei, W., et al., “A clinical study on the short-term effect of berberine in comparison to metformin on the metabolic characteristics of women with polycystic ovary syndrome,” Eur Jour Endocrinol 2012; 166(1):99-105.

Xia, X., et al., “Berberine improves glucose metabolism in diabetic rats by inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis,” PLoS One 2011; 6(2):e16556.

Xin, H., et al., “The effects of berberine on the pharmacokinetics of cyclosporin A in healthy volunteers,” Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 2006; 28(1):25-9.

Yin, J., et al., “Berberine improves glucose metabolism through induction of glycolysis,” Amer Jour Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2008; 294(1):E148-E156.

Yang, J., et al., “Berberine improves insulin sensitivity by inhibiting fat store and adjusting adipokines profile in human preadipocytes and metabolic syndrome patients,” Evid Based Complement Altern Med 2012; 2012:363845.

Yin, J., et al., “Efficacy of berberine in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Metabolism 2008; 57(5):712-17.

Zeng, X., et al., “Efficacy and safety of berberine for congestive heart failure secondary to ischemic or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy,” Amer Jour Cardiol 2003; 92(2):173-76.

Zhang, H., et al., “Berberine lowers blood glucose in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients through increasing insulin receptor expression,” Metabolism 2010; 59(2):285-92.

Zhang, Y., et al., “Treatment of type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia with natural plant alkaloid berberine,” Jour Clin Endocrinol Metabol 2008; 93:2559-65.

 

Beta Sitosterol

Amir, S., et al., “Cholesterol-lowering efficacy of plant sterols/stanols provided in capsule and tablet formats: results of a systematic review and meta-analysis.” Jour Acad Nutrition Dietetics, 2013; 113(11): 1494-1503.

Awad, A., et al., “Effect of beta-sitosterol, a plant sterol, on growth, protein phosphatase 2A, and phospholipase D in LNCaP cells,” Nutr Cancer 2000; 36(1):74-8.

Awad, A., et al., “Inhibition of growth and stimulation of apoptosis by beta-sitosterol treatment of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells in culture,” Int Jour Mol Med 2000; 5(5):541-45.

Berges, R., et al., “Randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial of beta-sitosterol in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia,” Lancet 1995; 345(8964):1529-32.

Berges, R., et al., “Treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia with beta-sitosterol: an 18-month follow-up,” BJU Int 2000; 85(7):842-46.

Cabeza, M., et al., “Effect of beta-sitosterol as inhibitor of 5 alpha-reductase in hamster prostate,” Proc West Pharmacol Soc 2003; 46:153-55.

Duan, R., “Anticancer compounds and sphingolipid metabolism in the colon,” In Vivo, 2005; 19(1):293-300.

Glynn, R., et al., “The development of benign prostatic hyperplasia among volunteers in the Normative Aging Study,” Amer Jour Epidemiol 1985; 121(1):78-90.

Gylling, H., “Reduction of serum cholesterol in postmenopausal women with previous myocardial infarction and cholesterol malabsorption induced by dietary sitostanol ester margarine: women and dietary sitostanol,” Circulation 1997; 96:4226-31.

Katan, M., et al., “Efficacy and safety of plant stanols and sterols in the management of blood cholesterol levels,” Mayo Clin Proc 2003; 78(8):965-78.

Kim, T., et al., “Dietary supplements for benign prostatic hyperplasia: An overview of systematic reviews," Maturitas 2012; 73(3):180–85.

Klippel, K., et al., “A multicentric, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial of beta-sitosterol (phytoseterol) for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia,” Brit Jour Urol 1997; 80(3):427-32.

Musa-Veloso, K., et al., “A comparison of the LDL-cholesterol lowering efficacy of plant stanols and plant sterols over a continuous dose range: results of a meta-analysis of randomized, placebo-controlled trials,” Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 2011; 85(1): 9-28.

Normen, A. et al., “Plant sterol intakes and colorectal cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer,” Amer Jour Clin.Nutr 2001; 74(1):141-48.

Normen, L., et al., “Phytosterol and phytostanol esters are effectively hydrolysed in the gut and do not affect fat digestion in ileostomy subjects,” Eur Jour Nutr 2006; 45(3):165-70.

Normen, L., et al., “Plant sterols and their role in combined use with statins for lipid lowering,” Curr Opin Investig Drugs 2005; 6(3):307-16.

Patch, C., et al., “Plant sterol/stanol prescription is an effective treatment strategy for managing hypercholesterolemia in outpatient clinical practice,” Jour Amer Diet Assoc 2005; 105(1):46-52.

Patel, M., et al., “Phytosterols and vascular disease," Atherosclerosis 2006; 186(1):12–9.

Plat, J., et al., “Effects of plant sterols and stanols on lipid metabolism and cardiovascular risk,” Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2001; 11(1):31-40.

Plat, J., et al., “Therapeutic potential of plant sterols and stanols,” Curr Opin Lipidol 2000; 11(6):571-76.

Puato, M., et al., “Atorvastatin reduces macrophage accumulation in atherosclerotic plaques: a comparison of a nonstatin-based regimen in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy,” Stroke 2010; 41(6):1163-68.

Raicht, R., et al., “Protective effect of plant sterols against chemically induced colon tumors in rats,” Cancer Res 1980; 40(2):403-05.

Roussi, S., et al., “Mitochondrial perturbation, oxidative stress and lysosomal destabilization are involved in 7beta-hydroxysitosterol and 7beta-hydroxycholesterol triggered apoptosis in human colon cancer cells,” Apoptosis 2007; 12(1):87-96.

Roussi, S., et al., “Perturbation of polyamine metabolism and its relation to cell death in human colon cancer cells treated by 7beta-hydroxycholesterol and 7beta-hydroxysitosterol,” Int Jour Oncol 2006; 29(6):1549-54.

Strum, S., et al., “Beta-sitosterol,” Life Extensions, June 2005.

Tacklind, J., et al., “Serenoa repens for benign prostatic hyperplasia,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012; CD001423.

Thompson, G., “Additive effects of plant sterol and stanol esters to statin therapy,” Amer Jour Cardiol 2005; 96(1 Suppl):37-9.  

Tilvis, R., et al., “Serum plant sterols and their relation to cholesterol absorption,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1986; 43(1):92-7.

Touillaud, M., et al., “Effect of dietary intake of phytoestrogens on estrogen receptor status in premenopausal women with breast cancer,” Nutr Cancer 2005; 51(2):162-69.

von Holtz, R., et al., “Beta-Sitosterol activates the sphingomyelin cycle and induces apoptosis in LNCaP human prostate cancer cells,” Nutr Cancer 1998; 32(1):8-12.

Weisweiler, P., et al., “Serum lipoproteins and lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity in hypercholesterolemic subjects given beta-sitosterol,” Int Jour Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 1984; 22(4):204-06.

Wilt, T., et al., “Beta-sitosterols for benign prostatic hyperplasia,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000; 2:CD001043.

Wilt, T., et al., “Beta-sitosterol for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia: a systematic review,” Brit Jour Urol 1999; 83(9):976-83.

Wong, N., “The beneficial effects of plant sterols on serum cholesterol,” Can Jour Cardiol 2001; 17(6):715-21.

Yang, C., et al., “Disruption of cholesterol homeostasis by plant sterols,” Jour Clin Invest 2004; 114(6):813-22.

 

Carnitine

Arockia, R., et al., “Carnitine as a free radical scavenger in aging,” Exp Gerontal 2001; 36:1713-26.

Benvenga, S., et al., “Effects of carnitine on thyroid hormone action,” Acad Sci 2004; 1033: 58–67.

Benvenga, S., et al., “Usefulness of L-carnitine, a naturally occurring peripheral antagonist of thyroid hormone action, in iatrogenic hyperthyroidism: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial,” Jour Clin Endocrinol Met 2001; 86(8):3579–94.

Biagiotti, G., et al., “Acetyl-L-carnitine vs tamoxifen in the oral therapy of Peyronie's disease: a preliminary report,” Brit Jour Urol Int 2001; 88(1):63-7.

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.

Bland, J., Nutrients as Biological Response Modifiers: Applying Functional Medicine in Clinical Practice. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine 2002.

Brooks, J., et al., “Acetyl-L-carnitine slows decline in younger patients with Alzheimer’s disease: a reanalysis of a double-blind, placebo-controlled study using the trilinear approach,” Int Psychogeriatr 1998; 10:192-203.

Brown, J., et al., “The gut microbial endocrine organ: bacterially derived signals driving cardiometabolic diseases.” Ann Rev Med 2015; 66:343–59.

Cavallini, G., et al., “Acetyl-L-carnitine plus propionyl-L-carnitine improve efficacy of sildenafil in treatment of erectile dysfunction after bilateral nerve-sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy,” Urology. 2005; 66:1080-85.

Crayhon, R., The Carnitine Miracle. New York, NY: M. Evans and Company, 1998.

Cruciani, R., et al., “Safety, tolerability and symptom outcomes associated with L-carnitine supplementation in patients with cancer, fatigue, and carnitine deficiency: a phase I/II study,” Jour Pain Symptom Manag 2006; 32(6):551-59.

Dambrova, M., "Risks and benefits of carnitine supplementation in diabetes," Exp. Clin Endocrinol Diab 2015; 123:100.

De Angelis, C., et al., “Levocarnitine acetyl stimulates peripheral nerve regeneration and neuromuscular junction remodeling following sciatic nerve injury,” Int Jour Clin Pharmacol Res 1992; 12:269-79.

Dinicolantonio, J., et al., "L-Carnitine in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease: systematic review and meta-analysis," Mayo Clinic Proceedings 2013; 88(6):544–51.

Duran, M., et al., “Secondary carnitine deficiency,” Jour Clin Chem Clin Biochem 1990; 28(5):359-63.

Fugh-Berman, A., “Herbs and dietary supplements in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease,” Prev Cardiology 2000; 3:24-32.

Gaby, A., Nutritional Therapy in Medical Practice. Carlisle, PA: Nutrition Seminars, 2003.

Garzya, G., et al., “Evaluation of the effects of L-acetylcarnitine on senile patients suffering from depression,” Drugs Exp Clin Res 1990; 16:101-06.

Head, K., “Peripheral neuropathy: pathogenic mechanisms and alternative therapies,” Altern Med Rev 2006; 11(4):294-329.

Hooshmand, S., et al., "Dietary L-Carnitine supplementation improves bone mineral density by suppressing bone turnover in aged ovariectomized rats,” Phytomedicine 2008; 15(8):595–601.

Johri, A., et al., "Carnitine therapy for the treatment of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease: evidence and controversies," Nutr Metab Cardiova Dis 2014; 24:808–14.

Klatz, R., The New Anti-Aging Revolution. North Bergen, NJ: Basic Health Publications, 2003.

Malaguarnera, M., et al., “L-carnitine treatment reduces severity of physical and mental fatigue and increases cognitive functions in centurians: a randomized and controlled clinical trial,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2007; 86(6):1738-44.

Marcovina, S., et al., "Translating the basic knowledge of mitochondrial functions to metabolic therapy: role of L-Carnitine,Translational Res 2013; 161(2):73–84.

Miyagawa, T., et al., "Effects of oral L-carnitine administration in narcolepsy patients: A randomized, double-blind, cross-over and placebo-controlled trial," PLoS One 2013; 8(1):e53707.

Pettegrew, J., et al., “Acetyl-L-carnitine physical-chemical, metabolic, and therapeutic properties: relevance for its mode of action in Alzheimer's disease and geriatric depression,” Mol Psychiatry 2000; 5:616-32.

Retter, A., et al., “Carnitine and its role in cardiovascular disease,” Heart Disease 1999; 1:108-13.

Shaley, B., Heal with Amino Acids and Nutrients. San Antonio, TX: Pain and Stress Publications, 2000.

Sinclair, S., “Male infertility: nutritional and environmental considerations,” Alt Med Rev 2000; 5(1):28-38.

Spoganoli, A., et al., “Long-term acetyl-L-carnitine treatment in Alzheimer’ disease,” Neurology 1991; 41:1726-32.

Steiber, A., et al., “Carnitine: a nutritional, biosynthetic, and functional perspective,” Mol. Aspects Med 2004; 25(5–6):455–73.

Tanphaichitr, V., et al., “Carnitine metabolism and carnitine deficiency,” Nur 1993; 9:246-54.

Werbach,M., “Nutritional strategies for treating chronic fatigue syndrome,” Alt Med Rev 2000; 5(2):93-108.

Witte, K., et al., “Chronic heart failure and micronutrients,” Jour Amer Coll Cardiol 2001; 37(7):1765-74.

Witte, K., et al., “Micronutrients and their supplementation in chronic cardiac failure. An update beyond theoretical perspectives,” Heart Fail Rev 2006; 11(1):65-74.

 

CBD Oil (Hemp Oil)

Ashton, C., et al., “Cannabinoids in bipolar affective disorder: a review and discussion of their therapeutic potential,” Jour Psychopharmacol 2005; 19(3):293-300.

Blake, D., et al., “Preliminary assessment of the efficacy, tolerability and safety of a cannabis medicine (Sativex) in the treatment of pain caused by rheumatoid arthritis,” Rheumatology 2006; 45(1):50-2.

Blessing, M., et al., “Cannabidiol as a potential treatment for anxiety disorders,” Neurotherapeutics 2015; 12(4):825-36.

Bouz, G., “Cannabidiol as an emergent therapeutic strategy for lessening the impact of inflammation on oxidative stress,” Free Radic Biol Med 2011; 51(5):1054-61.

Burns, T., et al., “Cannabinoid analgesia as a potential new therapeutic option in the treatment of chronic pain,” Ann Pharmacother 2006; 40(2):251-60.

Campos, A., et al., “Multiple mechanisms involved in large-spectrum therapeutic potential of cannabidiol in psychiatric disorders,” Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2012; 367(1607):3364-78.

Carter, G., et al., “Cannabis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: hypothetical and practical applications, and a call for clinical trials,” Amer Jour Hosp Pallat Care 2010; 2795):347-56.

Chagas, M., et al., “Effects of cannabidiol in the treatment of patients with Parkinson's disease: an exploratory double-blind trial,” Jour Psychopharmacol 2014; 28(11):1088-98.

Crippa, A., et al., “Neural basis of anxiolytic effects of cannabidiol (CBD) in generalized social anxiety disorder: a preliminary report,” Jour Psychopharmacol 2011; 25(1):121-30.

Croxford, J., et al., “Cannabinoids and the immune system: potential for the treatment of inflammatory diseases,” Jour Neuroimmunology 2005; 166(1-2):3-18.

Deiana, S., “Medical use of cannabis. Cannabidiol: a new light for schizophrenia?” Drug Test Anal 2013; 591):46-51.

Devinsky, O., et al., “Cannabidiol: pharmacology and potential therapeutic role in epilepsy and other neuropsychiatric disorders,” Epilepsia 2014; 55(6):791-802.

Durst, R., et al., “Cannabidiol, a nonpsychoactive Cannabis constituent, protects against myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury,” Amer Jour Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2007; 293(6):H3602-H3607.

Esposito, G., et al., “Cannabidiol in inflammatory bowel diseases: a brief overview,” Phytother Res 2013; 27(5):633-36.

Esposito, G., et al., “Cannabidiol in vivo blunts beta-amyloid induced neuroinflammation by suppressing IL-1 beta and iNOS expression,” Brit Jour Pharmacol 2007; 151(8):1272-79.

Fitzcharles, M., et al., “Efficacy, tolerability, and safety of cannabinoid treatments in the rheumatic diseases: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials,” Arthritis Care Res 2016; 68(5):681-88.

Gaston, T., et al., “Pharmacology of cannabinoids in the treatment of epilepsy,” Epilepsy Behav 2017; 70(Pt B):313-18.

Greco, R., et al., “The endocannabinoid system and migraine,” Exp Neurol 2010; 224(1):85-91.

Gui, H., et al., “The endocannabinoid system and its therapeutic implications in rheumatoid arthritis,” Int Immunopharmacology 2015; 26(1):86-91.

Hasenoehri, C., et al., “Cannabinoids for treating inflammatory bowel diseases: where are we and where do we go?” Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2017; 11(4):329-37.

Iseger, T., et al., “A systematic review of the antipsychotic properties of cannabidiol in humans,” Schizophr Res 2015; 162(1-3):153-61.

Iuvone, T., et al., “Cannabidiol: a promising drug for neurodegenerative disorders?” CNS Neurosci Ther 2009; 15(1):65-75.

Johnson, J., et al., “Multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of THC:CBD extract and THC extract in patients with intractable cancer-related pain,” Jour Pain Symptom Manage 2010; 39(2):167-79.

Kozela, E., et al., “Cannabidiol inhibits pathogenic T cells, decreases spinal microglial activation and ameliorates multiple sclerosis-like disease in C57BL/6 mice,” Brit Jour Pharmacol 2011; 163(7):1507-19.

Kozela, E., et al., “Pathways and gene networks mediating the regulatory effects of cannabidiol, a nonpsychoactive cannabinoid, in autoimmune T cells,” Jour Neuroinflammation 2016; 13(1):136.

LaPorta, C., et al., “Involvement of the endocannabinoid system in osteoarthritis pain,” Eur Jour Neurosci 2014; 39(3):485-500.

Lee, J., “Cannabidiol regulation of emotion and emotional memory processing: relevance for treating anxiety-related and substance abuse disorders,” Brit Jour Pharmacol 2017; 174(19):3242-56.

Lehmann, O., et al., “Experimental cannabidiol treatment reduces early pancreatic inflammation in type 1 diabetes,” Clin Hemorrheol Microcirc 2016; 64(4):655-62.

Linge, L., et al., “Cannabidiol induces rapid-acting antidepressant-like effects and enhances cortical 5-HT/glutamate neurotransmission: role of 5-HTIA receptors,” Neuropharmacology 2016; 103:16-26.

Massi, P., et al., “Cannabidiol as potential anticancer drug,” Brit Jour Clin Pharmacol 2013; 75(2):303-12.

McAllister, S., et al., “Cannabidiol as a novel inhibitor of Id-1 gene expression in aggressive breast cancer cells,” Mol Cancer Ther 2007; 6(11):2921-27.

Mukhopadhyay, P., et al., “Cannabidiol protects against hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury by attenuating inflammatory signaling and response, oxidative/nitrative stress, and cell death,” Free Radic Biol Med 2011; 50(10):1368-81.

Naftali, T., et al., “Cannabis for inflammatory bowel disease,” Dig Dis 2014; 32(4):468-74.

O’Connell, B., et al., “Cannabinoids in treatment-resistant epilepsy: A review,” Epilepsy Behav 2017; 70(Pt B):341-48.

Parker, L., et al., “Regulation of nausea and vomiting by cannabinoids,” Brit Jour Pharmacol 2011; 163(7):1411-22.

Pissanti, S., et al., “Cannabidiol: State of the art and new challenges for therapeutic applications,” Pharmacol Ther 2017; 175:133-50.

Rajesh, M., et al., “Cannabidiol attenuates cardiac dysfunction, oxidative stress, fibrosis, and inflammatory and cell death signaling pathways in diabetic cardiomyopathy,” Jour Amer Coll Cardiol 2010; 56(25):2115-25.

Ramer, R., et al., “Cannabidiol inhibits cancer cell invasion via upregulation of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases-1,” Biochem Pharmacol 2010; 79(7):955-66.

Ramer, R., et al., “Decrease of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 may contribute to the anti-invasive action of cannabidiol on human lung cancer cells,” Pharm Res 2010; 27(10): 2162-74.

Russo, E., “Cannabinoids in the management of difficult to treat pain,” Ther Clin Risk Manag 2008; 4(1):245-59.

Sagredo, O., et al., “Cannabinoids: novel medicines for the treatment of Huntington's disease,” Recent Pat CNS Drug Discov 2012; 7(1):41-8.

Schicho, R., et al., “Cannabis finds its way into treatment of Crohn's disease,” Pharmacology 2014; 93(1-2):1-3.

Schrot, R., et al., “Cannabinoids: Medical implications,” Ann Med 2016; 48(3):128-41.

Sreevaisan,S., et al., “Induction of apoptosis by cannabinoids in prostate and colon cancer cells is phosphatase dependent,” Anticancer Res 2011; 31(11):3799-807.

Tanasescu, R., et al., “Cannabinoids and the immune system: an overview,” Immunobiology 2010; 215(8):588-97.

Vaccani, A., et al., “Cannabidiol inhibits human glioma cell migration through a cannabinoid receptor-independent mechanism,” Brit Jour Pharmacol 2005; 144(8):1032-36.

Vinod, K., et al., “Endocannabinoid lipids and mediated system: implications for alcoholism and neuropsychiatric disorders,” Life Sci 2005; 77(14):1569-83.

Volkow, N., et al., “Don't Worry, Be Happy: Endocannabinoids and cannabis at the intersection of stress and reward,” Ann Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 2017; 57:285-308.

Weiss, L., et al., “Cannabidiol lowers incidence of diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice,” Autoimmunity 2006; 39(2):143-51.

Xiong, W., et al., “Cannabinoids suppress inflammatory and neuropathic pain by targeting α3 glycine receptors,” Jour Exp Med 2012; 209(6):1121-34.

 

Chlorella

Klatz, R., The New Anti-Aging Revolution. Laguna Beach, CA: Basic Health Publications, 2003.

Otsuki, T., et al., “Changes in arterial stiffness and nitric oxide production with Chlorella-derived multicomponent supplementation in middle-aged and older individuals,” Jour Clin Biochem Nutr 2015; 57(3):228-32.

 

Choline

Bertoia, M., et al., “Plasma homocysteine, dietary B vitamins, betaine, and choline and risk of peripheral artery disease,” Atherosclerosis 2014; 235(1):94-101.

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.

da Costa, K., et al., “Common genetic polymorphisms affect the human requirement for the nutrient choline,” Faseb Jour 2006; 20(9):1336-44.

Gerhard, G., et al., “Homocysteine and atherosclerosis,” Curr Opin Lipidol 1999; 10(5):417-28.

Gupta, N., et al., “Glaucoma as a neurodegenerative disease,” Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2007; 18(2):110-14.

Kim, Y., et al., “Severe folate deficiency causes secondary depletion of choline and phosphocholine in rat liver,” Jour Nutr 1994; 124(11):2197-03.

Li, Z., et al., “Phosphatidylcholine and choline homeostasis,” Jour Lipid Res 2008; 49(6):1187-94.

Noga, A., et al., “A gender-specific role for phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase-derived phosphatidylcholine in the regulation of plasma high density and very low density lipoproteins in mice,” Jour Biol Chem 2003; 278(24):21851-59.

Olthof, M., et al., “Choline supplemented as phosphatidylcholine decreases fasting and postmethionine-loading plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy men,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2005; 82(1):111-17.

Olthof, M., et al., “Low dose betaine supplementation leads to immediate and long term lowering of plasma homocysteine in healthy men and women,” Jour Nutr 2003; 133(12):4135-38.

Parisi, V., et al., “Cytidine-5'-diphosphocholine (Citicoline): a pilot study in patients with non-arteritic ischaemic optic neuropathy,” Eur Jour Neurol 2008; 15(5):465-74.

Parisi, V., “Electrophysiological assessment of glaucomatous visual dysfunction during treatment with cytidine-5'-diphosphocholine (citicoline): a study of 8 years of follow-up,” Doc Ophthalmol 2005; 110(1):91-102.

Poly, C., et al., “The relation of dietary choline to cognitive performance and white-matter hyperintensity in the Framingham Offspring Cohort,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2011; 94(6):1584-91.

Secades, J., “Citicoline: pharmacological and clinical review, 2010 update,” Rev Neurol 2011; 52(Suppl 2):S1-S62.

Shaw, G., et al., “Choline and risk of neural tube defects in a folate-fortified population,” Epidemiology 2009; 20(5):714-19.

Tang, W., et al., “Intestinal microbial metabolism of phosphatidylcholine and cardiovascular risk,” NEJM 2013; 368(17):1575-84.

Zeisel, S., et al., “Choline: an essential nutrient for public health,” Nutr Rev 2009; 67(11):615-23.

Zeisel, S., et al., “Choline.” Present Knowledge in Nutrition. 10th Ed: John Wiley & Sons, 2012.

 

Chondroitin Sulfate

Baici, A., et al., “Analysis of glycosaminoglycans in human sera after oral administration of chondroitin sulfate,” Rheumatol Inter 1992; 12:81–8.

Bourgeois, P., et al, “Efficacy and tolerability of chondroitin sulfate 1200 mg/day vs chondroitin sulfate 3 x 400 mg/day vs placebo,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 1998; 6(suppl A):25-30.

Clegg, D., et al., “Glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate, and the two in combination for painful knee osteoarthritis,” NEJM 2006; 354(8):795-808.

Fransen, M., et al., “Glucosamine and chondroitin for knee osteoarthritis: a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled clinical trial evaluating single and combination regimens,” Ann Rheum Dis 2015; 74(5):851-58.

Gabay, C., “Symptomatic effects of chondroitin 4 and chondroitin 6 sulfate on hand osteoarthritis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial at a single center,” Arthritis Rheum 2011; 63(11):3383-391.

Gallo, J., “Nutraceuticals in therapy of knee osteoarthritis: orthopaedic view,” (Article in Czech). Vaitr Lek 2018; 64(2):191-96.

Hochberg, M., et al., “Potential effects of chondroitin sulfate on joint swelling: a GAIT report,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2008; 16(Suppl 3):S22-S24.

Iida, J., et al. “Role for chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan in NEDD9-mediated breast cancer cell growth,” Exp Cell Res 2015; 330(2):358-70.

Kahan, A., et al., “Long-term effects of chondroitins 4 and 6 sulfate on knee osteoarthritis: the study on osteoarthritis progression prevention, a two year, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,” Arthritis Rheum 2009; 60(2):524-33.

Kantor, E., “Use of glucosamine and chondroitin supplements and risk of colorectal cancer,” Cancer Causes Control 2013; 24(6):1137-146.

Kelly, G., “The role of glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfates in the treatment of degenerative joint disease,” Alt Med Rev 1998; 3(1):27-39.

Kubo, M., “Chondroitin sulfate for the treatment of hip and knee osteoarthritis: current status and future trends,” Life Sci 2009; 85(13-14):477-83.

Leeb, B., “A meta-analysis of chondroitin sulfate in the treatment of osteoarthritis,” Jour Rheumatol 2000; 27:205-11.

Lippiello, L., et al., “In vivo chondroprotection and metabolic synergy of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate,” Clin Orthop 2000; 6(381):229-40.

McAlindon, T., et al., “Glucosamine and chondroitin for treatment of osteoarthritis: a systematic quality assessment and meta-analysis,” JAMA 2000; 283(11):1469-75.

McAlindon, T., et al., “Osteoarthritis year 2011 in review: clinical,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2012; 2(3):197-200.

Miller, K., et al., “Glucosamine and Chondroitin,” Rheum Dis Clin North Am 2011 Feb 37(1):103-118.

Morreale, P., et al., “Comparison of the anti-inflammatory efficacy of chondroitin sulfate and diclofenac sodium in patients with knee osteoarthritis,” Jour Rheumatol 1996; 23:1385-91.

Murray, M., Encyclopedia of Natural Medicine. New York, NY: Three Rivers Press, 1998.

Murray, M., “Osteoarthritis.” In Pizzorno, J., and Murray, M., (Eds.) Textbook of Natural Medicine. 4th Ed., St. Louis: Elsevier, 2013.

National Center for Complimentary and Alternative Medicine. “The NIH Glucosamine/Chondroitin Arthritis Intervention Trial (GAIT),” Jour Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother 2008; 22(1):39-43.

Ronca, F., et al., “Anti-inflammatory activity of chondroitin sulfate,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 1998; 6(Suppl A):14-21.

Sawitzke, A., et al., “The effect of glucosamine and/or chondroitin sulfate on the progression of knee osteoarthritis: a report from the glucosamine/chondroitin arthritis intervention trial,” Arthritis Rheum 2008; 58(10):3183-191.

Towheed, T., et al., “Glucosamine and chondroitin for treating symptoms of osteoarthritis,” JAMA 2000; 283(11):1483-84.

Uebelhart, D., “Clinical review of chondroitin sulfate in osteoarthritis,” Review Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2008; 16(Suppl 3):S19-S21.

Zhu, X., et al., “Comparative effectiveness of glucosamine, chondroitin, acetaminophen or celecoxib for the treatment of knee and/or hip osteoarthritis: a network meta-analysis,” Clin Exp Rheumatol 2018; Jan 31 (Epub ahead of print).

 

Cocoa

Balzer, J., et al., “Sustained benefits in vascular function through flavanol-containing cocoa in medicated diabetic patients,” Jour Amer Coll Cardiol 2008; 51(22).

Bayard, V., et al., “Does flavanol intake influence mortality from nitric oxide-dependent processes? Ischemic heart disease, stroke, diabetes mellitus, and cancer in Panama,” Int Jour Med Sci 2007; 4:53-58.

Camesecchi, S., et al., “Flavanols and procyanidins of cocoa and chocolate inhibit growth and polyamine biosynthesis of human colonic cancer cells,” Cancer Lett 2002; 175(2):147-55.

Chen, J., et al., “Impacts of methylxanthines and adenosine receptors on neurodegeneration: human and experimental studies,” Handbook Exp Pharmacol 2011; 200:267-310.

Erdman, J., et al., “Effects of cocoa flavanols on risk factors for cardiovascular disease,” Asia Pac Jour Clin Nutr 2008; 17(Suppl 1):284-87.

Fisher, N., et al., “Cocoa flavanols and brain perfusion,” Jour Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2006; 47(Suppl 2):S210-S214.

Fisher, N., et al., “Flavanol-rich cocoa induces nitric-oxide-dependent vasodilation in healthy humans,” Jour Hypertension 2003; 21(12):2281-86.

Francis, S., et al., “The effect of flavanol-rich cocoa on the fMRI response to a cognitive task in healthy young people,” Cardiovascular Pharmacol 2006; 47:S215-S220.

Franco, R., et al., “Health benefits of methylxanthines in cacao and chocolate,” Nutrients 2013; 5(10):4159-73.

Grassi, D., et al, “Short-term administration of dark chocolate is followed by a significant increase in insulin sensitivity and a decrease in blood pressure in healthy persons,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2005; 81(3):611-14.

Heiss, C., et al., “Endothelial function, nitric oxide, and cocoa flavanols,” Jour Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2006; 47(Supp 2):S128-S135.

Heiss, C., et al., “Sustained increases in flow-medicated dilation after daily intake of high-flavanol coca drink over 1 week,” Jour Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2007; 49(2):74-80.

Heo, H., et al., “Epicatechin and catechin in cocoa Inhibit amyloid β protein induced apoptosis,” Jour Agric Food Chem 2005; 53(5):1445–48.

Katz, D., et al., “Cocoa and chocolate in human health and disease,” Antioxidant Redox Signaling 2011; 15910):2779-2811.

Lee, K., et al., “Cocoa has more phenolic phytochemicals and a higher antioxidant capacity than teas and red wine,” Jour Agric Food Chem 2003; 5(25):7292–29.

Nehlig, A., “The neuroprotective effects of cocoa flavanol and its influence on cognitive performance,” Brit Jour Clin Pharmacol 2013; 75(3):716-27.

Onatibia-Astibia, A., “Health benefits of methylxanthines in neurodegenerative diseases,” Mol Nutr Food Res 2017; June 61(6).

Ruzaidi, A., et al., “The effect of Malaysian cocoa extract on glucose levels and lipid profiles in diabetic rats,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 2005; 98(1-2):55-60.

Sathyapalan, T., et al., “High cocoa polyphenol rich chocolate improves the symptoms of chronic fatigue,” Endocrine Abstracts 2006; 12:68.

Smit, H., et al., “Methylxanthines are the psycho-pharmacologically active constituents of chocolate,” Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2004; 176(3-4):412-19.

Smit, H., et al., “Reinforcing effects of caffeine and theobromine as found in chocolate,” Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2005; 181(1):101-06.

Strat, k., et al., “Mechanisms by which cocoa flavanols improve metabolic syndrome and related disorders,” Jour Nutri Biochem 2016; 35:1-21.

Taubert, D., et al., “Chocolate and blood pressure in elderly individuals with isolated systolic hypertension,” JAMA 2003; 290(8):1029-30.

Wang-Polagruto, J., et al., “Chronic consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa improves endothelial function and decreases vascular cell adhesion molecule in hypercholesterolemic postmenopausal women,” Jour Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2006; 47(Supp .2):S177-S186.

 

Coenzyme Q10

Ames, B., et al., “Oxidants, antioxidants, and the degenerative diseases of aging,” Proc Natl Acad Sci SA 1993; 90(17):7915-22.

Barbieri, B., et al., “Coenzyme Q10 administration increases antibody titer in hepatitis B vaccinated volunteers--a single blind placebo-controlled and randomized clinical study,” Biofactors 1999;  9(2-4):351-57.

Beinchi, G., et al., “Oxidative stress and anti-oxidant metabolites in patients with hyperthyroidism: effect of treatment,” Horm Met Res 1999; 31(11):620-24.

Belardinelli, R., et al., “Coenzyme Q10 and exercise training in chronic heart failure,” Eur Heart Jour 2006; 27(22):2675-81. 

Belardinelli, R., et al., “Coenzyme Q10 improves contractility of dysfunctional myocardium in chronic heart failure,” Biofactors 2005; 25(1-4):137-45.  

Bengtsson, A., et al., “The muscle in fibromyalgia: a review of Swedish studies,” Jour Rheumatology 1989: 16(Suppl 19):144-49.

Bengtsson, A., et al., “Reduced high-energy phosphate levels in the painful muscles of patients with primary fibromyalgia,” Arthritis Rheumatism 1986: 29(7):817-21.

Braun, L., and Cohen, M., (Eds.) Herbs and Natural Supplements. 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

Braun, L., et al., “A wellness program for cardiac surgery improves clinical outcomes,” Adv Integrat Med 2013; 1(1):32-7.

Brehm, A., et al., “Increased lipid availability impairs insulin-stimulated ATP synthesis in human skeletal muscle,” Diabetes 2006; 55:136-40.

Burke, B., et al., “Randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of coenzyme Q10 in isolated systolic hypertension,” Southern Med Jour 2001; 94(11):1112–17.

Burroughs, S. et al., “Depression and anxiety. Role of mitochondria,” Current Anesthesia Crit Care 2007; 18:34-41.

Cello, M., et al., “Protection by coenzyme Q-10 of tissue reperfusion injury during abdominal aortic cross-clamping,” Jour Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) 1996; 37(3):229-35.

Chen, L., et al., “Depressed mitochondrial fusion in heart failure,” Circulation 2007; 116:259.

Colquhoun, D., et al., “Effects of simvastatin on blood lipids, vitamin E, coenzyme Q10 levels and left ventricular function in humans,” Eur Jour Clin Invest 2005; 35(4):251-58. 

Combs, A., et al., “Reduction by coenzyme Q-10 of the acute toxicity of Adriamycin in mice,” Res Comm Chem Pathol Pharmacol 1977; 18(3):565-68.

Cooper, J., et al., “Coenzyme Q10 and vitamin E deficiency in Friedreich's ataxia: predictor of efficacy of vitamin E and coenzyme Q10 therapy,” Eur Jour Neurol 2008; 15:1371-79. 

Cordero, M., et al., “Oral coenzyme Q-10 supplementation improves clinical symptoms and recovers pathologic alterations in blood mononuclear cells in a fibromyalgia patient,” Nutrition 2012; 28(11-12):1200-03.

Corral-Debrinski, M., et al., “Association of mitochondrial DNA damage with aging and coronary atherosclerotic heart disease,” Mutat Res 1992; 275(3-6):169-80.

Dai, V., et al., “Reversal of mitochondrial dysfunction by coenzyme Q-10 supplement improves endothelial function in patients with ischemic left ventricular systolic dysfunction: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial among elderly Swedish citizens,” Inter Jour Cardiol 2013; 167(5):1860-66.

Digiesi, V., et al., “Coenzyme Q-10 in essential hypertension,” Mol Aspects Med 1994; 15:S257-S263.

Digiesi, V., et. al., “Effect of coenzyme Q10 on essential hypertension,” Curr Ther Res 1990; 47:841–845.

Duberley, K., et al., “Human neuronal enzyme Q-10 deficiency results in global loss of mitochondrial respiratory chain activity, increased mitochondrial oxidative stress and reversal of ATP synthase activity: implications for pathogenesis and treatment,” Jour Inherit Metab Dis 2013; 36(1):63-73.

Dupic, L., et al., “Coenzyme Q-10 deficiency in septic shock patients,” Crit Care 2011; 15:194.

Elliot, D., et al., “Sustained depression of the resting metabolic rate after massive weight loss,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1989; 49:93-6.

Fattal, O., et al., “Review of the literature on major mental disorders in adults patients with mitochondrial diseases,” Psychosomatics 2006; 47(1):1-7.

Fernadez-Ayala D., et al., “Specificity of coenzyme Q-10 for a balanced function of respiratory chain and endogenous ubiquinone biosynthesis in human cells,” Biochem Biophys Acta 2005; 1706:174-83.

Folkers, K., “The potential of coenzyme Q 10 (NSC-140865) in cancer treatment,” Cancer Chemother Rep 1974; 24(4):19-22.

Folkers, K., et al., “Lovastatin decreases coenzyme Q levels in humans,” Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1990; 87(22):8931-34.

Fujioka, T., et al., “Clinical study of cardiac arrhythmias using a 24-hour continuous electrocardiographic recorder (fifth report): antiarrhythmic action of coenzyme Q-10 in diabetics,” Tohoku Jour Exp Med 1983; 141(Suppl):453-63.

Fulle, S., et al., “Specific oxidative alterations in vastus lateralis muscle of patients with the diagnosis of chronic fatigue syndrome,” Free Radic Biol Med 2000; 29(12):1252-59.

Gao, L., et al., “Effects of coenzyme Q-10 on vascular endothelial function in humans: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials,” Atherosclerosis 2012; 221(2):311-16.

Gardner, A., et al., “Mitochondrial energy depletion in depression with somatization,” Psychother Psychosom 2006; 77:17-29.

Hanioka, T., et al., “Effect of topical application of coenzyme Q-10 on adult periodontitis,” Mol Aspects Med 1994; 15: S241-S248.

Heck, A., et al., “Potential interactions between alternative therapies and warfarin,” Amer Jour Health Syst Pharm 2000; 57(13):1221-27.

Hennemann, G., et al., “Decreased peripheral 3,5,3’-triiodothyroxine (T3) production from thyroxine (T4). A syndrome of impaired thyroid hormone activation due to transport inhibition of T4-into T3-producing tissues,” Jour Cliln Endocrinol Metabol 1993; 77(5):1431-35.

Hennemann, G., et al., “Plasma membrane transport of thyroid hormones and its role in thyroid hormone metabolism and bioavailability,” Endocrine Rev 2001; 22(4):451-76.

Hennemann, G., et al., “The kinetics of thyroid hormone transporters and their role in non-thyroidal illness and starvation,” Best Practice Res Clin Endoc Metabol 2007; 21(2):323-38.

Hirose, Y., et al., “Effect of water-soluble coenzyme Q-10 on noise-induced hearing loss in guinea pigs,” Acta Oto Laryngol 2008; 128(10):1071-76.

Hoffman-Bang, C., et al., “Coenzyme Q10 as an adjunctive treatment of congestive heart failure,” Amer Jour Cardiol 1992; Supp 19(3):216A.

Holm, A., et al., “Kinetics of triiodothyronine uptake by erythrocytes in hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, and thyroid hormone resistance,” Jour Clin Endocrinol Metab 1989; 69:364-68.

Hutchin, T., et al., “A mitochondrial DNA clone is associat3ed with increased risk for Alzheimer’s disease,” Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 1995; 92:6892-96.

Jolliet, P., et al., “Plasma coenzyme Q10 concentrations in breast cancer: prognosis and therapeutic consequences,” Int Jour Clin Pharmacol Ther 1998; 36(9):506-09.

Kagan, V., et al., “Independent and Concerted Antioxidant Functions of Coenzyme Q.” In Kagan, V., Quinn, P., Eds. Coenzyme Q: Molecular Mechanisms in Health and Disease. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2001, p. 119-130.

Kahn, M., et al., “A pilot clinical trial of the effects of coenzyme Q-10 on chronic tinnitus aurium,” Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2007; 136(1):72-77.

Kaptein, E., “Clinical relevance of thyroid hormone alterations in non-thyroidal illness,” Thyroid Int 1997; 4:22-5.

Kaptein, E., “Thyroid hormone metabolism and thyroid disease in chronic renal failure,” Endocr Rev 1996; 17:45-63.

Kaptein, E., et al., “Peripheral serum thyroxine, triiodothyronine in the low thyroxine state of acute nonthyroidal illness. A noncompartmental analysis,” Jour Clin Invest 1982; 69:526-35.

Karlsson, J., et al., “Muscle fibre types, ubiquinone content and exercise capacity in hypertension and effort angina,” Ann Med 1991; 23(3):339-44.

Kuettner, A., et al., “Influence of coenzyme Q (10) and cerivastatin on the flow-mediated vasodilation of the brachial artery: results of the ENDOTACT study,” Int Jour Cardiol 2005; 98(3):413-19.

Laaksonen, R., et al., “Ubiquinone supplementation and exercise capacity in trained young and older men,” Eur Jour Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 1995; 72(1-2):95-100. 

Langsjoen, P., “Coenzyme Q10 in cardiovascular disease with emphasis on heart failure and myocardial ischaemia,” Asia Pacific Heart Jour 1998; 7(3):160-68.

Langsjoen, P., “Potential role of concomitant coenzyme Q10 with statins for patients with hyperlipidemia,” Curr Topics Nutr Res 2005: 3(3):149-58.

Langsjoen, P., et al., “Overview of the use of CoQ10 in cardiovascular disease,” BioFactors (Oxf.) 1999; 9(2-4):273-84.

Lee, B., et al., “Effects of coenzyme Q-10 supplementation on inflammatory markers (high-sensitivity c-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and homocysteine) in patients with coronary artery disease,” Nutri 2012; 28(7-8):767-72.

Leguna, T., et al., “Decreased total serum Coenzyme Q-10 concentrations: a longitudinal study in children with cystic fibrosis,” Jour Pediatr 2008; 153(3):402-07.

Leibel, R., et al., “Diminished energy requirements in reduced-obese patients,” Metabolism 1984; 33(2):164-70.

Lim, S., et al., “Oxidative burden in prediabetic and diabetic individuals: evidence from plasma coenzyme Q (10),” Diabet Med 2006; 23:1344-49.

Lockwood, K., et al., “Progress on therapy of breast cancer with vitamin Q10 and the regression of metastases,” Biochem Biophys Res Comm 1995; 212(1):172-77.

Maes, M., et al., “Coenzyme Q-10 deficiency in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is related to fatigue, autonomic and neurocognitive symptoms and is another risk factor explaining the early mortality in ME/CFS due to cardiovascular disorder,” Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2009; 30(4):479-76.

Malm, C., et al., “Effects of ubiquinone-10 supplementation and high intensity training on physical performance in humans,” Acta Physiol Scand 1997; 161(3):379-84.

Miquel, J., et al., “Mitochondrial role in cell aging,” Exp Gerontol 1980; 15:575-91.

Mohr, D., et al., “Dietary supplementation with coenzyme Q10 results in increased levels of ubiquinol-10 within circulating lipoproteins and increased resistance of human low-density lipoprotein to the initiation of lipid peroxidation,” Biochim Biophys Acta 1992; 1126(3):247-24. 

Morisco, C., “Effect of coenzyme Q10 therapy in patients with congestive heart failure: a long-term multicenter, randomized trial,” Clin Investig 1993; 71:S134–S136.

Mortensen, S., et al., “Coenzyme Q-10: clinical benefits with biochemical correlates suggesting a scientific breakthrough in the management of chronic heart failure,” Int Jour Tissue React 1990; 12(3):155-62.

Mortensen, S., et al., “Dose-related decrease of serum coenzyme Q10 during treatment with HMG-COA reductase inhibitors,” Mol Aspects of Med 1997; 18(suppl):S137–S144.

Mortensen, s., et al., Q-SYMBIO Study Investigators. “The effect of coenzyme Q10 on morbidity and mortality in chronic heart failure: Results from Q-SYMBIO: A Randomized Double-Blind Trial,” JACC Heart Fail 2014; 2(6):641-49.

Muller, T., et al., “Coenzyme Q10 supplementation provides mild symptomatic benefit in patients with Parkinson's disease,” Neurosci Lett 2003; 341(3):201-04.  

Nadjarzadeh, A., et al., “The effect of coenzyme Q-10 supplementation on antioxidant enzymes activity and oxidative stress of seminal plasma: a double-blind randomised clinical trial,” Andrologia 2013; 46(2):177-83.

Overvad, K., et al., “Coenzyme Q-10 in health and disease,” Eur Jour Clin Nutri 1999; 53(10):764-70.

Papa, S., “Mitochondrial phosphorylation changes in the life span. Molecular aspects and physiopathological implications,” Biochimica Biophysica Acta 1996; 87-105.

Park, J., et al., “Evidence for metabolic abnormalities in the muscles of patients with fibromyalgia,” Curr Rheumatool Rep 2000; 2(2):131-40.

Perlmutter, D., “The Basic Science of Neurodegenerative Disease,” Brain Biochem Nutrition. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute of Functional Medicine, 2002.

Perlmutter, D., “The brain on fire: the role of inflammation in neurodegenerative disorders,” A4M Conference, 2003.

Peruman, S., et al., “Combined efficacy of tamoxifen and coenzyme Q10 on the status of lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in DMBA induced breast cancer,” Mol Cell Biochem 2005; 273(1-2):151–60. 

Petersen, K., et al., “Decreased insulin-stimulated ATP synthesis and phosphate transport in muscle of insulin-resistance offspring of type 2 diabetic patients,” PLoS Med 2005; 2(9):e233.

Pieczenik, S., et al., “Mitochondrial dysfunction and molecular pathways of disease,” Exp Mol Pathol 2007; 83(1):84-92.

Puddu, P., et al., “Mitochondrial dysfunction as an initiating event in atherogenesis: a plausible hypothesis,” Cardiology 2005; 103(3):137-41.

Qu, J., et al., “Coenzyme Q-10 in the human retina,” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2009; 50(4):1814-18.

Ren, S., et al., “Natural products and their derivatives as cancer chemopreventive agents,” Prog Drug Res 1997; 48:147-71.

Richardson, M., et al., “Complementary/alternative medicine use in a comprehensive cancer cener and the implications for oncology,” Jour Clin Oncol 2000; 18(13):2505–14. 

Richter, C., “Oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA and its relationship to aging,” Int Jour Biochem Cell Biol 1995; 27(7):647-53.

Rozen, T., et al., “Open trial of coenzyme Q10 as a migraine preventive,” Cephalalgia 2002; 22(2):137–41.

Sacconi, S., et al., “Coenzyme Q-10 is frequently reduced in muscle of patients with mitochondrial myopathy,” Neuromuscul Disord 2010; 20(1):44-8.

Sachdanandam, P., et al., “Antiangiogenic and hypolipidemic activity of coenzyme Q-10 supplementation to breast cancer patients undergoing Tamoxifen therapy,” Bio Factors 2008; 32(1-4):151-59.

Sacks, C., et al., “Paradigm shifts in heart-failure therapy—a timeline,” NEJM 2014; 371(11):989-91.

Safarinejad, M., et al., “Effects of EPA, gamma-linolenic acid or coenzyme Q-10 on serum prostate-specific antigen levels: a randomised, double-blind trial,” Brit Jour Nutri 2012; p. 1-8.

Saini, R., et al., “Coenzyme Q10: The essential nutrient,” Jour Pharm Bio Allied Sci 2011; 3(3):466-67.

Sander, S., et al., “The impact of coenzyme Q-10 on systolic function in patients with chronic heart failure,” Jour Card Fail 2006; 12(6):464-72.

Schapria, A., “Mitochondrial disease,” Lancet 2006; 368:70-82.

Sherer, T., et al., “Environment, mitochondria, and Parkinson’s disease,” Neuroscientist 2002; 8(3):192-97.

Shults, C., et al., “Effects of coenzyme Q10 in early Parkinson disease: evidence of slowing of the functional decline,” Arch Neurol 2002; 59(10):1541-50.

Shults, C., et al., “Pilot trial of high dosages of coenzyme Q10 in patients with Parkinson's disease,” Exp Neurol 2004; 188(2):491-44.

Sinatra, S., “Cutting edge technology in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease: alternative interventions in treating cardiovascular disease.” A4M Conference, Dec 2003.

Sinatra, S., The Coenzyme Q10 Phenomenon. New Canaan, CT: Keats Publishing Inc, 1998.

Singh, R., et al., “Coenzyme Q10 and its role in heart disease,” Jour Clin Biochem Nutr 1999; 26:109–18.

Singh, R., et al., “Effect of hydrosoluble coenzyme Q10 on blood pressures and insulin resistance in hypertensive patients with coronary artery disease,” Jour Human Hypertension 1999; 13(3):203–08.

Sohol, R., et al., “Coenzyme Q-10, oxidative stress and aging,” Mitochondrion 2007; June Suppl:S103-S111.

Sole, M., et al., “Conditioned nutritional requirements: therapeutic relevance to heart failure,” Herz 2002; 27(2):174-78.

Stack, E., et al., “Combination therapy using minocycline and coenzyme Q10 in R6/2 transgenic Huntington's disease mice,” Biochim Biophys Acta 2006; 1762(3):373-80.

Stavrovskaya, I., et al., “The powerhouse takes control of the cell: is the mitochondrial permeability transition a viable therapeutic target against neuronal dysfunction and death?” Free Radic Biol Med 2005; 38(6):687-97.

Storch, A., et al., “Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial on symptomatic effects of coenzyme Q-10 in Parkinson disease,” Arch Neurol 2007; 64(7):938-44.

Stork, C., et al., “Mitochondrial dysfunction in bipolar disorder: evidence from magnetic resonance spectroscopy research,” Mol Psychiatry 2005; 10(10):900-19.

Szendroedi, J., et al., “Impaired mitochondrial function and insulin resistance of skeletal muscle in mitochondrial diabetes,” Diabetes Care 2009; 32(4):677-79.

Thomas, S., et al., “Mechanisms of Antioxidant Action of Ubiquinol-10 for Low-density Lipoprotein.” In Kagan, V., Quinn, P., (Eds). Coenzyme Q: Molecular Mechanisms in Health and Disease. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2001.

Tran, M., et al., “Role of coenzyme Q10 in chronic heart failure, angina, and hypertension,” Pharmacotherapy 2001; 21(7):797-806.

Trupp, R., et al., “Congestive Heart Failure.” In Rakel, R., Bope, E., (Eds.) Conn's Current Therapy 2002, New York: W. B. Saunders Company; 2002.

Verga, S., et al., “A low reported energy intake is associated with metabolic syndrome,” Jour Endocrinol Invest 2009; 32:538-41.

Wallace, D., “A mitochondrial paradigm of metabolic and degenerative diseases, aging and cancer: a dawn for evolutionary medicine,” Ann Rev Genetics 2005; 39(1):359-407.

West, I., “Radicals and oxidative stress in diabetes,” Diabet Med 2000; 17(3):171-80.

Wilkinson, E., et al., “Bioenergetics in clinical medicine. II. Adjunctive treatment with coenzyme Q in periodontal therapy,” Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmcol 1975; 12(1):11-23.

Yang, L., et al., “Combination therapy with coenzyme Q10 and creatine produces additive neuroprotective effects in models of Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases,” Jour Neurochem 2009; 109:1427-39. 

 

Cordyceps

Chen, D., “Effects of JinShuiBao capsule on the quality of life of patients with heart failure,” Jour Admin Trad Chin Med 1995; 5:40–3.

Das, S., “Medicinal uses of the mushroom Cordyceps militaris: current state and prospects,” Fitoterapia 2010; 81:961–68.

Huang, B., et al., “Effects of Cordyceps sinensis on steroidogenesis in normal mouse Leydig cells,” Life Sci2001; 69:2593–2602.

Hyun, H., “Chemical ingredient of Cordyceps militaris,” Mycobiology 2008; 36:233–35.

Lee, E., et al., “Cordycepin suppresses TNF-alpha-induced invasion, migration and matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in human bladder cancer cells,” Phytother Res2010; 24:1755–61.

Lee, J., et al., “Anti-cancer effects of cordycepin on oral squamous cell carcinoma proliferation and apoptosis in vitro,” Jour Cancer Ther2011; 2:224–34.

Lee, Y., et al., “Cordycepin inhibits UVB-induced matrix metalloproteinase expression by suppressing the NF-KB pathway in human dermal fibroblasts,” Exp Mol Med 2009; 41:548–54.

Ng, T., et al., Pharmacological actions of Cordyceps, a prized folk medicine,” Jour Pharm Pharmacol 2005; 57(12):1509-19.

Patel, S., et al., “Recent developments in mushrooms as anti-cancer therapeutics: a review,” 3 Biotech2012; 2:1–15.

Rao, Y., “Constituents isolated from Cordyceps militaris suppress enhanced inflammatory mediator’s production and human cancer cell proliferation,” Jour Ethnopharmacol2010; 131:363–67.

Rouse, J., “Herbal support for adrenal function,” Clin Nutr Insights 1998; 6(9):1–2.

Tuli, H., et al., “Pharmacological and therapeutic potential of Cordyceps with special reference to Cordycepin,” 3 Biotech 2014; 4(1):1-12.

Yue, K., “The genus Cordyceps: a chemical and pharmacological review,” Jour Pharm Pharmacol 2013; 65(4):474-93.

Zaidman, B., et al., “Medicinal mushroom modulators of molecular targets as cancer therapeutics,” Appl Microbiol Biotechnol2005; 67:453–68.

Zhang, G., “Hypoglycemic activity of the fungi Cordyceps militaris, Cordyceps sinensis, Triccholoma mongolicum, and Omphalia lapidescens in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats,” Appl Microbiol Biotechnol2006; 72:1152–56.

Zhang, H., et al., “Cordyceps sinensis (a traditional Chinese medicine) for treating chronic kidney disease,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014; Issue 12. No.: CD008353.

Zhou, J., et al., “The scientific rediscovery of an ancient Chinese herbal medicine: Cordyceps sinensis,” Jour Altern Complem Med1998; 4:429–57.

Zhou, X., “Cordycepin is an immunoregulatory active ingredient of Cordyceps sinensis,” Amer Jour Chin Med 2008; 36:967–80.

Zhou, X., “Cordyceps fungi: natural products, pharmacological functions and developmental products,” Jour Pharm Pharmcol 2009; 61:279–91.

Zhu, J., “The scientific rediscovery of an ancient Chinese herbal medicine: Cordyceps sinensis: part I,” Jour Altern Complem Med1998; 4:289–303.

 

Digestive Enzymes

Akhtar, N., et al., “Oral enzyme combination versus diclofenac in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee—a double-blind prospective randomized study,” Clin Rheumatol 2004; 23(5):410–15.

Armbrecht, U., et al., “The benefit of pancreatic enzyme substitution after total gastrectomy,” Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1988; 2:493-500.

Barba, A., et al., “Pancreatic exocrine function in rosacea,” Dermatologica 1982; 165:601-06.

Berry, A., “Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy during pancreatic insufficiency,” Nutr Clin Pract 2014; 29(3):312-21.

Bragelmann, R., et al., “The effect of pancreatic enzyme supplementation in patients with steatorrhea after total gastrectomy,” Eur Jour Gastroenterol Hepatol 1999; 11:231-37.

Brien, S., et al., “Bromelain as a treatment for osteoarthritis: a review of clinical studies,” Evid Based Complement Altern Med 2004; 1(3):251–57.

Cann, M., “Pancreatic enzyme supplement for treatment of multiple food allergies,” Ann Allergy 1993; 71:269.

Cirelli, M., “Five years experience with bromelains in therapy of edema and inflammation in postoperative tissue reaction, skin infections and trauma,” Clin Med 1967; 74(6):55-9.

Craig, R., “The quantitative evaluation of the use of oral proteolytic enzymes in the treatment of sprained ankle,” Injury 1975; 6:313-16.

Dodge, J., et al., “Cystic fibrosis: nutritional consequences and management,” Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 2006; 20:531-46.

Dominguez-Munoz, J., “Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy for pancreatic exocrine insufficiency: when is it indicated, what is the goal and how to do it?” Adv Med Sci 2011; 56(1):1-5.

Engwerda, C., et al., “Bromelain activates murine macrophages and natural killer cells in vitro,” Cellular Immunol 2001; 210(1):5–10.

Fieker, A., et al., “Enzyme replacement therapy for pancreatic insufficiency: present and future,” Clin Exp Gastroenterol 2011; 4: 55–73.

Fitzgerald, D., et al., “Relief of chronic arterial obstruction using intravenous brinase: a control study,” Scand Jour Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1979; 13:327-32.

Gaspardy, G., et al., “Treatment of sciatica due to intervertebral disc herniation with Chymoral tablets,” Rheum Phys Med 1971; 11:14-9.

Graham, D., “Enzyme replacement therapy of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in man. Relations between in vitro enzyme activities and in vivo potency in commercial pancreatic extracts,” NEJM 1977; 296:1314-17.

Hingorani, K., “Oral enzyme therapy in severe back pain,” Brit Jour Clin Pract 1968; 22:209-10.

Howat, R., et al., “The effect of bromelain therapy on episiotomy wounds—a double blind controlled clinical trial,” Jour Obstet Gynaecol Brit Commonwealth 1972; 79(10):951–53.

Ianiro, G., et al., “Digestive enzyme supplementation in gastrointestinal diseases,” Curr Drug Metabol 2016; 17(2):187-93.

Kamhi, E., Arthritis. 2nd Ed. Berkeley, CA: Celestial Arts Press, 2006, p. 119.

Keller, J., et al. “Pancreatic enzyme supplementation therapy,” Curr Treat Options Gastroenterol 2003; 6:369-74.

Lehmann, P., “Immunomodulation by proteolytic enzymes,” Nephrol Dialysis Transplant 1996; 11(6):953–55.

Littlewood, J., et al., “Control of malabsorption in cystic fibrosis,” Paediatr Drugs 2000; 2:205-22.

Lund, F., et al., “Thrombolytic treatment with IV brinase of advanced arterial obliterative disease of the limbs,” Angiology 1975; 26:534-56.

Malesci, A., et al., “New enteric-coated high-lipase pancreatic extract in the treatment of pancreatic steatorrhea,” Jour Clin Gastroenterol 1994; 18:32-5.

McCarthy, C., “Nutritional defects in patients with malabsorption,” Pro Nutr Soc 1976; 35:37-40.

Mindell, E., Smith, P., What You Must Know About Allergy Relief. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers, 2016.

Mynott, T., et al., “Bromelain prevents secretion caused by Vibrio cholerae and Escherichia coli enterotoxins in rabbit ileum in vitro,” Gastroenterology 1997; 113(1):175–84.

Neumayer, C., et al. “Combined enzymatic and antioxidative treatment reduces ischemia-reperfusion injury in rabbit skeletal muscle,” Jour Surg Res 2006; 133(2):150–58.

Oelgoetz, A., et al., “The treatment of food allergy and indigestion of pancreatic origin with pancreatic enzymes,” Amer Jour Dig Dis Nutr 1935; 2:422-26.

Patel, R., et al. “Celiac disease and recurrent pancreatitis,” Gastrointest Endosc 1999; 50:823-27.

Pavan, R., et al., “Properties and therapeutic application of bromelain: A review,” Biotechnol Res Int 2012; 2012:976203.

Phelan, J., “The nature of gliadin toxicity in coeliac disease,” Biochem Soc Trans 1974; 2:1368-70.

Phelan, J., et al., “Coelic disease: the abolition of gliadin toxicity by enzymes from Aspergillus niger,” Clin Sci Mol Med 1977; 53:35-43.

Regan, P., et al., “Comparative effects of antacids, cimetidine and enteric coating on the therapeutic response to oral enzymes in severe pancreatic insufficiency,” NEJM 1977; 297:854-58.

Roxas, M., “The role of enzyme supplementation in digestive disorders,” Altern Med Rev 2008; 13(4):307-14.

Saad, K., et al., “A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of digestive enzymes in children with autism spectrum disorders,” Clin Psychpharmacol Neurosci 2015; 13(2):188-93.

Schneider, M., et al., “Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy: comparative effects of conventional and enteric-coated microspheric pancreatin and acid-stable fungal enzyme preparations on steatorrhea in chronic pancreatitis,” Hepatogastroenterology 1985; 32:97-102.

Scolapio, J., et al., “Nutritional supplementation in patients with acute and chronic pancreatits,” Dig Dis Sci 1983; 28:97-102.

Stapleton, F., et al., “Hyperuricosuria due to high dose pancreatic extract therapy in cystic fibrosis,” NEJM 1976; 295:246-48.

Suarez, F., et al., “Pancreatic supplements reduce symptomatic response of healthy subjects to a high fat meal,” Dig Dis Sci 1999; 44:1317-21.

Sweeny, F., et al., “Treatment of athletic injuries with an oral proteolytic enzyme,” Med Times 1963; 91:765.

Tassman, G., et al., “Evaluation of a plant proteolytic enzyme for the control of inflammation and pain,” Jour Dent Med 1964; 19:73-7.

Valerio, D., et al., “Clinical effectiveness of a pancreatic enzyme supplement,” Jour Parenter Enternal Nutr 1981; 5:110–14. 

Verhaeghe, R., et al., “Clinical trial of brinase and anticoagulants as a method of treatment for advanced limb ischemia,” Eur Jour Clin Pharmacol 1979; 16:165-70.

Wright, J., Why Stomach Acid Is Good for You. New York, NY: M. Evans and Company, 2001.

Wu, S., et al., “Bromelain ameliorates the wound microenvironment and improves the healing of firearm wounds,” Jour Surg Res 2012; 176:503–09.

 

D-Ribose

Breeding, P., et al., “Integrative model of chronically activated immune-hormonal pathways important in the generation of fibromyalgia,” Brit Jour Med Pract 2012; 5(3):a524–a534.

Chitkara, D., “Abnormalities in gastrointestinal motility are associated with diseases of oxidative phosphorylation in children,” Amer Jour Gastroenterol 2003; 98(4):871–77.

Cordero, M., et al., “Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in fibromyalgia,” Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2010; 31(2):169–73.

Di Donato, S, “Multisystem manifestations of mitochondrial disorders,” Jour Neurol 2009; 256(5):693–710.

Fernandez, D., et al., “Metabolic control of T cell activation and death in SLE,” Autoimmun Rev 2009; 8(3):184–89.

Gaby, A., “Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.” In Nutritional Medicine. 2nd Ed., Concord, NH: Fritz Perlberg Publishing, 2017.

Joseph, A., et al., “Mitochondrial dysregulation in the pathogenesis of diabetes: potential for mitochondrial biogenesis-mediated interventions,” Exp Diabetes Res 2012; 2012:642038.

Karbowski, M., et al., “Neurodegeneration as a consequence of failed mitochondrial maintenance,” Acta Neuropathol 2012; 123(2):157–71.

Konradi, C., et al., “Molecular evidence for mitochondrial dysfunction in bipolar disorder,” Arch Gen Psychiatry 2004; 61(3):300–08.

Limongelli, G., et al., “Mitochondrial diseases and the heart: an overview of molecular basis, diagnosis, treatment and clinical course,” Future Cardiol 2012; 8(1):71–88.

Ma, Z., et al., “Mitochondrial dysfunction and beta-cell failure in type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Exp Diabetes Res 2012; 2012:703538.

Mahoney, D., et al., “Understanding D-Ribose and mitochondrial function,” Adv Biosci Clin Med 2018; 6(1):1-5.

Maiese, K., et al., “Oxidative stress biology and cell injury during type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Curr Neurovasc Res 2007; 4(1):63–71.

Mao, P., et al., “Is multiple sclerosis a mitochondrial disease?” Biochim Biophys Acta 2010; 1802(1):66–79.

Marazziti, D., et al., “Psychiatric disorders and mitochondrial dysfunctions,” Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2012; 16(2):270–75.

Myhill, S., et al., “Chronic fatigue syndrome and mitochondrial dysfunction,” Int Jour Clin Exp Med 2009; 2(1):1–16.

Nicolson, G., “Metabolic syndrome and mitochondrial function: molecular replacement and antioxidant supplements to prevent membrane peroxidation and restore mitochondrial function,” Jour Cell Biochem 2007; 100(6):1352–69.

Nicolson, G., “Mitochondrial dysfunction and dhronic disease: Treatment with natural supplements,” Integrative Med (Encinitas) 2014; 13:35–43.

Nicolson, G., et al., “Gulf War Illnesses: chemical, radiological and biological exposures resulting in chronic fatiguing illnesses can be identified and treated,” Jour Chronic Fatigue Syndr 2003; 11(1):135–54.

Norheim, K., et al., “Biological mechanisms of chronic fatigue,” Rheumatology (Oxford) 2011; 50(6):1009–18.

Omran, H., et al., “D-ribose improves diastolic function and quality of life in congestive heart failure patients: a prospective feasibility study,” Eur Jour Heart Fail 2003; 5:615-19.

Palmieri, L., et al., “Mitochondrial dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders: cause or effect?” Biochim Biophys Acta 2010; 1797(6–7):1130–37.

Pauly, D., et al., “D-ribose as a supplement for cardiac energy metabolism,” Jour Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 2000; 5:249-58.

Peacock, B., et al., “New insights into Lyme disease,” Redox Biol 2015; 5:66-70.

Rabinovich, R., et al., “Structural and functional changes of peripheral muscles in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients,” Curr Opin Pulm Med 2010; 16(2):123–33.

Reddy, P., “Mitochondrial medicine for aging and neurodegenerative diseases,” Neuromolecular Med 2008; 10(4):291–315.

Reddy, P., et al., “Mitochondria as a therapeutic target for aging and neurodegenerative diseases,” Curr Alzheimer Res 2011; 8(4):393–409.

Rossignol, D., et al., “Mitochondrial dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Mol Psychiatry 2012; 17(3):290–314.

Schapira, A., “Mitchondrial disease,” Lancet 2006; 368:70–82.

Shecterie, L., et al., “Potential clinical benefits of d-ribose in ischemic cardiovascular disease,” Cureus 2018; 10(3):e2291.

Sotgia, F., et al., “Mitochondrial oxidative stress drives tumor progression and metastasis: should we use antioxidants as a key component of cancer treatment and prevention?,” BMC Med 2011; 9:62–7.

Swerdlow, R., “Brain aging, Alzheimer’s disease, and mitochondria,” Biochim Biophys Acta 2011; 1812(12):1630–39.

Teitelbaum, J., et al., “The use of D-ribose in chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia: a pilot study,” Jour Altern Complement Med 2006; 12:857-62.

Victor, V., et al., “Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in atherosclerosis: mitochondria-targeted antioxidants as potential therapy,” Curr Med Chem 2009; 16(35):4654–67.

Wallace, D., et al., “Mitochondrial energetics and therapeutics,” Ann Rev Pathol 2010; 5:297–348.

 

Fiber

Aldoori, W., et al., “A prospective study of dietary fiber types and symptomatic diverticular disease in men,” Jour Nutr 1998; 128:714-19.

Anderson, J., et al., “Cholesterol-lowering effects of psyllium intake adjunctive to diet therapy in men and women with hypercholesterolemia: meta-analysis of 8 controlled trials,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2000; 71(2):472-79.

Anderson, J., et al., “Dietary fiber: diabetes and obesity,” Amer Jour Gastroenterol 1986; 81:898-906.

Anderson, J., et al., “High-fiber diets for diabetic and hypertriglyceridemic patients,” Can Med Assoc Jour 1980; 123:975.

Baghurst, P., et al., “High-fiber diets and reduced risk of breast cancer,” Int Jour Cancer 1994; 56(2):173-76. 

Bazzano, L., “Effects of soluble dietary fiber on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and coronary heart disease risk,” Curr Atheroscler Rep 2008; 10(6):473-77.

Bijkerk, C., et al., “Systematic review: the role of different types of fibre in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome,” Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2004; 19(3):245-51.

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.

Brown, L., et al., "Cholesterol-lowering effects of dietary fiber: a meta-analysis,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1999; 69:30-42.

Burke, V., et al., “Dietary protein and soluble fiber reduce ambulatory blood pressure in treatment of hypertensives,” Hypertension 2001; 38(4):821-26.

Butt, M., et al., “Guar gum: a miracle therapy for hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia and obesity,” Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2007; 47(4):389-96.

Chandalia, M., et al., “Beneficial effects of high dietary fiber intake in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus,” NEJM 2000; 342(19):1392-98.

Dahl, W., et al., “Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: health implications of dietary fiber,” Jour Acad Nutr Diet 2015; 115(11):1861-70.

Dahm, C., et al., “Dietary fiber and colorectal cancer risk: a nested case-control study using food diaries,” Jour Natl Cancer Inst 2010; 102(9):614-26.

Du, H., et al., “Dietary fiber and subsequent changes in body weight and waist circumference in European men and women,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2010; 91(2):329-36. 

Eshak, E., et al., “Dietary fiber intake is associated with reduced risk of mortality from cardiovascular disease among Japanese men and women,” Jour Nutr 2010; 140(8):1445-53.

Farvid, M., et al., “Dietary fiber intake in young adults and breast cancer risk,” Pediatrics 2016; 137(3).

Ford, A., et al., “Effect of fibre, antispasmodics, and peppermint oil in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis,” BMJ 2008; 337:a2313.

Fuchs, C., et al. “Dietary fiber and the risk of colorectal cancer and adenoma in women,” NEJM 1999; 340:169-76.

Fugh-Berman, A., “Herb-drug interactions,” Lancet 2000; 355(9198):134-38.

Giacco, R., et al., “Long-term dietary treatment with increased amounts of fiber-rich low-glycemic index natural foods improves blood glucose control and reduces the number of hypoglycemic events in type 1 diabetic patients,” Diabetes Care 2000; 23(10):1461-66. 

Ha, M., et al., “A definition for dietary fibre,” Eur Jour Clin Nutr 2000; 54(12):861-64.

Holmes, M., et al., “Dietary carbohydrates, fiber, and breast cancer risk,” Amer Jour Epidemiol 2004; 159(8):732-39.

Hopping, B., et al., “Dietary fiber, magnesium, and glycemic load alter risk of type 2 diabetes in a multiethnic cohort in Hawaii,” Jour Nutr 2010; 140(1):68-74. 

Horwitz, B., et al., “The irritable bowel syndrome,” NEJM 2001; 344(24):1846-50.

Houston, M., What Your Doctor May Not Tell You About Hypertension. New York, NY: Warner Books, Inc, 2003.

Howarth, N., et al., “Dietary fiber and weight regulation,” Nutr Rev 2001; 59(5):129-39.

Landin, K., et al., “Guar gum improves insulin sensitivity: blood lipids, blood pressure, and fibrinolysis, in healthy me,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1992; 56:1061-65.

Liu, S., et al., “A prospective study of dietary glycemic load, carbohydrate intake, and risk of coronary heart disease in US women,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2000; 71:1455-61.

Liu, S., et al., “Relation between changes in intakes of dietary fiber and grain products and changes in weight and development of obesity among middle-aged women,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2003; 78(5):920-27.

Ma, Y., et al., “Association between dietary fiber and serum C-reactive protein,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2006; 83(4):760-66.

Marlett, J., “Content and composition of dietary fiber in 117 frequently consumed foods,” Jour Amer Diet Assoc 1992; 92(2):175-86.

McKeown, N., et al., “Carbohydrate nutrition, insulin resistance, and the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the Framingham Offspring Cohort,” Diabetes Care 2004; 27:538-46.

Meyer, K., et al., “Carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and incident type 2 diabetes in older women,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2000; 71(4):921-30. 

Michels, K., et al., “Fiber intake and incidence of colorectal cancer among 76,947 women and 47,279 men,” Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2005; 14(4):842-49.

Pal, S., et al., “The effect of a fibre supplement compared to a healthy diet on body composition, lipids, glucose, insulin and other metabolic syndrome risk factors in overweight and obese individuals,” Brit Jour Nutr 2011; 105(1):90-100.

Park, Y., et al., “Dietary fiber intake and risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women: the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2009; 90(3):664-71. 

Pereira, M., et al., “Dietary fiber and risk of coronary heart disease: a pooled analysis of cohort studies,” Arch Intern Med 2004; 164:370-76.

Queenan, K., et al., “Concentrated oat beta-glucan, a fermentable fiber, lowers serum cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic adults in a randomized controlled trial,” Nutr Jour 2007; 6:6. 

Reyna-Villasmil, N., et al., “Oat-derived beta-glucan significantly improves HDL-C and diminishes LDL-C and non-HDL cholesterol in overweight individuals with mild hypercholesterolemia,” Amer Jour Ther 2007; 14(2):203-12.

Richter, W., et al., “Interaction between fibre and lovastatin,” Lancet 1991; 338(8768):706.

Riedl, J., et al., “Some dietary fibers reduce the absorption of carotenoids in women,” Jour Nutr 1999; 129(12):2170-76.

Rimm, E., e al., “Vegetable, fruit, and cereal fiber intake and risk of coronary heart disease among men,” JAMA 1996; 275:447-51.

Ripsin, C., et al., “Oat products and lipid lowering. A meta-analysis,” JAMA 1992; 267(24):3317-25.

Rountree, R., Immunotics. New York, NY: Berkley Publishing Group, 2000.

Schulze, M., et al., “Glycemic index, glycemic load, and dietary fiber intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes in younger and middle-aged women,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2004; 80(2):348-56.  

Sierra, M., et al., “Therapeutic effects of psyllium in type 2 diabetic patients,” Eur Jour Clin Nutr 2002; 56(9):830-42.

Smith, P., Why You Can’t Lose Weight. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers, 2011.

Spreacher, D., et al., “Efficacy of psyllium in reducing serum cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemic patients on high-or-low-fat diets,” Ann Inter Med 1993; 119:545-54.

Streppel, M., et al., “Dietary fiber and blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials,” Arch Intern Med 2005; 165(2):150-56.

Terry, P., et al., “Fruit, vegetables, dietary fiber, and risk of colorectal cancer,” Jour Natl Cancer Inst 2001; 93(7):525-33.

Wanders, A., et al., “Effects of dietary fibre on subjective appetite, energy intake and body weight: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials,” Obes Rev 2011; 12(9):724-39.

Wannamethee, S., et al., “Associations between dietary fiber and inflammation, hepatic function, and risk of type 2 diabetes in older men: potential mechanisms for the benefits of fiber on diabetes risk,” Diabetes Care 2009; 32(10):1823-25.

Whelton, S., et al., “Effect of dietary fiber intake on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled clinical trials,” Jour Hypertens 2005; 23(3):475-81.

Wolever, T., et al., “Physicochemical properties of oat beta-glucan influence its ability to reduce serum LDL cholesterol in humans: a randomized clinical trial,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2010; 92(4):723-32.

Wolk, A., et al., “Long-term intake of dietary fiber and decreased risk of coronary heart disease among women,” JAMA 1999; 281(21):1998-2004. 

Zhang, Z., et al., “A high legume low glycemic index diet improves serum lipid profiles in men,” Lipids 2010; 45(9):765-75. 

 

Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA)

Abdou, A., et al., “Relaxation and immunity enhancement effects of GABA administration in humans,” Biofactors 2006; 26(3):201-08.

Aguiar, S., et al., “The nootropic herb Bacopa monniera,” Reguvenation Res 2013; 16(4):313-26.

Belelli, D., et al., “Neurosteroids: endogenous regulators of the GABA(A) receptor,” Nat Rev Neurosci 2005; 6(7):565-75.

Braverman, E., The Edge Effect. New York: Sterling Publishing Co., Inc., 2004.

Calogero, A., et al., “Effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid on human sperm motility and hyperactivation,” Mol Hum Reprod 1996; 2(10):733-38.

Fitzgerald, C., et al., “Possible role for glutamic acid decarboxylase in fibromyalgia symptoms; a conceptual model for chronic pain,” Med Hypotheses 2011; 77(3):409-15.

Foerster, B., et al., “Reduced insular GABA in fibromyalgia,” Arthritis Rheum 2012; 64(2):579-83.

Grundman, O., et al., “Anxiolytic activity of a phytochemically characterized Passifflora incarnate extract is mediated via the GABAergic system,” Plant Medica 2008; 74:15.

Hinz, M., et al., “Relative nutritional deficiencies associated with centrally acting monoamines,” Int Jour Gen Med 2012; 5:413-30.

Hossain, S., et al., “Effects of tea components on the response of GABA(A) receptors exposed in Xenopus oocytes,” Jour Agric Food Chem 2002; 50(14):3954-60.

Inoue, L., et al., “Blood-pressure-lowering effect of a novel fermented milk containing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in mild hypertensives,” Eur Jour Clin Nutr 2003; 57:490-95.

Klatz, R., The New Anti-Aging Revolution. Laguna Beach, CA: Basic Health Publications, 2003.

Kvetnansky, R., et al., (Eds.) Stress, Neurotransmitters, and Hormones. Boston: Blackwell Publishing on behalf of the New York Academy of Sciences, 2008.

Lombard, J., HPA Axis and Neuroendocrinology/Aging Brain. Module III. Fellowship in Anti-Aging, Regenerative, and Functional Medicine, Feb. 24-26, 2012.

Mathew, J., et al., “Decreased GABA receptor in the cerebral cortex of epileptic rats: effect of Bacopa monniera and Bacoside-A,” Jour Biomedical Sci 2012; 19:25.

Meyer, J., and Quenzer, L., Psychopharmacology: Drugs, the Brain, and Behavior. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, Inc., 2013.

Miyazawa, T., et al., “Effect of oral administration of GABA on temperature regulation in humans during rest and exercise at high ambient temperature,” Osaka City Med Jour 2009; 55(2):99-108.

Moykkynen, T., et al., “Magnesium potentiation of the function of native and recombinant GABA(A) receptors,” Neuroreport 2001; 12(10):2175-79.

Okita, Y., et al., “Effects of vegetable containing gamma-aminobutyric acid on the cardiac autonomic nervous system in healthy young people,” Jour Physiol Anthropol 2009; 28(3):101-07.

Powers, M., et al., “Growth hormone isoform responses to GABA ingestion at rest and after exercise,” Med Sci Sports Exerc 2008; 40(1):104-10.

Sahley, B., GABA: The Anxiety Amino Acid. San Antonio, TX: Pain and Stress Publications, 1999.

Sahley, B., Heal with Amino Acids and Nutrients. San Antonio, TX: Pain and Stress Publications, 2003.

Sugiyama, T., et al., “Theanine and glutamate transporter inhibitors enhance the antitumor efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents,” Biochem Biophys Acta 2003; 1653(2):47-59.

von Bohlen, O., and Halbach, R., Neurotransmitters and Neuromodulators: 2nd Ed. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH, 2006.

Webster, R., (Ed.) Neurotransmitters, Drugs, and Brain Function. New York: Wiley, 2001.

Willner, C., Neurotransmitters: From Biochemistry to Behavior. Module III. Fellowship in Anti-Aging, Regenerative, and Functional Medicine, Feb. 24-26, 2012.

Winsky-Sommerer, R., “Role of GABAA receptors in the physiology and pharmacology of sleep,” Eur Jour Neurosci 2009; 29(9):1779-94.

Yuan, C., et al., “Kavalactone and dihydrokavain modulate GABAergic activity in a rat gastric-brainstem preparation,” Planta Med 2002; 68(12):1092-96.

Yuan, C., et al., “Modulation of American Ginseng on brainstem GABAergic effects on rats,” Jour Ethanopharmacol 1998; 4(3):215-22.

Yuan, C., et al., “The gamma-aminobutyric acidergic effects of valerian and valerenic acid on rat brainstem neuron activity,” Anesth Analog 2004; 98(2):353-58.

 

Glucosamine Sulfate

Bertin, P., et al., “NSAID-sparing effect of glucosamine hydrochloride in patients with knee osteoarthritis: an analysis of data from a French database,” Curr Med Res Opin 2013.

Bissett, D., et al., “Reduction in the appearance of facial hyperpigmentation by topical N-acetyl glucosamine,” Jour Cosmet Dermatol 2007; 6(1):20-6.

Braham, R., et al., “The effect of glucosamine supplementation on people experiencing regular knee pain,” Brit Jour Sports Med 2003; 37:45-9.

Braun, L., et al., Herbs & Natural Supplements. Volume 2. Glucosamine. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

Chou, M., et al., “Effects of chondroitin and glucosamine sulfate in a dietary bar formulation on inflammation, interleukin-1-beta, matrix metalloprotease-9, and cartilage damage in arthritis,” Exp Biol Med 2005;230(4):255-62.

Christgau, S., et al., “Osteoarthritic patients with high cartilage turnover show increased responsiveness to the cartilage protecting effects of glucosamine sulphate,” Clin Exp Rheumatol 2004; 22:36-42.

Clegg, D., et al., “Glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate, and the two in combination for painful knee osteoarthritis,” NEJM 2006; 354(8):795-808.

Coulson, S., et al., “Green-lipped mussel extract (Perna canaliculus) and glucosamine sulphate in patients with knee osteoarthritis: therapeutic efficacy and effects on gastrointestinal microbiota profiles,” Inflammopharmacology 2013; 21(1):79-90.

Dosteosky, N., et al., “The effect of glucosamine on glucose metabolism in humans: a systematic review of the literature,” Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 2011; 19(4):375-80.

Drovanti, A, et al. “Therapeutic activity of oral glucosamine sulfate in osteoarthrosis: a placebo-controlled double-blind investigation.” Clin Ther 1980; 3:260–272.

Gruenwald, J., et al., “Effect of glucosamine sulfate with or without omega-3 fatty acids in patients with osteoarthritis,” Adv Ther 2009; 26(9):858-71.

Herrero-Beaumont, G., et al., “Glucosamine sulfate in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis symptoms: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study using acetaminophen as a side comparator,” Arthritis Rheum 2007; 56(2):555-67.

Hua, J., et al., “Inhibitory actions of glucosamine, a therapeutic agent for osteoarthritis, on the functions of neutrophils,” Jour Leukocyte Biol 2002; 71(4):632-40.

Jackson, C., et al., “The human pharmacokinetics of oral ingestion of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate taken separately or in combination,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2010; 18(3):297-302.

Kelly, G., “The role of glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfates in the treatment of degenerative join disease,” Altern Med Rev 1998; 3(1):27-39.

Kim, M., et al., “Glucosamine sulfate promotes osteoblastic differentiation of MG-63 cells via anti-inflammatory effect,” Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2007; 17(7):1938-42.

Knudsen, J., et al., “Potential glucosamine-warfarin interaction resulting in increased international normalized ratio: case report review of the literature and MedWatch database,” Pharmacotherapy 2008; 28(4):540-48.

Lee, Y., et al., “Effect of glucosamine or chondroitin sulfate on the osteoarthritis progression: a meta-analysis.” Rheumatol Int 2010; 30:357-63.

Matheson, A, et al. “Glucosamine: a review of its use in the management of osteoarthritis.” Drugs & Aging 2003; 20(14):1041–1060.

McCarty, M., et al., “Sulfated glycosaminoglycans and glucosamine may synergize in promoting synovial hyaluronic acid synthesis,” Med Hypotheses 2000; 54(5):708-802.

Monauni, T., et al., “Effects of glucosamine infusion in insulin secretion and insulin actions in humans,” Diabetes 2000; 49(6):926-35.

Muller-Fassbender, H, et al. “Glucosamine sulfate compared to ibuprofen in osteoarthritis of the knee.” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 1994; 2:61–69.

Murray, M., Encyclopedia of Natural Medicine. New York, NY: Three Rivers Press, 1998.

Murray, M., Glucosamine. In Pizzorno, J., and Murray, M., Textbook of Natural Medicine. 4th Ed., St. Louis: Elsevier, 2013.

Nagoka, I., et al., “Recent aspects of the anti-inflammatory actions of glucosamine,” Carbohydrate Polymers 2011; 84(2):825-30.

Nakamura, H., et al., “Effects of glucosamine administration on patients with rheumatoid arthritis,” Rheumatol Int 2007; 27(3):213-18.

Nakamura, H., et al., “Effects of glucosamine hydrochloride on the production of prostaglandin E2, nitric oxide and metalloproteases by chondrocytes and synoviocytes in osteoarthritis,” Clin Exp Rheumatol 2004; 22(3):293-99.

Nimni, M., et al., “Chondroitin sulfate and sulfur containing chondroprotective agents: Is there a basis for their pharmacological action?” Cur Rheum Rev 2006; 2(2):137-49.

Noack, W., et al., “Glucosamine sulfate in osteoarthritis of the knee,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 1994; 2:51–9.

Ostojic, S., et al., “Glucosamine administration in athletes: effects on recovery of acute knee injury,” Res Sports Med 2007; 15:113-24.

Pujalte, J., et al., “Double-blind clinical evaluation of oral glucosamine sulphate in the basic treatment of osteoarthrosis,” Curr Med Res Opin 1980; 7:110-14.

Rai, J., et al., “Efficacy of chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine sulfate in the progression of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind study,” Bull Postgrad Inter Med Educ Res Chandigarh 2004; 38(1):18-22.

Roman, J., et al., “Glucosamine sulfate for knee osteoarthritis: science and evidence-based use,” Therapy 2010; 7(6):591-604.

Sakai, S., et al., “Effect of glucosamine and reduced compounds on the degranulation of mast cells and ear swelling induced by dinitroflurobenzene in mice,” Life Sciences 2010; 86(9-10):337-43.

Salvatore, S., et al., “A pilot study of N-acetyl glucosamine, a nutritional substrate for glycosaminoglycan synthesis, in paediatric chronic inflammatory bowel disease,” Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2000; 14(12):1567-79.

Sherman, A., et al., “Use of glucosamine and chondroitin in persons with osteoarthritis,” PM&R 2012; 4(3 Suppl):S110-S116.

Sumantran, V., et al., “The relationship between chondroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of Withania somnifera root and glucosamine sulphate on human osteoarthritic cartilage in vitro,” Phytother Res 2008; 22(10):1342-48.

Tant, L., et al., “Open-label, randomized, controlled pilot study of the effects of a glucosamine complex on low back pain,” Curr Ther Res 2005; 66:311-21.

Usha, P., et al., “Randomized, double-blind, parallel, placebo-controlled study of oral glucosamine, methylsulfonylmethane and their combination in osteoarthritis,” Clin Drug Invest 2004; 24(6):353-63.

Wu, D., et al., “Efficacies of different preparations of glucosamine for the treatment of osteoarthritis: a meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials,” Int Jour Clin Pract 2013; 67(6):585-94.

 

Indole-3-Carbinol (I-3-C)

Abdelrahim, M., et al., “3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) and its derivatives induce apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells through endoplasmic reticulum stress-dependent upregulation of DR5,” Carcinogenesis 2006; 27(4):717-28.

Anon. “Broccoli compound inhibits HSV,” AIDS Patient Care STDS 2003; 17:609.

Ashok, B., et al., “Abrogation of estrogen-mediated cellular and biochemical effects by indole-3-carbinol,” Nutr Cancer 2001; 41(1-2):180-87.

Balk, J., “Indole-3-carbinol for cancer prevention,” Altern Med Alert 2000; 3:105-07.

Bell, M., et al., “Placebo-controlled trial of indole-3-carbinol in the treatment of CIN,” Gynecol Oncol 2000; 78(2):123-29.

Bonnesen, C., et al., “Dietary indoles and isothiocyanates that are generated from cruciferous vegetables can both stimulate apoptosis and confer protection against DNA damage in human colon cell lines,” Cancer Res 2001; 61(16):6120-30.

Bradlow, H., et al., “Effects of dietary indole-3-carbinol on estradiol metabolism and spontaneous mammary tumors in mice,” Carcinogenesis 1991; 12(9):1571-74. 

Bradlow, H., et al., “Indole-3-carbinol. A novel approach to breast cancer prevention,” Ann NY Acad Sci 1995; 768:180–200.

Bradlow, H., et al., “2-Hydroxyestrone: the 'good' estrogen,” Jour Endocrinol 1996; 150(Suppl):S259-265.

Cauley, J., et al., “Estrogen metabolites and the risk of breast cancer in older women,” Epidemiology 2003; 14(6):740-44.  

Chinni, S., et al., “Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) induced cell growth inhibition, GI cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in prostate cancer cells,” Oncogene 20:2927–36.

Dalessandri, K., et al., “Pilot study: effect of 3,3'-diindolylmethane supplements on urinary hormone metabolites in postmenopausal women with a history of early-stage breast cancer,” Nutr Cancer 2004; 50(2):161-67.

Grubbs, C., et al., “Chemoprevention of chemically-induced mammary carcinogenesis by indole-3-carbinol,” Anticancer Res 1995; 15:709-16.

Jordan, V., et al., “Selective estrogen receptor modulation and reduction in risk of breast cancer, osteoporosis, and coronary heart disease,” Jour Natl Cancer Inst 2001; 93(19):1449-57.

Lampe, J., et al., “Brassica, biotransformation and cancer risk: genetic polymorphisms alter the preventive effects of cruciferous vegetables,” Jour Nutr 2002; 132(10):2991-94.

McAlindon, T., et al., “Indole-3-carbinol in women with SLE: effect on estrogen metabolism and disease activity,” Lupus 2001; 10(11):779-83.

McNaughton, S., eet al., “Development of a food composition database for the estimation of dietary intakes of glucosinolates, the biologically active constituents of cruciferous vegetables,” Brit Jour Nutr 2003; 90(3):687-97.  

Meng, Q., et al., “Indole-3-carbinol is a negative regulator of estrogen receptor-alpha signaling in human tumor cells,” Jour Nutr 2000; 130(12):2927-31. 

Meng, Q., et al., “Inhibitory effects of Indole-3-carbinol on invasion and migration in human breast cancer cells,” Breast Cancer Res Treat 2000; 63(2):147-52. 

Michnovicz, J., et al., “Changes in levels of urinary estrogen metabolites after oral indole-3-carbinol treatment in humans,” Jour Natl Cancer Inst 1997; 89(10):718-23.

Michnovicz, J., “Increased estrogen 2-hydroxylation in obese women using oral indole-3-carbinol,” Int Jour Obes Relat Metab Disord 1998; 22(3):227-29.

Michnovicz, J., et al., “Induction of estradiol metabolism by dietary indole-3-carbinol in humans,” Jour Nat Cancer Inst 1990; 82:9470–9489.

Naik, R., et al., “A randomized phase II trial of indole-3-carbinol in the treatment of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia,” Int Jour Gynecol Cancer 2006; 16(2):786-90.

Nho, C., et al., “The synergistic upregulation of phase II detoxification enzymes by glucosinolate breakdown products in cruciferous vegetables,” Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2001; 174(2):146-52.

Rahman, K., et al., “Inhibition of nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-{kappa}B contributes to 3,3'-diindolylmethane-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells,” Cancer Res 2005; 65(1):364-71.

Reed, G., et al., “A phase I study of indole-3-carbinol in women: tolerability and effects,” Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2005; 14(8):1953-60.

Riby, J., et al., “The major cyclic trimeric product of indole-3-carbinol is a strong agonist of the estrogen receptor signaling pathway,” Biochemistry 2000; 39(5):910-18.  

Rosen, C., et al., “Preliminary results of the use of indole-3-carbinol for recurrent respiratory papillomatosis,” Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1998; 118(6):810-15.

Shapiro, T., et al., “Chemoprotective glucosinolates and isothiocyanates of broccoli sprouts: metabolism and excretion in humans,” Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2001; 10(5):501-08.  

Shapiro, T., et al., “Human metabolism and excretion of cancer chemoprotective glucosinolates and isothiocyanates of cruciferous vegetables,” Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1998; 7(12):1091-1100.

Shertzer, H., et al., “The micronutrient indole-3-carbinol: implications for disease and chemoprevention,” Drug Metabol Drug Interact 2000; 17(1-4):159-88.

Shilling, As., et al., “3,3'-Diindolylmethane, a major condensation product of indole-3-carbinol, is a potent estrogen in the rainbow trout,” Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2001; 170(3):191-200.

Verhoeven, D., et al., “Epidemiological studies on brassica vegetables and cancer risk,” Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1996; 5(9):733-48. 

Yuan, F., et al., “Anti-estrogenic activities of indole-3-carbinol in cervical cells: implication for prevention of cervical cancer,” Anticancer Res 1999; 19(3A):1673-80.

 

Malic Acid

Domingo, J., et al., “Citric, malic and succinic acids as possible alternatives to deferoxamine in aluminum toxicity,” Jour Toxicol Clin Toxicol 1988; 26(1-2):67-79.

Osiecki, H., The Nutrient Bible. Australia: Bio Concepts Publishing, 2004.

Rodgers, A., et al., “Malic acid supplementation increases urinary citrate excretion and urinary pH: implications for the potential treatment of calcium oxalate stone disease,” Jour Endourol 2014; 28(2):229-36.

Russell, I. et al., “Treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome with Super Malic: a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled, crossover pilot study,” Jour Rheumatol 1995; 22(5):953-58.

 

Melatonin

Atanassova, P., et al., “Impaired nocturnal melatonin in acute phase of ischaemic stroke: cross-sectional matched case-control analysis,” Jour Neuroendocrinol 2009; 21(7):657-63.

Ayer, R., et al., “Effects of melatonin in early brain injury following subarachnoid hemorrhage,” Actu Neurochir Suppl 2008; 102:327-30.

Bondy, S., et al., “Retardation of brain aging by chronic treatment with melatonin,” Ann NY Acad Sci 2004; 1035:197-215.

Borah, A., et al., “Melatonin inhibits 6-hydroxydopamine production in the brain to protect against experimental parkinsonism in rodents,” Jour Pineal Res 2009; 47(4):293-300.

Brito-Armas, J., et al., “Melatonin prevents dopaminergic cell loss induced by lentiviral vectors expressing A3OP mutant alpha-synuclein,” Histol Histopathol 2013; Feb 27.

Bubenik, G., et al., “Melatonin and aging: prospects for human treatment,” Jour Physiol Pharmacol 2011; 62(1):13-9.

Cardinali, D., et al., “Clinical aspects of melatonin intervention in Alzheimer’s disease progression,” Curr Neuropharmacol 2010; 8(3):218-27.

Cardinali, D., et al., “Therapeutic application of melatonin in mild cognitive impairment,” Amer Jour Neurodegener Dis 2012; 1(3):280-91.

Cardinali, D., et al., “The use of melatonin in Alzheimer’s disease,” Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2002; 23(Suppl 1):20-3.

Chen, H., et al., “Melatonin improves presynaptic protein, SNAP-25, expression and dendritic spin density and enhances functional and electrophysiological recovery following transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats,” Jour Pineal Res 2009; 47(3):260-70.

Collins, J., What’s Your Menopause Type? Roseville, CA: Prima Publishing, 2000.

Cos, S., et al., “Influence of melatonin on invasive and metastic properties of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells,” Cancer Res 1998; 58(19):4383–90.

Daniels, W., et al., “Melatonin prevents beta-amyloid-induced lipid peroxidation,” Jour Pineal Res 1998; 24(2):78-82.

De Rooij, S., “Melatonin deficiency hypothesis in delirium. A synthesis of current evidence,” Rejuvenation Res 2013; April 19.

Deykun, K., et al., “Modulations of behavioral consequences of minor cortical ischemic lesion by application of free radicals scavengers,” Gen Physiol Biophys 2011; 30(3):263-70.

Dominguez-Rodriguez, A., et al., “Clinical aspects of melatonin in the acute coronary syndrome,” Curr Vasc Pharmacol 2009; 7(3):367-73.

Dominguez-Rodriguez, A., et al., “Melatonin and circadian biology in human cardiovascular disease,” Jour Pineal Res 2010; 49(1):14-22.

Dominguez-Rodriguez, A., et al., “Prognostic value of nocturnal melatonin levels as a novel marker in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction,” Amer Jour Cardiol 2006; 97(8):1162-64.

Dominguez-Rodriguez, A., et al., “Relation of nocturnal melatonin levels to C-reactive protein concentration in patients with T-segment elevation myocardial infarction,” Amer Jour Cardiol 2006; 97(1):10-2.

Feng, Z., et al., “Long-term melatonin or 17-beta-estradiol supplementation alleviates oxidative stress in ovariectomized adult rats,” Free Radic Biol Med 2005; 39(2):195-204.

Fredericks, S., “Melatonin: The Brain Hormone,” Life Extension, September 2013, p. 40-9.

Furio, A., et al., “Possible therapeutic value of melatonin in mild cognitive impairment: a retrospective study,” Jour Pineal Res 2007; 43(4):404-09.

Gupta, Y., et al., “Neuroprotective role of melatonin in oxidative stress vulnerable brain,” Indian Jour Physiol Pharmacol 2003; 47(4):373-86.

Gutierrez-Valdez, A., et al., “Effects of chronic L-dopa or melatonin treatments after dopamine deafferentation in rats: dyskinesia, motor performance, and cytological analysis,” ISRN Neurol 2012; 2012:360379.

Hung, Y., et al., “Melatonin decreases matrix metalloproteinase-9 activation and expression and attenuates reperfusion-induced hemorrhage following transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats,” Jour Pineal Res 2008; 45(4):459-67.

Ismailoglu, O., et al., “The therapeutic effects of melatonin and nimodipine in rats after cerebral cortical injury,” Turk Neurosurg 2012; 22(6):740-46.

Lahiri, D., et al., “Amyloid, cholinesterase, melatonin, and metals and their roles in aging and neurodegenerative diseases,” Ann NY Acad Sci 2005; 1056:430-49.

Lahiri, D., et al., “Dietary supplementation with melatonin reduces levels of amyloid beta-peptides in the murine cerebral cortex,” Jour Pineal Res 2004; 36(4):224-31.

Lahiri, D., et al., “Melatonin, metals, and gene expression: implications in aging and neurodegenerative disorders,” Ann NY Acad Sci 2004; 1035:216-30.

Liu, R., et al., “Decreased melatonin levels in postmortem cerebrospinal fluid in relation to aging, Alzheimer’s disease, and apolipoprotein E-epsilon 4/4 genotype,” Jour Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999; 84(1):323-27.

Ma, J., et al., “Does melatonin help save dopaminergic cells in MPTP-treated mice?” Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2009; 15(4):307-14.

Mills, E., et al., “Melatonin in the treatment of cancer: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials and meta-analysis,” Jour Pineal Res 2005; 39(4):360-66.

Pandi-Perumal, S., et al., “Melatonin antioxidative defense: therapeutical implications for aging and neurodegenerative processes,” Neurotox Res 2013; 23(3):267-300.

Patki, G., et al., “Melatonin protects against neurobehavioral and mitochondrial deficits in a chronic mouse model of Parkinson’s disease,” Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2011; 99(4):704-11.

Poeggeler, B., et al., “Melatonin a highly potent endogenous radical scavenger and electron donor: new aspects of the oxidation chemistry of this indole accessed in vitro,” Ann NY Acad Sci 1994; 738:419-21.

Ram, P., et al., “Estrogen receptor transactivation in MCF-7 breast cancer cells by melatonin and growth factors,” Mol Cell Endocrinol 1998; 141(1-2):53–64.

Reiter, R., et al., “Melatonin: a novel protective agent against oxidative injury of the ischemic/reperfused heart,” Cardiovasc Res 2003; 58(1):10-9.

Reiter, R., et al., “Melatonin ameliorates neurologic damage and neurologic damage and neurophysiologic deficits in experimental models of stroke,” Ann NY Acad Sci 2003; 993:35-47.

Reiter, R., “Melatonin: clinical relevance,” Best Prat Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003; 17(2):273-85.

Reiter, R., et al., “Melatonin: reducing intracellular hostilities,” Endocrinologist 2004; 14(4):222-28.

Reiter, R., et al., “When melatonin gets on your nerves: its beneficial actions in experimental models of stroke,” Exp Biol Med 2005; 230(2):104-17.

Sae-Ung, K., et al., “Melatonin reduces the expression of alpha-synuclein in the dopamine containing neuronal regions of amphetamine-treated postnatal rats,” Jour Pineal Res 2012; 52(1):128-37.

Sewerynek, E., et al., “Melatonin and the cardiovascular system,” Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2002; 23(Supp l):79-83.

Sharkey, K., et al., “Melatonin phase shifts human circadian rhythms in a placebo-controlled simulated night-work study,” Amer Jour Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2002; 282(2):R454–R463.

Sinatra, S., “Melatonin shows promise against age-related disorders,” Heart Health and Nutrition 2007; 13(9):6-7.

Smith, P., What You Must Know About Women’s Hormones. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishing, 2010.

Tan, D., et al., “Melatonin: a potent endogenous hydroxyl radical scavenger,” Endo Jour 1993; 1:57-60.

Tsai, M., et al., “Melatonin attenuates brain contusion-induced oxidative insult, inactivation of signal transducers and activators of transcription 1, and up-regulation of suppressor of cytokine signalin-3 in rats,” Jour Pineal Res 2011; 51(2):233-45.

Vliet, E., et al., “New insights o hormones and mood,” Menopause Management 1993; June/July: 140-46, 149-50.

Wang, J., et al., “Role of melatonin in Alzheimer-like neurodegeneration,” Acta Pharmacol 2006; 27(1):41-9.

Wu, Y., et al., “The human pineal gland and melatonin in aging and Alzheimer’s disease,” Jour Pineal Res 2005; 38(3):145-52.

Xu, M., et al., “Melatonin protection against lethal myocyte injury induced by doxorubicin as reflected by effects on mitochondrial membrane potential,” Jour Mol Cell Cardiol 2003; 34(1):75-9.

 

MSM (Methylsulfonylmethane)

Ahn, H., et al., “Methylsulfonylmethane inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome activation,” Cytokine 2015; 71(2):223-31.

Ameye, L., et al., “Osteoarthritis and nutrition. From nutraceuticals to functional foods: a systematic review of the scientific evidence,” Arthritis Res Ther 2006; 8(4):R127.

Barmaki, S., et al., “Effect of methylsulfonylmethane supplementation on exercise-Induced muscle damage and total antioxidant capacity,” Jour Sports Med Phys Fitness 2012; 52:170-74.

Barrager, E., et al., “A multicentered, open-label trial on the safety and efficacy of methylsulfonylmethane in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis,” Jour Altern Complement Med 2002; 8:167-73.

Berardesca, E., et al., “Combined effects of silymarin and methylsulfonylmethane in the management of rosacea: clinical and instrumental evaluation,” Jour Cosmet Dermatol 2008; 7:8-14.

Blum, J., et al., "The effect of methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) in the control of snoring," Integrat Med 2004; 3(6):24–30.

Brien, S., et al., “Systematic review of the nutritional supplements dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) in the treatment of osteoarthritis,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2008; 16(11):1277-88.

Debbi, E., et al., “Efficacy of methylsulfonylmethane supplementation on osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized controlled study,” BMC Complement Altern Med 2011; 11:50.

Ezaki, J., et al., “Assessment of safety and efficacy of methylsulfonylmethane on bone and knee joints in osteoarthritis animal model,” Jour Bone Miner Met 2013; 31(1):16-25.

Gaby, A., “Methylsulfonylmethane as a treatment for seasonal allergic rhinitis: more data needed on pollen counts and questionnaire,” Jour Altern Complement Med 2002; 8(3):229.

Gumina, S., et al., “Arginine L-alpha-ketoglutarate, methylsulfonylmethane, hydrolyzed type I collagen and bromelain in rotator cuff tear repair: a prospective randomized study,” Curr Med Res Opin 2012; 28:1767-74.

Hwang, J., et al., “Methyl-sulfonyl-methane (MSM)-induced acute angle closure,” Jour Glaucoma 2015; 24(4):e28-e30.

Jacob, S., The Miracle of MSM. New York: Penguin Putnum, 1999.

Joksimovic, N., et al., “Efficacy and tolerability of hyaluronic acid, tea tree oil and methyl-sulfonyl-methane in a new gel medical device for treatment of haemorrhoids in a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial,” Updates Surg 2012; 64:195-201.

Kalman, D., et al., “Influence of methylsulfonylmethane on markers of exercise recovery and performance in healthy men: a pilot study,” Jour Int Soc Sports Nutr 2012; 9:46.

Kim, L., et al., “Efficacy of methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) in osteoarthritis pain of the knee: a pilot clinical trial,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2006; 14(3):286-94.

Kim, J., et al., “Methylsulfonylmethane suppresses hepatic tumor development through activation of apoptosis,” World Jour Hepatol 2014; 6(2):98-106.

Lim, E., et al., “Methylsulfonylmethane Suppresses Breast Cancer Growth by Down-Regulating STAT3 and STAT5b Pathways,” PLOS One 2012; 7(4):e33361.

Mindell, E., The Power of MSM. New York: Contemporary Books, 2002.

Mindell, E., Smith, P., What You Must Know About Allergy Relief. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers, 2016.

Nakhostin-Roohi, B., et al., “Effect of chronic supplementation with methylsulfonylmethane on oxidative stress following acute exercise in untrained healthy men,” Jour Pharm Pharmacol 2011; 63:1290-94.

Nieman, D., et al., “A commercialized dietary supplement alleviates joint pain in community adults: a double-blind, placebo-controlled community trial,” Nutr Jour 2013; 12(1):154.

Notarnicola, A., et al., “The "MESACA" study: methylsulfonylmethane and boswellic acids in the treatment of gonarthrosis,” Adv Ther 2011; 28:894-906.

Notamicola, A., “Methylsulfonylmethane and boswellic acids versus glucosamine sulfate in the treatment of knee arthritis: Randomized trial,” Int Jour Immunnopathol Pharmacol 2016; 29(1):140-46.

Notarnicola, A., et al., “SWAAT study: extracorporeal shock wave therapy and arginine supplementation and other nutraceuticals for insertional Achilles tendinopathy,” Adv Ther 2012; 29:799-814.

Richmond, V., “Incorporation of methylsulfonylmethane sulfur into guinea pig serum proteins,” Life Sci 1986; 39:263-68.

Tripathi, R., et al., “Effect of topical application of methylsulfonylmethane (MSM), EDTA on pitting edema and oxidative stress in a double blind, placebo-controlled study,” Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 2011; 57:62-9.

Uha, P., “Randomised, double-blind, parallel, placebo-controlled study of oral glucosamine, methylsulfonylmethane and their combination in osteoarthritis,” Clin Drug Investig 2004; 24(6):353-63.

Usha, P., et al., “Randomised, double-blind, parallel, placebo-controlled study of oral glucosamine, methylsulfonylmethane and their combination in osteoarthritis,” Clin Drug Invest 2004; 24:353-63.

Xie, Q., et al., “Effects of AR7 Joint Complex on arthralgia for patients with osteoarthritis: results of a three-month study in Shanghai, China,” Nutr Jour 2008; 7:31.

 

OPCs (Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins)

Fine, A., “Oligomeric proanthocyanidin complexes: history, structure, and phytopharmaceutical applications,” Alt Med Rev 2000; 5(2):144-51.

Ghosh, D., et al., “Anthocyanins and anthocyanin-rich extracts: role in diabetes and eye function,” Asia Pac Jour Clin Nutr 2007; 16(2):200-08.

Halpern, M., et al., “Red wine polyphenols an inhibition of platelet aggregation: possible mechanisms and potential use in health promotions and disease preventions,” Jour Int Med Rev 1998; 26(4):171-80.

Klatz, R., The New Anti-Aging Revolution. Laguna Beach, CA: Basic health Publications, 2003.

Mindell, E., and Smith, P., What You Must Know About Allergy Relief. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers, 2016.

Noir, N., et al., “Grape seed extract activates TH1 cells in vitro,” Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 2002; 9(2):470-76.

Preuss, H., et al., “Effects of niacin bound chromium and grape seed proanthocyanidin extract o lipid profile of hypercholesterolemic subjects: a pilot study,” Jour Med 2000; 31(5-6):227-46.

Sinatra, S., Heart Sense for Women. Washington, DC: LifeLine Press, 2000.

 

Phosphatidylcholine (PC)

Ablon, G., et al., “Treatment of lower eyelid fat pads using phosphatidylcholine: clinical trial and review,” Dermatol Surg 2004; 30:422-27.

Alvarez-Sabin, J., et al., “Long-term treatment with citicoline may improve post stroke vascular cognitive impairment,” Cerebrovasc Dis 2013; 35(2):146-54.

Barbagallo, S., “Alpha-GPC in the mental recovery of cerebral ischemic attacks, an Italian multicenter clinical trial,” Ann NY Acad Sci 1994; 717:253-69.

Bidulescu, A., et al., “Usual choline and betaine dietary intake and incident coronary heart disease: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study,” BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2007; 7:20.

Cho, B., et al., “”Synthetic dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine liposomes assimilating into high-density lipoprotein promote regression of atherosclerotic lesions in cholesterol-fed rabbits,” Exp Biol Med 2010; 235(10):1194-1203.

Chung, B., et al., “Phosphatidylcholine-rich acceptors, but not native HDL or its apolipoproteins, mobilize cholesterol from cholesterol-rich insoluble components of human atherosclerotic plaques,” Biochim Biophys Acta 2005; 1733(1):76-89.

Cotroneo, A., et al. “Effectiveness and safety of citicoline in mild vascular cognitive impairment: the IDEALE study,” Clin Interv Aging 2013; 8:131-37.

da Costa, K., et al., “Common genetic polymorphisms affect the human requirement for the nutrient choline,” Faseb Jour 2006; 20(9):1336-44.

Danne, O., et al., “Whole blood choline and plasma choline in acute coronary syndromes: prognostic and pathophysiological implications,” Clinica Chimica Acta 2007; 383(1-2):103-09.

Davalos, A., et al., “Citicoline in the treatment of acute ischaemic stroke: an international, randomised, multicentre, placebo-controlled study (ICTUS trial),” Lancet 2012; 380(9839):349-57.

Fabia, R., et al., “Effects of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylinositol on acetic-acid-induced colitis in the rat,” Digestion 1992; 53(1-2):35-44.

Fioravanti, M., et al., “Cytidinediphosphocholine (CDP-choline) for cognitive and behavioral disturbances associated with chronic cerebral disorders in the elderly. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005(2):CD000269.

Fischer, L., et al., “Dietary choline requirements of women: effects of estrogen and genetic variation,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2010; 92(5):1113-19.

Fischer, L., et al., “Sex and menopausal status influence human dietary requirements for the nutrient choline,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2007; 85(5):1275-85.

Gibellini, F., et al., “The Kennedy pathway--De novo synthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine,” IUBMB Life 2010; 62(6):414-28.

Grieb, P., “Neuroprotective properties of citicoline: facts, doubts and unresolved issues,” CNS Drugs 2014; 28(3):185-93.

Guan, R., et al., “The effect of polyunsaturated phosphatidyl choline in the treatment of acute viral hepatitis,” Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1995; 9:699-703.

Guerrerio, A., et al., “Choline intake in a large cohort of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2012; 95(4):892-900.

Hardwick, R., et al., “Increased susceptibility to methotrexate-induced toxicity in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis,” Toxicol Sci 2014; 142(1):45-55.

Hasengschwandtner, F., “Phosphatidylcholine treatment to induce lipolysis,” Cosmet Dermatol 2005; 4:308-13.

Hexsel, D., et al., “Cosmetic uses of injectable phosphatidylcholine on the face,” Otolaryngol Clin North Amer 2005; 38:1119-29.

Hexsel, D., et al., “Phosphatidylcholine in the treatment of localized fat,” Jour Drugs Dermatol 2003; 2:511-18.

Holecek, M., et al., “Effect of polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine on liver regeneration onset after hepatectomy in the rat,” Arzneimittelforschung 1992; 42(3):337-39.

Jenkins, P., et al., “Use of polyunsaturated phosphatidyl choline in HBsAg negative chronic active hepatitis: results of prospective double-blind controlled trial,” Liver 1982; 2:77-81.

Kidd, P., et al., “Phosphatidylcholine: a superior protectant against liver damage,” Alt Med Rev 1996; 1(4):258-74.

Kim, Y., et al., “Severe folate deficiency causes secondary depletion of choline and phosphocholine in rat liver,” Jour Nutr 1994; 124(11):2197-2203.

Kohlmeier, M., et al., “Genetic variation of folate-mediated one-carbon transfer pathway predicts susceptibility to choline deficiency in humans,” Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2005; 102(44):16025-30.

Koizumi, J., et al., “Behavior of human apolipoprotein A-1: phospholipid and apo-HDL: phospholipid complexes in vitro ad after injection into rabbits,” Jour Lipid Res 1988; 29(11):405-15.

Koo, S., et al., “Phosphatidylcholine inhibits and lysophosphatidylcholine enhances the lymphatic absorption of alpha-tocopherol in adult rats,” Jour Nutr 2001; 131:717-22.

Kopera, D., et al., “Histopathologic changes after intralesional application of phosphatidylcholine for lipoma reduction: report of a case,” Amer Jour Dermatopathol 2006; 28:331-33.

Ladd, S., et al., “Effect of phosphatidylcholine on explicit memory,” Clin Neuropharmacol 1993; 16:540-49.

Li, Z., “Phosphatidylcholine and choline homeostasis,” Jour Lipid Res 2008; 49(6):1187-94.

Lieber, C., et al., “Increased circulating level of dilinoleoylphosphatidylcholine is associated with protection against alcohol induced oxidative stress and liver fibrosis in man,” Hepatology 2000; 32:386A.

Loguercio, C., et al., “Silybin combined with phosphatidylcholine and vitamin E in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a randomized controlled trial,” Free Radic Biol Med 2012; 52(9):1658-65.

Navab, M., e ta l., “Oral synthetic phospholipid (DMPC) raises high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, improves high-density lipoprotein function, and markedly reduces atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-Null mice,” Circulation 2003; 108:1735-39.

Neuberger, J., et al., “Effect of polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine on immune mediated hepatocyte damage,” Gut 1983; 24(8):751-55.

Niederau, C., et al., “Polyunsaturated phosphatidyl-choline and interferon alpha for treatment of chronic hepatitis B and C: a multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,” Leich Study Group Hepatogastroenterology 1998; 45:797-804.

Noga, A., et al., “An unexpected requirement for phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase in the secretion of very low density lipoproteins,” Jour Biol Chem 2002; 277(44):42358-65.

Nurk, E., “Plasma free choline, betaine and cognitive performance: the Hordaland Health Study,” Brit Jour Nutr 2013; 109(3):511-19.

Olszewsik, A., et al., “Reduction of plasma lipid and homocysteine levels of pyridoxine, folate, cobalamin, choline, riboflavin, and troxerutin in atherosclerosis,” Atherosclerosis 1989; 5(1):1-6.

Olthof, M., et al., “Choline supplemented as phosphatidylcholine decreases fasting and postmethionine-loading plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy me,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2005; 82(1):111-17.

Ottobelli, L., et al., “Citicoline oral solution in glaucoma: is there a role in slowing disease progression?” Ophthalmologica 2013; 229(4):219-26.

Ovesen, L., et al., “The effects of oral soybean phospholipid on serum total cholesterol, plasma triglyceride, and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations in hyperlipidemia,” Jour Parenter Enteral Nutr 1985; 9(6):716-19.

Panos, J., et al., “Polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine for acute alcoholic hepatitis: a double blind randomized placebo controlled trial,” Eur Jour Gastroenterol 1990; 2:351-55.

Parisi, V., et al., “Cytidine-5'-diphosphocholine (Citicoline): a pilot study in patients with non-arteritic ischaemic optic neuropathy,” Eur Jour Neurol 2008; 15(5):465-74.

Poly, C., et al., “The relation of dietary choline to cognitive performance and white-matter hyperintensity in the Framingham Offspring Cohort,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2011; 94(6):1584-91.

Rittes, P., “The use of phosphatidylcholine for correction of localized fat deposits,” Aesthetic Plast Surg 2003; 27:315-18.

Rittes, P., “The use of phosphatidylcholine for correction of lower lid bulging due to prominent fat pads,” Dermatol Surg 2001; 27:391-92.

Rotunda, A., et al., “Mesotherapy and phosphatidylcholine injections: historical clarification and review,” Dermatol Surg 2006; 32:465-80.

Schneider, J., et al., “Effect of polyenyl phosphatidyl choline on clofibrate-induced increase in LDL cholesterol,” Eur Jour Clin Pharmacol 1979; 15(1):15-19.

Secades, J., “Citicoline: pharmacological and clinical review,” Rev Neurol 2011; 52(Suppl 2):S1-S62.

Shaw, G., et al, “Choline and risk of neural tube defects in a folate-fortified population,” Epidemiology 2009; 20(5):714-19.

Singh, N., et al., “A pilot study of polyunsaturated phosphatidyl choline in fulminant and subacute hepatic failure,” Jour Assoc Physicians India 1998; 46(6):530-32.

Stremmel, W., et al., “Retarded release phosphatidylcholine benefits patients with chronic active ulcerative colitis,” Gut 2005; 54(7):966-971.

Tang, W., et al., “Intestinal microbial metabolism of phosphatidylcholine and cardiovascular risk,” NEJM 2013; 368(17):1575-84.

Ueland, P., “Choline and betaine in health and disease,” Jour Inherit Metab Dis 2011; 34(1):3-15.

Wang, Z., et al., “Gut flora metabolism of phosphatidylcholine promotes cardiovascular disease,” Nature 2011; 42:57-63.

Wang, Z., et al., “Prognostic value of choline and betaine depends on intestinal microbiota-generated metabolite trimethylamine-N-oxide,” Eur Heart Jour 2014; 35(14):904-10.

Wood, J., et al., “Effects of consumption of choline and lecithin on neurological and cardiovascular systems,” Fed Proc 1982; 41(14):3015-21.

Yehuda, S., et al., “Modulation of learning and neuronal membrane composition in the rat by essential fatty acid preparation: time course analysis,” Neurochem Res 1996; 23(5):627-34.

Yu, D., et al., “Higher dietary choline intake is associated with lower risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver in normal-weight Chinese women,” Jour Nutr 2014; 144(12):2034-40.

Zeisel, S., “Choline.” In Ross A, Caballero B, Cousins R, Tucker K, Ziegler T, (Eds.) Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 11th Ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2014:416-26.

 

Phosphatidylserine (PS)

Amaducci, L., “Phosphatidylserine in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease: results of a multicenter study,” Psychopharmacol Bull 1988; 24(1):130-34.

Benton, D., et al., “The influence of phosphatidylserine supplementation on mood and heart rate when faced with an acute stressor,” Nutr Neurosci 2001; 4:169-78.

Blokland, A., et al., “Cognition-enhancing properties of subchronic phosphatidylserine (PS) treatment in middle-aged rats: comparison of bovine cortex PS with egg PS and soybean PS,” Nutrition 1999; 15:778-83.

Carr, D., “Phosphatidylserine suppresses antigen-specific IgM production by mice orally administered sheep red blood cells,” Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1992; 200(4):548-54.

Cenacchi, T., et al., “Cognitive decline in the elderly: a double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter study on efficacy of phosphatidylserine administration,” Aging Clin Experiment Res 1993; 5:123-33.

Cenaccchi, T., et al., “Human tolerability of oral phosphatidylserine assessed through laboratory examinations,” Clin Trials Jour 1987; 24:125-30.

Crook, T., et al., “Effects of phosphatidylserine in age-associated memory impairment,” Neurology 1991; 4:644–649.

Crook, T., et al., “Effects of phosphatidylserine in Alzheimer’s disease,” Psychopharmacology Bulletin 1992; 28:61-6.

Delwaide, P., “Double-blind, randomized, controlled study of phosphatidylserine in senile demented patients,” Acta Neurol Scand 1986; 73:136-40.

Engel, R., et al., “Double-blind cross-over study of phosphatidylserine vs. placebo in patients with early dementia of the Alzheimer type,” Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 1992; 2:149-55.

Fahey, T., et al., “The hormonal and perceptive effects of phosphatidylserine administration during two weeks of resistive exercise-induced overtraining,” Biol Sport 1998; 15:135-44.

Folch, J., “The chemical structure of phospatidyl serine,” Jour Biol Chem 1948; 174(2):439-50.

Franck, P., et al., “Uncoupling of the membrane skeleton from the lipid bilayer. The cause of accelerated phospholipid flip-flop leading to an enhanced procoagulant activity of sickled cells,” Jour Clin Invest 1985; 75(1):183-90.

Funfgeld, E., et al., “Double-blind study with phosphatidylserine (PS) in parkinsonian patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer's type (SDAT),” Prog Clin Biol Res 1989; 317:1235-46.

Gatti, C., et al., “Effect of chronic treatment with phosphatidyl serine on phospholipase A1 and A2 activities in different brain areas of 4 month and 24 month old rats,” Farmaco Sci 1985; 40(7):493-500.

Heiss, W., et al., “Long-term effects of phosphatidylserine, pyritinol, and cognitive training in Alzheimer's disease. A neuropsychological, EEG, and PET investigation,” Dementia 1994; 5:88-98.

Hirayama, S., et al., “The effect of phosphatidylserine administration on memory and symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial,” Jour Hum Nutr Diet 2014; 27(Suppl 2):284-91.

Jager, R., et al., “The effect of phosphatidylserine on golf performance,” Jour Int Soc Sports Nutr 2007; 4(1):23.

Kidd, P., “Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children: rationale for its integrative management,” Altern Med Rev 2000; 5:402-28.

Kidd, P., Phosphatidylserine. New Canaan, CT: Keats Publishing, Inc., 1998.

Kidd, P., “Phosphatidylserine; Membrane nutrient for memory. A clinical and mechanistic assessment,” Altern Med Rev 1996; 1:70-84.

Kim, H., et al., “Inhibition of neuronal apoptosis by docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3). Role of phosphatidylserine in antiapoptotic effect,” Jour Biol Chem 2000; 275:35215-23.

Klinkhammer, P., et al., “Effect of phosphatidylserine on cerebral glucose metabolism in Alzheimer's disease,” Dementia 1990; 1:197-201.

Latorraca, S., et al., “Effect of phosphatidylserine on free radical susceptibility in human diploid fibroblasts,” Jour Neural Transm Park Dis Dement Sect 1993; 6:73-7.

Maggioni, M., et al., “Effects of phosphatidylserine therapy in geriatric patients with depressive disorders,” Acta Psychiatr Scand 1990; 81:265-70.

Monastra, G., et al., “Phosphatidylserine, a putative inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor, prevents autoimmune demyelination,” Neurology 1993; 43:153-63.

Monteleone, P., et al., “Blunting by chronic phosphatidylserine administration of the stress-induced activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in healthy men,” Eur Jour Clin Pharmacol 1992; 42:385-88.

Monteleone, P., et al., “Effects of phosphatidylserine on the neuroendocrine response to physical stress in humans,” Neuroendocrinology 1990; 52:243-48.

Palmieri, G., et al., “Double-blind controlled trial of phosphatidylserine in patients with senile mental deterioration,” Clin Trials Jour 1987; 24:73-83.

Pepping, J., “Phosphatidylserine,” Amer Jour Health Syst Pharm 1999; 56(20):2038, 2043-2048, 2044.

Ransmayr, G., et al., “Double-blind placebo-controlled trial of phosphatidylserine in elderly patients with arteriosclerotic encephalopathy,” Clin Trials Jour 1987; 24:62-72.

Rosadini, G., et al., “Phosphatidylserine: quantitative EEG effects in healthy volunteers,” Neuropsychobiology 1990; 24(1):42-8.

Schmidt, M., Brain-Building Nutrition. The Healing Power of Fats and Oils. Berkeley, CA: Frog, Ltd, 2001.

Schreiber, S., et al., “An open trial of plant-source derived phosphatidylserine for treatment of age-related cognitive decline,” Isr Jour Psychiatry Relat Sci 2000; 37:302-07.

Starks, M., et al., “The effects of phosphatidylserine on endocrine response to moderate intensity exercise,” Jour Int Soc Sports Nutr 2008; 5:11.

Vaisman, N., “Correlation between changes in blood fatty acid composition and visual sustained attention performance in children with inattention: effect of dietary n-3 fatty acids containing phospholipids,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2008; 87:1170-80.

Villardita, J., et al., “Multicenter clinical trial of brain phosphatidylserine in elderly patiens with intellectual deterioration,” Clin Trials Jour 1987; 24:84-93.

Yamazaki, M., et al., “Phosphatidylserine suppresses Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced demyelinating disease,” Jour Neuroimmunol 1997; 75:113-22.

Zanotti, A., et al., “Chronic phosphatidylserine treatment improves spatial memory and passive avoidance in aged rats,” Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1989; 99:316-21.

Zhou, J., et al., “Procoagulant activity and phosphatidylserine of amniotic fluid cells,” Thromb Haemost 2009; 101(5):845-51.

 

Policosanol

Arruzazabala, M., et al., “Antiplatelet effects of policosanol (20 and 40 mg/day) in healthy volunteers and dyslipidaemic patients,” Clin Experim Pharmacol Physiol 2002; 29(10):891-97.

Berthold, H., et al., “Effect of policosanol on lipid levels among patients with hypercholesterolemia or combined hyperlipidemia: a randomized controlled trial,” JAMA 2006; 295:2262-69.

Braun, L., and Cohen, M., (Eds.) Herbs and Natural Supplements. 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

Castano, G., et al., “A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the effects of policosanol in patients with intermittent claudication,” Angiology 1999; 50: 23-30.

Castano, G., et al., “Effects of policosanol and ticlopidine in patients with intermittent claudication: a double-blinded pilot comparative study,” Angiology 2004; 55(4):361-71.

Castano, G., et al., “Effects of policosanol in older patients with type II hypercholesterolemia and high coronary risk,” Jour Gerontol 2001; 56A M186-M192.

Castano, G., et al., “Effects of policosanol on postmenopausal women with type II hypercholesterolemia,” Gynecol Endocrinol 2000; 14:187-95.

Castano, G., et al., “A long-term study of policosanol in the treatment of intermittent claudication,” Angiology 2001; 52:115-25.

Chen, J., et al., “Meta-analysis of natural therapies for hyperlipidemia: plant sterols and stanols versus policosanol,” Pharmacotherapy 2005; 25(2):171-63.

Fernandez, S., et al., “A pharmacological surveillance study of the tolerability of policosanol in the elderly population,” Amer Jour Geriatra Pharmacolther 2004; 2(4):219-29.

Gouni-Berthold, I., et al., “Policosanol: clinical pharmacology and therapeutic significance of a new lipid-lowering agent,” Amer Heart Jour 2002; 143(2):356-65.

Lin, Y., et al., “Wheat germ policosanol failed to lower plasma cholesterol in subjects with normal to mildly elevated cholesterol concentrations,” Metabolism 2004; 53(10):1309-14.

Reiner, Z., et al., “Effects of rice policosanol on serum lipoproteins, homocysteine, fibrinogen and c-reactive protein in hypercholesterolemic patients,” Clin Drug Invest 2005; 25(11):701-07.

Torres, O., et al., “Treatment of hypercholesterolemia in NIDDM with policosanol,” Diabetes Care 1995; 18:393-96.

 

Probiotics

Alvarez-Olmos, M., “Probiotic agents and infectious diseases: a modern perspective on a traditional therapy,” Clin Infect Dis 2001; 32(11):1567-76.

Arasu, M., et al., “In vitro importance of probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum related to medical field,” Saudi Jour Biol Sci 2016; 23(1):S6-S10.

Astegiano, M., et al., “Clinical approach to irritable bowel syndrome,” Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol 2008; 54(3):251-58.

Ataie-Jafari, A., et al., “Cholesterol-lowering effect of probiotic yogurt in comparison with ordinary yogurt in mildly to moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects,” Ann Nutr Metab 2009; 54(1):22-7.

Barreto, F., et al., “Beneficial effects of Lactobacillus plantarum on glycemia and homocysteine levels in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome,” Nutrition 2014; 30(7-8):939042.

Bazzocchi, G., et al., “Change in colonic function and fecal microbiological and enzymatic activities induced by a new probiotic preparation,” Gastroenterol Int 1998; 11(Suppl 1):111.

Begtrup, L., et al., “Long-term treatment with probiotics in primary care patients with irritable bowel syndrome—a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled trial,” Scan Jour Gastroenterol 2013; 48(10):1127-35.

Braun, L., and Cohen, M., (Eds.) Herbs and Natural Supplements. 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

Campieri, M., et al., “Probiotics in inflammatory bowel disease: new insight to pathogenesis or a possible therapeutic alternative?” Gastroenterology 1999; 116:1246-49.

Chitapanarux, I., et al., “Randomized controlled trial of live lactobacillus acidophilus plus bifidobacterium bifidum in prophylaxis of diarrhea during radiotherapy in cervical cancer patients,” Radiat Oncol 2010; 5:31.

Collins, M., et al., “Probiotics, prebiotics, and symbiotic: approaches for modulating the microbial ecology of the gut,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1999; 69:1052S-1057S.

Cunningham-Rundles, S., et al., “Probiotics and immune response,” Amer Jour Gastroenterol 2000; 95(1 Suppl):S22-S25.

de Roos, N., et al., “Effects of probiotic bacteria on diarrhea, lipid metabolism, and carcinogenesis: a review of papers published between 1988 and 1998,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2000; 71(2):405-11.

de Vrese, M., et al., “Probiotics and prebiotics: effects on diarrhea,” Jour Nutr 2007; 137(3 Suppl 2):803S-811S.

Doron, S., et al., “Probiotics for prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea,” Jour Clin Gastroenterol 2008; 42(Suppl 2):S58-S63.

Ejtahed H., et al., “Effect of probiotic yogurt containing Lactobacillus acidophillus and Bifidobacterium lactis on lipid profile in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Jour Dairy Sci 2011; 94(7):3288-94.

Ewaschuk, J., et al., “Probiotics and prebiotics in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases,” World Jour Gastroenterol 2006; 12(37):5941-50.

Fedorak, R., et al., “Probiotics and the management of inflammatory bowel disease,” Inflamm Bowel Dis 2004; 10(3):286-99.

Friend, B., et al., “Nutritional and therapeutic aspects of lactobacilli,” Jour Appl Nutr 1984; 36:125–52. 

Gaslandi, M., et al., “A pilot trial of Saccharomyces boulardii in ulcerative colitis,” European Jour Gastroenterol Hepatol 2003; 15:697.

Gill, H., et al., “Dietary probiotic supplementation enhances natural killer cell activity in the elderly: an investigation of age-related immunological changes,” Jour Clin Immunol 2001; 21(4):264-71.

Gill, H., et al., “Enhancement of immunity in the elderly by dietary supplementation with the probiotic Bifidobacterium lactis HN019,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2001; 74(6):833-39.

Gionchetti, P., et al., “Probiotics in infective diarrhea and inflammatory bowel diseases,” (Review) Jour Gastroenterol Hepatol 2000; 15:489-93.

Hawrelak, J., “Probiotics.” In Textbook of Natural Medicine. Pizzorno, J., (Eds.), 3rd Ed, St. Louis: Elsivier, 2006.

Homayouni, A., et al., “Effects of probiotics on the recurrence of bacterial vaginosis: a review,” Jour Low Genit Tract Dis 2014; 18(1):79-86.

Kalliomaki, M., et al., “Probiotics in primary prevention of atopic disease: a randomized placebo controlled trial,” Lancet 2001; 357(9262):1076-79.

Kontiokari, T., et al., “Randomised trial of cranberry-lingonberry juice and Lactobacillus GG drink for the prevention of urinary tract infections in women,” BMJ 2001; 322:1571-73.

Kopp, M., et al., “Probiotics and prevention of allergic disease,” (Review) Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2009; 12(3):298-303.

Levitt, M., et al., “Gas metabolism in the large intestine.” In Gibson, G., Human Colonic Bacteria: Role in Nutrition, Physiology, and Pathology. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1995.

Longstreth, G., et al., “Irritable bowel syndrome: a multibillion-dollar problem,” Gastroenterology 1995; 109:2029-31.

Mach, T., “Clinical usefulness of probiotics in inflammatory bowel disease,” Jour Physiol Pharmacol 2006; 57(Suppl 9): 23-33.

Malin, M., et al., “Promotion of IgA immune response in patients with Crohn’s disease by oral bacteriotherapy with Lactobacillus GG,” Ann Nutr Metab 1996; 40:137-45.

Marteau, P., et al., “Protection from gastrointestinal diseases with the use of probiotics,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2001; 73(2 Suppl):430S-436S.

Martinez, R., et al., “Improved treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis with fluconazole plus probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14,” Lett Appl Microbiol 2009; 48(3):269-74.

McFarland, L., “Meta-analysis of probiotics for the prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhea and the treatment of Clostridium difficile disease,” Amer Jour Gastroenterol 2006; 101:812.

McFarland, L., “Meta-analysis of probiotics for the prevention of traveler's diarrhea,” Travel Med Infect Dis 2007; 5(2):97-105.

Meydani, S., et al., “Immunologic effects of yogurt,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2000; 71(4):861-72.

Mukerji, S., et al., “Probiotics as adjunctive treatment for chronic rhinosinusitis: a randomized controlled trial,” Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2009; 140(2):202-08.

Naidu, A., et al., “Probiotic spectra of lactic acid bacteria,” Crit Rev Food Science Nutr 1999; 38:13-126.

Niedzielin, K., et al., “A controlled, double-blind, randomized study on the efficacy of Lactobacillus plantarium 299V in patients with irritable bowel syndrome,” Eur Jour Gastroenterol Hepatol 2001; 13:1143-47.

Nobeck, S., et al., “Alteration of intestinal microflora is associated with reduction in abdominal bloating and pain in patients with irritable bowel syndrome,” Amer Jour Gastroenterol 2000; 95:1231-38.

Ouwehand, A., et al., “Lactobacillus acidophilus supplementation in human subjects and their resistance to enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection,” Brit Jour Nutr 2014; 111(3):465-73.

Perdigon, G., et al., “Probiotic bacteria for humans: clinical systems for evaluaton of effectiveness. Immune system stimulation by probiotics,” Jour Dairy Sci 1995; 78:1597–1606. 

Reid, G., “Probiotic agents to protect the urogenital tract against infection,” (Review) Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2001; 73(2 Suppl):437S-443S.

Rembacken, B., et al., “Non-pathogenic Escherichia coli versus mesalazine for the treatment of ulcerative colitis: a randomised trial,” Lancet 1999; 354:635-39.

Rohde, C., et al., “The use of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea with special interest in Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea,” (Review) Nutr Clin Pract 2009; 24(1):33-40.

Rolfe, R., “The role of probiotic cultures in the control of gastrointestinal health,” Jour Nutr 2000; 130(2S Suppl):396S-402S.

Saggiro, A., “Probiotics in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome,” Jour Clin Gastroenterol 2004; 38:S104-S106.

Sazawal, S., et al., “Efficacy of probiotics in prevention of acute diarrhoea: a meta-analysis of masked, randomised, placebo-controlled trials,” Lancet Infect Dis 2006; 6(6):374-82.

Shanahan, F., “Probiotics and inflammatory bowel disease: is there a scientific rationale?” Inflamm Bowel Dis 2000; 6(2):107-15.

Sheih, Y., “Systemic immunity-enhancing effects in health subjects following dietary consumption of the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001,” Jour Amer Coll Nutr 2001; 20(2):149-56.

Singh, J., et al., “Bifidobacterium longum, a lactic acid-producing intestinal bacterium inhibits colon cancer and modulates the intermediate biomarkers of colon carcinogenesis,” Carcinogenesis 1997; 18(4):833-41.

Thompson, C., “Unique probiotic targets cardiovascular disease,” Life Extension October 2014, p. 44-52.

Toral, M., et al., “The probiotic Lactobacillus coryniformis CECT5711 reduces the vascular pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory status in obese mice,” Clin Sci (Lond) 2014; 127(1):33-45.

 

Pycnogenol

Aoki, H., “Clinical assessment of a supplement of Pycnogenol and L-arginine in Japanese patients with mild to moderate erectile dysfunction,” Phytother Res 2012; 26:204-07.

Araghi-Niknam, M., et al., “Pine bark extract reduces platelet aggregation,” Integr Med 2000; 2:73-7.

Arcangeli, P., “Pycnogenol in chronic venous insufficiency,” Fitoterapia 2000; 71:236-44.

Belcaro, G., “Variations in C-reactive protein, plasma free radicals and fibrinogen values in patients with osteoarthritis treated with Pycnogenol,” Redox Rep 2008; 13:271-76.

Belcaro, G., et al., “Control of edema in hypertensive subjects treated with calcium antagonist (nifedipine) or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors with pycnogenol,” Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 2006; 12:440-44.

Belcaro, G., et al., “Diabetic ulcers: microcirculatory improvement and faster healing with pycnogenol,” Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 2006; 12:318-23.

Belcaro, G., et al., “Investigation of Pycnogenol(R) in combination with coenzymeQ10 in heart failure patients (NYHA II/III),” Panminerva Med 2010; 52(2 Suppl 1):21-5.

Belcaro, G., et al., “Pycnogenol improvements in asthma management,” Panminerva Med 2011; 53(3 Suppl 1):57-64.

Belcaro, G., et al., “Pycnogenol treatment of acute hemorrhoidal episodes,” Phytother Res 2010; 24:438-44.

Belcaro, G., et al., “Venous ulcers: microcirculatory improvement and faster healing with local use of Pycnogenol,” Angiology 2005; 56:699-705.

Berryman, A., et al., “Influence of treatment of diabetic rats with combinations of pycnogenol, beta-carotene, and alpha-lipoic acid on parameters of oxidative stress,” Jour Biochem Mol Toxicol 2004; 18:345-52.

Blazso, G., et al., “Pycnogenol accelerates wound healing and reduces scar formation,” Phytother Res 2004; 18:579-81.

Cesarone, M., et al., “Comparison of Pycnogenol and Daflon in treating chronic venous insufficiency: a prospective, controlled study,” Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 2006; 12:205-12. 

Cesarone, M., et al., “Improvement of diabetic microangiopathy with Pycnogenol: A prospective, controlled study,” Angiology 2006; 57:431-36.

Cesarone, M., et al., “Improvement of signs and symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency and microangiopathy with Pycnogenol: a prospective, controlled study,” Phytomedicine 2010; 17:835-39.

Cesarone, M., et al., “Kidney flow and function in hypertension: protective effects of pycnogenol in hypertensive participants—a controlled study,” Jour Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 2010; 15:41-6.

Cesarone, M., et al., “Prevention of edema in long flights with Pycnogenol,” Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 2005; 11:289-94.

Cesarone, M., et al., “Prevention of venous thrombosis in long-haul flights with Flite Tabs: The LONFLIT-FLITE randomized, controlled trial,” Angiology 2003; 54:531-39.

Cesarone, M., et al., “Rapid relief of signs/symptoms in chronic venous microangiopathy with pycnogenol: a prospective, controlled study,” Angiology 2006; 57:569-76.

Chayasirisobhon, S., “Use of a pine bark extract and antioxidant vitamin combination product as therapy for migraine in patients refractory to pharmacologic medication,” Headache 2006; 46:788-93.

Cho, K., et al., “Inhibition mechanisms of bioflavonoids extracted from the bark of Pinus maritima on the expression of proinflammatory cytokines,” Ann N Y Acad Sci 2001; 928:141-56.

Cisar, P., et al., “Effect of pine bark extract (Pycnogenol) on symptoms of knee osteoarthritis,” Phytother Res 2008; 22:1087-92.

Clark, C., et al., “Herbal interventions for chronic asthma in adults and children: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Prim Care Respir Jour 2010; 19:307-14.

Devaraj, S., et al., “Supplementation with a pine bark extract rich in polyphenols increases plasma antioxidant capacity and alters the plasma lipoprotein profile,” Lipids 2002; 37:931-34.  

Durackova, Z., et al., “Lipid metabolism and erectile dysfunction improvement by Pycnogenol, extract from the bark of Pinus pinaster in patients suffering from erectile dysfunction—a pilot study,” Nutr Res 2003; 23:1189-98.

Dvorakova, M., et al., “How does pycnogenol influence oxidative damage to DNA and its repair ability in elderly people?” Prague.Med.Rep 2010; 111:263-71.

Dvorakova, M., et al., “Urinary catecholamines in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): modulation by a polyphenolic extract from pine bark (pycnogenol),” Nutr Neurosci 2007; 10(3-4):151-57.

Eczikouri, S., et al., “Supplementing conventional treatment with pycnogenol may improve hepatitis C virus-associated type 2 diabetes: a mini review,” Jour Clin Trans Hepatol 2016; 4(3):228-33.

Enseleit, F., et al., “Effects of Pycnogenol on endothelial function in patients with stable coronary artery disease: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study,” Eur Heart Jour 2012; 33:1589-97.

Errichi, B., et al., “Prevention of post thrombotic syndrome with Pycnogenol in a twelve month study,” Panminerva Med 2011; 53(3 Suppl 1):21-27.

Errichi, S., et al., “Supplementation with Pycnogenol improves signs and symptoms of menopausal transition,” Panminerva Med 2011; 53(3 Suppl 1):65-70.

Farid, R., et al., “Pycnogenol supplementation reduces pain and stiffness and improves physical function in adults with knee osteoarthritis,” Nutri Res 2007; 27:692-97.

Ferri, C., et al., “Antioxidants and beneficial microvascular effects: is this the remedy?” Hypertension 2010; 55:1310-11.

Fitzpatrick, D., et al., “Endothelium-dependent vascular effects of Pycnogenol,” Jour Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1998; 32:509-15.

Furumura, M., et al., “Oral administration of French maritime pine bark extract (Flavangenol) improves clinical symptoms in photoaged facial skin,” Clin Interv Aging 2012; 7:275-86.

Grimm, T., et al., “Inhibition of NF-kappaB activation and MMP-9 secretion by plasma of human volunteers after ingestion of maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol),” Jour Inflam (Lond) 2006; 3:1.

Grossi, M., et al., “Improvement in cochlear flow with Pycnogenol in patients with tinnitus: a pilot evaluation,” Panminerva Med 2010; 52(2 Suppl 1):63-7.

Gulati, O., “Pycnogenol in metabolic syndrome and related disorders,” Phytother Res 2015; 29(7):949-68.

Gulati, O., “Pycnogenol in venous disorders: a review,” Eur Bull Drug Res 1999; 7:8-13.

Hasegawa, N., “Stimulation of lipolysis by pycnogenol,” Phytother Res 1999; 13:619-20.

Hosseini, S., et al., “Pycnogenol in the management of asthma,” Jour Medicinal Food 2001; 4:201-09.

Hosseini, S., et al., “A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled, prospective 16 week crossover study to determine the role of Pycnogenol in modifying blood pressure in mildly hypertensive patient,” Nutr Res 2001; 21:67-76.

Huynh, H., et al., “Selective induction of apoptosis in human mammary cancer cells (MCF-7) by pycnogenol,” Anticancer Res 2000; 20:2417-20.

Jankyova, S., et al., “The effects of Pycnogenol as add-on drug to metformin therapy in diabetic rats,” Phytother Res 2016; 30(8):1354-61.

Jialal, I., et al., “The effect of pycnogenol supplementation on markers of inflammation,” Altern Ther 2001; 7:S17.

Kimbrough, C., et al., “Pycnogenol chewing gum minimizes gingival bleeding and plaque formation,” Phytomedicine 2002; 9:410-13.

Kobayashi, M., et al., “Antioxidants and herbal extracts protect HT-4 neuronal cells against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity,” Free Radic Res 2000; 32:115-24.

Koch, R., “Comparative study of venostatin and pycnogenol in chronic venous insufficiency,” Phytother Res 2002; 16:S1-S5.  

Kohama, T., et al., “Analgesic efficacy of French maritime pine bark extract in dysmenorrhea: an open clinical trial,” Jour Reprod Med 2004; 49:828-32.

Kohama, T., et al., “Effect of low-dose french maritime pine bark extract on climacteric syndrome in 170 perimenopausal women: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,” Jour Reproductive Med 2013; 58:39-47.

Kohama, T., et al., “The treatment of gynecological disorders with pycnogenol,” Eur Bull Drug Res 1999; 7:30-2.

Lau, B., et al., “Pycnogenol as an adjunct in the management of childhood asthma,” Jour Asthma 2004; 41:825-32.

Ledda, A., et al., “Investigation of a complex plant extract for mild to moderate erectile dysfunction in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm study,” BJU Int 2010; 106:1030-33.

Lee, T., et al., “Nutritional supplements and their effect on glucose control,” Adv Exp Med Biol 2012; 771:381-95.

Liu, X., et al., “Antidiabetic effect of Pycnogenol French maritime pine bark extract in patients with diabetes type II,” Life Sci 2004; 75:2505-13.

Liu, X., et al., “Pycnogenol, French maritime pine bark extract, improves endothelial function of hypertensive patients,” Life Sci 2004; 74:855-62.

Liu, F., et al., “Pycnogenol protects vascular endothelial cells from beta-amyloid-induced injury,” Biol Pharm Bull 2000; 23:735-37.

Luzzi, R., et al., “Pycnogenol supplementation improves cognitive function, attention and mental performance in students,” Panminerva Med 2011; 53(3 Suppl 1):75-82.

Marini, A., et al., “Pycnogenol effects on skin elasticity and hydration coincide with increased gene expressions of collagen type I and hyaluronic acid synthase in women,” Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2012; 25:86-92.

Mindell, E., Smith, P., What You Must Know About Allergy Relief. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers, 2016.

Mochizuki, M., et al., “Therapeutic efficacy of pycnogenol in experimental inflammatory bowel diseases,” Phytother Res 2004; 18:1027-28.

Moini, H., et al., “Bioflavonoid effects on the mitochondrial respiratory electron transport chain and cytochrome c redox state,” Redox Rep 1999; 4(1-2):35-41.

Ni, Z., et al., “Treatment of melasma with Pycnogenol,” Phytother Res 2002; 16:567-71.

Ohkita, M., et al., “Pharmacology in health foods: improvement of vascular endothelial function by French maritime pine bark extract (Flavangenol),” Jour Pharmacol Sci 2011; 115:461-65.

Ohnishi, S., et al., “Sickle cell anemia: a potential nutritional approach for a molecular disease,” Nutrition 2000; 16:330-38.

Packer, L., The Antioxidant Miracle. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 1999.

Packer, L., et al., “Antioxidant activity and biologic properties of a procyanidin-rich extract from pine (Pinus maritima) bark, pycnogenol,” Free Radic Biol Med 1999; 27(5-6):704-24.

Peng, Q., et al., “Pycnogenol inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced nuclear factor kappa B activation and adhesion molecule expression in human vascular endothelial cells,” Cell Mol Life Sci 2000; 57:834-41.

Peng, Q., et al., “Pycnogenol protects neurons from amyloid-beta peptide-induced apoptosis,” Brain Res Mol Brain Res 2002; 104:55-65.

Petrassi, C., et al., “Pycnogenol in chronic venous insufficiency,” Phytomedicine 2000; 7:383-88.

Rohdewald, P., “Bioavailability and metabolism of pycnogenol,” Eur Bull Drug Res 1999; 7:5-7.

Rohdewald, P., “Reducing the risk for stroke and heart infarction with pycnogenol,” Eur Bull Drug Res 1999; 7:14-8.

Roseff, S., “Improvement in sperm quality and function with French maritime pine tree bark extract,” Jour Reprod Med 2002; 47:821-24.

Roseff, S., et al., “Improvement of sperm quality by pycnogenol,” Eur Bull Drug Res 1999; 7:33-36.

Rucklidge, J., et al., “Nutrient supplementation approaches in the treatment of ADHD,” Expert Rev Neurother 2009; 9:461-76.

Ryan, J., et al., “An examination of the effects of the antioxidant Pycnogenol on cognitive performance, serum lipid profile, endocrinological and oxidative stress biomarkers in an elderly population,” Jour Psychopharmacol 2008; 22:553-62.

Schafer, A., et al., “Inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2 activity by plasma of human volunteers after ingestion of French maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol),” Biomed Pharmacother 2006; 60:5-9.

Schoonees, A., et al., “Pycnogenol (extract of French maritime pine bark) for the treatment of chronic disorders,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012; 4:CD008294.

Spadea, L., et al., “Treatment of vascular retinopathies with pycnogenol,” Phytother Res 2001; 15:219-23.

Stanislavov, R., et al., “Treatment of erectile dysfunction with pycnogenol and L-arginine,” Jour Sex Marital Ther 2003; 29:207-13.

Stefanescu, M., et al., “Pycnogenol efficacy in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus patients.” Phytother Res 2001; 15:698-704.

Steigerwalt, R., “Pycnogenol improves microcirculation, retinal edema, and visual acuity in early diabetic retinopathy,” Jour Ocul Pharmacol Ther 2009; 25:537-40.

Steigerwalt, R., et al., “Effects of Mirtogenol on ocular blood flow and intraocular hypertension in asymptomatic subjects,” Mol Vis 2008; 14:1288-92.

Stuard, S., et al., “Kidney function in metabolic syndrome may be improved with Pycnogenol,” Panminerva Med 2010; 52(2 Suppl 1):27-32.

Suzuki, N., et al., “French maritime pine bark extract significantly lowers the requirement for analgesic medication in dysmenorrhea: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study,” Jour Reprod Med 2008; 53:338-46.

Tenenbaum, S., et al., “An experimental comparison of Pycnogenol and methylphenidate in adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD),” Jour Atten Disord 2002; 6:49-60.

Torras, M., et al., “Antimicrobial activity of Pycnogenol,” Phytother Res 2005; 19:647-48.

Trebaticka, J., et al., “Treatment of ADHD with French maritime pine bark extract, Pycnogenol,” Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2006; 15:329-35.

Vinciguerra, G., et al., “Cramps and muscular pain: prevention with Pyconogenol in normal subjects, venous patients, athletes, claudicants and in diabetic microangiopathy,” Angiology 2006; 57:331-39.

Wang, S., et al., “The effect of pycnogenol on the microcirculation, platelet function and ischemic myocardium in patients with coronary artery diseases,” Eur Bull Drug Res 1999 7:19-25.

Wei, Z., et al., “Pycnogenol enhances endothelial cell antioxidant defenses,” Redox Report 1997; 3:219-24.

Wilson, D., et al., “A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled exploratory study to evaluate the potential of pycnogenol for improving allergic rhinitis symptoms,” Phytother Res 2010; 24:1115-19.

Yang, H., et al., “A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial on the effect of Pycnogenol on the climacteric syndrome in peri-menopausal women,” Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2007; 86:978-85.

Zibadi, S., et al., “Reduction of cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with type 2 diabetes by Pycnogenol supplementation,” Nutr Res 2008; 28:315-20.

www.uofmhealth.org/health-library/hn-10008641. Assessed January 15, 2017.

 

Quercetin

Alia, M., et al., “Quercetin protects human hepatoma HEPG-2 against oxidative stress induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide,” Toxicol Applied Pharmacol 2006; 2012(2):1110-18.

Beatty, E., et al., “Effect of dietary quercetin on oxidative DNA damage in healthy human subjects,” Brit Jour Nutr 2000; 84(6):919-25.

Bischoff, S., “Quercetin: potentials in the prevention and therapy of disease,” Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2008; 11(6):733-40.

Boots, A., et al., “Health effects of quercetin: from antioxidant to nutraceutical,” Eur Jour Pharmacol 2008; 585(2-3):325-37.

Braun, L., and Cohen, M., (Eds.) Herbs and Natural Supplements. 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

Castillo, M., et al., “The effects of the bioflavonoid quercetin on squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck origin,” Amer Jour Surg 1989; 158(4):351-55.

Choi, J., et al., “Effect of quercetin on the pharmacokinetics of oral cyclosporine,” Amer Jour Health Syst Pharm 2004; 61:2406-09.

Chopra, M., et al., “Nonalcoholic red wine extract and quercetin inhibit LDL oxidation without affecting plasma antioxidant vitamin and carotenoid concentrations,” Clin Chem 2000; 46(8 Pt 1):1162-70.

Chuang, C., et al., “Quercetin is equally or more effective than resveratrol in attenuating tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}-mediated inflammation and insulin resistance in primary human adipocytes,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2010; 92(6):1511-21.

Dajas, F., “Life or death: neuroprotective and anticancer effects of quercetin,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 2012; 143(2):383-96.

Dhar, N., et al., “New therapies in chronic prostatitis,” Curr Urol Rep 2007; 8(4):313-18.

Elattar, T., et al., “The inhibitory effect of curcumin, genistein, quercetin and cisplatin on the growth of oral cancer cells in vitro,” Anticancer Res 2000; 20(3A):1733-38.

Di Bari, L., et al., “Interactions between quercetin and warfarin for albumin binding: A new eye on food/drug interference,” Chirality 2010; 22:593-96.

Dumke, C., et al., “Quercetin’s effect on cycling efficiency and substrate utilization,” App Physiol Nutr Met 2009; 3496):993-1000.

Edwards, R., et al., “Quercetin reduces blood pressure in hypertensive subjects,” Jour Nutr 2007; 137(11):2405-11.

Egert, S., et al., “Quercetin reduces systolic blood pressure and plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein concentrations in overweight subjects with a high-cardiovascular disease risk phenotype: a double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over study,” Brit Jour Nutr 2009; 102(7):1065-74.

El Attar, T., et al., “Modulating effect of resveratrol and quercetin on oral cancer cell growth and proliferation,” Anticancer Drugs 1999; 10:187-93.

Erlund, I., et al., “Bioavailability of quercetin from berries and the diet,” Nutr Cancer 2006; 54:13-7.

Ferrandina, G., et al., “Growth-inhibitory effect of tamoxifen and quercetin and presence of type II estrogen binding sites in human laryngeal cancer cell lines and primary laryngeal tumors,” Int Jour Cancer 1998; 77(5):747-54.

Formica, J., et al., “Review of the biology of Quercetin and related bioflavonoids,” Food Chem Toxicol 1995; 33(12):1061-80.

Gibellini, L., et al., “Quercetin and cancer prevention,” Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2011; 2011: 591356.

Guilliams, T., et al., “Managing chronic inflammation: natural solutions,” The Standard 2006; 7(2):1–8.

Hayek, T., et al., “Reduced progression of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice following consumption of red wine, or its polyphenols quercetin or catechin, is associated with reduced susceptibility of LDL to oxidation and aggregation,” Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1997; 17(11):2744-52.

Hertog, M., et al., “Dietary antioxidant flavonoids and risk of coronary heart disease: the Zutphen Elderly Study,” Lancet 1993; 342:1007–11.

Hollman, P., et al., “Bioavailability of the dietary antioxidant flavonol quercetin in man,” Cancer Lett 1997; 114(1-2):139-40.

Hsiu, S., et al., “Quercetin significantly decreased cyclosporine oral bioavailability in pigs and rats,” Life Sci 2002; 72(3):227-35.

Izawa, H., et al., “Alleviative effects of quercetin and onion on male reproductive toxicity induced by diesel exhaust particles,” Bio Sci Bio Technol Biochem 2008; 72(5):1235-41.

Kandere-Grzybowska, K., et al., “Regulation of IL-1 induced selective IL-6 release from human mast cells and inhibition by quercetin,” Brit Jour Pharmacol 2006; 148(2):208-15.

Katske, F., et al., “Treatment of interstitial cystitis with a quercetin supplement,” Tech Urol 2001; 7(1):44-6.

Kell, S., et al., “Dietary flavonoids, antioxidant vitamins, and incidence of stroke: the Zutphen study,” Arch Inter Med 1996; 156(6):6637–42.

Kleemann, R., et al., “Anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative and anti-atherosclerotic effects of quercetin in human in vitro and in vivo models,” Atherosclerosis 2011; 218(1):44-52.

Knekt, P., et al., “Quercetin intake and the incidence of cerebrovascular disease,” Eur Jour Clin Nutr 2000; 54(5):415-17.

Kumar, A., et al., “Quercetin protects against acute immobilization stress-induced behaviors and biochemical alterations in mice,” Jour Med Food 2008; 11(3):469-73.

Lamson, D., et al., “Antioxidants and cancer, part 3: quercetin,” Altern Med Rev 2000; 5(3):196-208.

Liu, J., et al., “Effects of quercetin on hyper-proliferation of gastric mucosal cells in rats treated with chronic oral ethanol through the reactive oxygen species-nitric oxide pathway,” World Jour Gastroenterol 2008; 14(20):3242-48.

Mackraj, I., et al., “The antihypertensive effects of quercetin in a salt-sensitive model of hypertension,” Jour Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2008; 51(3):239-45.

Maso, V., et al., “Multitarget effects of quercetin in leukemia,” Cancer Prev Res 2014; 7(12):1240-50.

McAnulty, S., et al., “Chronic quercetin ingestion and exercise-induced oxidative damage and inflammation,” Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2008; 33(2):254-62.

Min, Y., et al., “Quercetin inhibits expression of inflammatory cytokines through attenuation of NFkappa-B and p38 MAPK in HMC-1 human mast cell line,” Inflamm Res 2007; 5695):210-15.

Mochizuki, M., et al., “Effect of quercetin conjugates on vascular permeability and expression of adhesion molecules,” Biofactors 2004; 22(1-4):201-04.

Murota, K., et al., “Antioxidative flavonoid quercetin: implication of its intestinal absorption and metabolism,” Arch Biochem Biophys 2003; 417:12-7.

Naidu, S., et al., “Quercetin, a bioflavonoid attenuates haloperidol-induced oral facial dyskinesia,” Neuropharmacology 2003; 44(8):1100-06.

Nieman, D., “Immunonutrition support for athletes,” Nutr Rev 2008; 66(6):310-20.

Nieman, D., et al., “Quercetin reduces illness but not immune perturbations after intensive exercise,” Med Sci Sports Exerc 2007; 39:1561-69.

Nothlings, U., et al., “Flavonols and pancreatic cancer risk: the multiethnic cohort study,” Amer Jour Epidemiol 2007; 166:924-31.

Perez-Vizcainod, F., et al., “Endothelial function and cardiovascular disease: effects of quercetin and wine polyphenols,” Free Radic Res 2006; 40:1054-65.

Pignatelli, P., et al., “The flavonoids quercetin and catechin synergistically inhibit platelet function by antagonizing the intracellular production of hydrogen peroxide,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2000; 72:1150-55.

Ramana, B., et al., “Defensive role of quercetin against imbalances of calcium, sodium, and potassium in galactosemic cataract,” Biol Trace Elem Res 2007; 119(1):35-41.

Ramos, S., “Effects of dietary flavonoids on apoptotic pathways related to cancer chemoprevention,” Jour Nutr Biochem 2007; 18(7):427-42.

Sanchez, M., et al., “Quercetin downregulates NADPH oxidase, increases eNOS activity and prevents endothelial dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rats,” Jour Hyperten 2006; 24(1):75-84.

Sanhueza, J., et al., “Changes in the xanthine dehydrogenase/xanthine oxidase ratio in the rat kidney subjected to ischemia-reprefusion stress: preventive effect of some flavonoids,” Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol 1992; 78(2):211–18.

Shoskes, D., et al., “Beneficial effects of the bioflavonoids curcumin and quercetin on early function in cadaveric renal transplantation: a randomized placebo controlled trial,” Transplantation 2005; 80:1556-59.

Shoskes, D., et al., “Quercetin for chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome,” Urologic Clin North Amer New York: W.B. Saunders, 2011; 38(3).

Shoskes, D., et al., “Quercetin in men with category III chronic prostatitis: A preliminary prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,” Urol 1999; 54:960-63.

Singhal, R., et al., “Quercetin down-regulates signal transduction in human breast carcinoma cells,” Biochem  Biophys Res Commun 1995; 208(1):425-31.

Son, Y., et al., “Quercetin, a bioflavonoid, accelerates TNF-alpha induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells,” Eur Jour Pharmacol 2006; 529(1-3):24-32.

Staedler, D., et al., “Drug combinations with quercetin: doxorubicin plus quercetin in human breast cancer cells,” Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2011; 68(5):1161-72.

Taepongsorat, L., et al., “Stimulating effects of quercetin on sperm quality and reproductive organs in adult male rats,” Asian Jour Androl 2008; 10(2):249-58.

Talirevic, E., et al., “Quercetin in the treatment of dyslipidemia,” Med Arch 2012; 66(2):87-8.

Terao, J., et al., “Vegetable flavonoids and cardiovascular disease,” Asia Pac Jour Clin Nutr 2008; 17(Suppl 1):291-93.

Thornhill, S., et al., “Natural treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis,” Alt Med Rev 2000; 5(5):448-54.

Tribolo, S., et al., “Comparative effects of quercetin and its predominant human metabolites on adhesion molecule expression in activate human vascular endothelial cells,” Atherosclerosis 2008; 197(1):50-6.

Xing, N., et al., “Quercetin inhibits the expression and function of the androgen receptor in LNCaP prostate cancer cells,” Carcinogenesis 2001; 22(3):409-14.

Young, J., et al., “Effect of fruit juice intake on urinary quercetin excretion and biomarkers of antioxidative status,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1999; 69(1):87-94.

Zhang, M., et al., “Antioxidant properties of quercetin,” Adv Exp Med Biol 2011; 701:283-89.

 

Red Yeast Rice

Becker, D., et al., “Red yeast rice for dyslipidemia in statin-intolerant patients: a randomized trial,” Ann Intern Med 2009; 150(12):830-39.

Braun, L., and Cohen, M., (Eds.) Herbs and Natural Supplements. 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

Eisenstein, M., Unlocking Nature’s Pharmacy. New Jersey: CMI Press, 2006.

Feng, Y., et al., “Natural polypill Xuezhikang: its clinical benefit and potential multicomponent synergistic mechanisms of action in cardiovascular disease and other chronic conditions,” Jour Alt Complet Med 2012; 18:318-28.

Gordon, R., et al., “Marked variability of monacolin levels in commercial red yeast rice products: buyer beware!Arch Int Med 2010; 170(19):1722–27.

Grieco, A., et al., “Acute hepatitis caused by a natural lipid-lowering product: when "alternative" medicine is no "alternative" at all,” Jour Hepatol 2009; 50(6):1273–77.

Gutierrez, G., et al., “Red yeast rice stimulates bone formation in rats,” Nutr Res 2006; 26(3):124-29.

Heber, D., et al., “Cholesterol-lowering effects of a proprietary Chinese red-yeast-rice dietary supplement,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1999; 69(2):231–36.

Hong, M., et al., “Anticancer effects of Chinese red yeast rice versus monacolin K alone on colon cancer cells,” Jour Nutr Biochem 2008; 19(7):448-58.

Hong, M., et al., “Chinese red yeast rice inhibition of prostate tumor growth in SCID mice,” Cancer Prev Res 2011; 4(4):608-15.

Huang, C., et al., “Efficacy of Monascus purpureus Went rice on lowering lipid ratios in hypercholesterolemic patients,” Eur Jour Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 2007; 14(3):438-40.

Kelly, L., et al., “Complementary and alternative medicine in cardiovscular disease: a review of biologically based approaches,” Amer Heart Jour 2004; 147(3).

Li, J., et al., “Xuezhikang, and extract of cholestin, decreases plasma inflammatory markers and endothelin-1, improve exercise-induced ischemia and subjective feelings in patients with cardiac syndrome X,” Int Jour Cardiol 2007; 122(1):82-4.

Li, Y., et al., “A meta-analysis of red yeast rice: an effective and relatively safe alternative approach for dyslipidemia,” PLoS One 2014; 9(6):e98611.

Liu, J., et al., “Chinese red yeast rice (Monascus purpureus) for primary hyperlipidemia: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials,” Chin Med 2006; Nov 23, p. 1:4.

Ma, J., et al., “Constituents of red yeast rice, a traditional Chinese food and medicine,” Jour Agric Food Chem 2000; 48:5220-25.

Manzoni, M., et al., “Biosynthesis and biotechnological production of statins by filomentous fungi and the application of these to cholesterol-lowering drugs,” Appli Microbiol Biotechol 2002; 58:555-64.

McCarty, M., et al., “Red yeast rice plus berberine: practical strategy for promoting vascular and metabolic health,” Alt Ther Health Med 2015; 21(Suppl 2):40-5.

Mueller, P., “Symptomatic myopathy due to red yeast rice,” Ann Intern Med 2006; 145(6):474–75.

Ong, H., et al., “Statin alternatives or just placebo: an objective review of omega-3, red yeast rice and garlic in cardiovascular therapeutics,” Chin Med Jour (Engl) 2008; 121(16):1588-94.

Roselle, H., et al., “Symptomatic hepatitis associated with the use of herbal red yeast rice,” Ann Intern Med2008; 149(7):516–17.

Shamim, S., et al., “Red yeast rice for dyslipidemia,” Mod Med 2013; 110(4):349-54.

Shang, Q., et al., “A systematic review of Xuezhikang, an extract from red yeast rice for coronary heart disease complicated by dyslipidemia,” Evid Based Complent Alternat Med 2012; 636547.

Venero, C., et al., “Lipid-lowering efficacy of red yeast rice in a population intolerant to statins,” Amer Jour Cardiol 2010; 105(5):664-66.

Vercelli, L., et al., “Chinese red rice depletes muscle coenzyme Q10 and maintains muscle damage after discontinuation of statin treatment,” Jour Amer Geriatr Soc 2006; 54(4):718-20.

Verhoeven, V., et al., “Red yeast rice lowers cholesterol in physicians--a double blind, placebo controlled randomized trial,” BMC Comp Alt Med 2013; 13:178.

Xie, X., et al., “Chinese red yeast rice attenuates the development of angiotensin II-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm and atherosclerosis, Jour Nutr Biochem 2012; 23(6):549-56.

Yang, H., et al., “Acute administration of red yeast rice (Monascus purpureus) depletes tissue coenzyme q(10) levels in ICR mice,” Brit Jour of Nutr 2005; 93(1):131–35.

 

Resveratrol

Agarwal, B., et al., “Resveratrol for primary prevention of atherosclerosis: clinical trial evidence for improved gene expression in vascular endothelium,” Int Jour Cardiol 2013; 166(1):246-48.

Aggarwal, B., et al., “Role of resveratrol in prevention and therapy of cancer: preclinical and clinical studies,” Anticancer Res 2004; 24(5A):2783-2840.

Aguirre, L., et al., “Resveratrol: anti-obesity mechanisms of action,” Molecules 2014; 19(11):18632-55.

Bhatt, J., et al., “Resveratrol supplementation improves glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Nutr Res 2012; 32(7):537-41. 

Bishayee, A., et al., “Resveratrol and liver disease: from bench to bedside and community,” Liver Int 2010; 30(8):1103-14.

Boocock, D., et al., “Phase I dose escalation pharmacokinetic study in healthy volunteers of resveratrol, a potential cancer chemopreventive agent,” Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2007; 16(6):1246-52.

Bradamante, S., et al., “Cardiovascular protective effects of resveratrol,” Cardiovasc Drug Rev 2004; 22(3):169-88.

Brown, V., et al., “Repeat dose study of the cancer chemopreventive agent resveratrol in healthy volunteers: safety, pharmacokinetics, and effect on the insulin-like growth factor axis,” Cancer Res 2010; 70(22):9003-11.

Cal., C., et al., “Resveratrol and cancer: chemoprevention, apoptosis, and chemoimmuno sensitizing activities,” Curr Med Chem Anti Cancer Agents 2003; 3:77–93.

Carluccio, M., et al., “Olive oil and red wine antioxidant polyphenols inhibit endothelial activation: antiatherogenic properties of Mediterranean diet phytochemicals,” Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2003; 23(4):622-29.

Chanvitayapongs, S., et al., “Amelioration of oxidative stress by antioxidants and resveratrol in PC12 cells,” Neuro Report 1997; 8:1499–1502.

Chen, Y., et al., “Review. Pro- and anti-angiogenesis effects of resveratrol,” In Vivo 2007; 21(2):365-70.

de la Lastra, C., et al., “Resveratrol as an anti-inflammatory and anti-aging agent: mechanisms and clinical implications,” Mol Nutr Food Res 2005; 49(5):405-30.

Detampel, P., et al., “Drug interaction potential of resveratrol,” Drug Metab Rev 2012; 44(3):253-65. 

Duffy, S., et al., “Effects of phenolics on vascular endothelial function,” Curr Opin Lipidol 2003; 14(1):21-7. 

Frankel, E., et al., “Inhibition of human LDL oxidation by resveratrol,” Lancet 1993; 341(8852):1103-04.

Gronbaek, M., et al., “Type of alcohol consumed and mortality from all causes, coronary heart disease, and cancer,” Ann Intern Med 2000; 133(6):411-19. 

Grover-Paez, F., et al., “Endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular risk factors,” Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2009; 84(1):1-10. 

Halpern, G., Ulcer Free: Nature’s Safe and Effective Remedy for Ulcers. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers, 2004.

Hausenblas, H., et al., “Resveratrol treatment as an adjunct to pharmacological management in type 2 diabetes mellitus-systematic review and meta-analysis,” Mol Nutr Food Res 2015; 59(1):147-59. 

Heller, L., “Healthy Women, Healthy Aging,” Seminar, November 15–16, 2003.

Hiroyuki, N., et al., “Resveratrol inhibits human breast cancer cell growth and may mitigate the effect of linoleic acid, a potent breast cancer cell stimulator,” Jour Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2001; 127:258–64.

Jang, J, et al., “Protective effect of reservatrol on beta-amyloid-induced oxidative PC12 cell death,” Free Radic Biol Med 2003; 34:1100–10.

Karatzi, K., et al., “Effects of red wine on endothelial function: postprandial studies vs clinical trials,” Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2009; 19(10):744-50.

Karuppagounder, S., et al., “Dietary supplementation with resveratrol reduces plaque pathology in a transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease,” Neurochem Int 2009; 54(2):111-18. 

Kashimura, H., “Polaprezinc, a mucosal protective agent, in combination with lansoprazole, amoxicillin and clarithromycin increases the cure rate of Helicobacter pylori infection,” Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1999; 13:483-87.

Kato, S., et al., “Effect of polaprezinc on impaired healing of chronic gastric ulcers in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats—role of insulin-like growth factors (IGF)-1,” Med Sci Monit 2001; 7(1):20-5.

Kennedy, D., et al., “Effects of resveratrol on cerebral blood flow variables and cognitive performance in humans: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover investigation,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2010; 91(6):1590-97. 

Klinge, C., et al., “Resveratrol and estradiol rapidly activate MAPK signaling through estrogen receptors alpha and beta in endothelial cells,” Jour Biol Chem 2005; 280(9):7460-68.

Kodali, M., et al., “Resveratrol prevents age-related memory and mood dysfunction with increased hippocampal neurogenesis and microvasculature, and reduced glial activation,” Sci Rep 2015; 5:8075. 

Leonard, S., et al., “Resveratrol scavenges reactive oxygen species and effects radical-induced cellular responses,” Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2003; 309(4):1017-26.

Li, K., et al., “Effect of resveratrol on glucose control and insulin sensitivity: a meta-analysis of 11 randomized controlled trials,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2014; 99(6):1510-19. 

Lin, M., et al., “Inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor-induced angiogenesis by resveratrol through interruption of Src-dependent vascular endothelial cadherin tyrosine phosphorylation,” Mol Pharmacol 2003; 64(5):1029-36. 

Lippi, G., et al., “Moderate red wine consumption and cardiovascular disease risk: beyond the ‘French paradox,’” Semin Thromb Hemost 2010; 36(1):59-70.

Liu, Y., et al., “Effect of resveratrol on blood pressure: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials,” Clin Nutr 2015; 34(1):27-34. 

Lu, R., “Resveratrol, a natural product derived from grape, exhibits antiestrogenic activity and inhibits the growth of human breast cancer cells,” Jour Cell Physiol 1999; 179:297–304.

Ma, T., et al., “Resveratrol as a therapeutic agent for Alzheimer's disease,” Biomed Res Int 2014; 2014:350516.

Mahmoud, A., et al., “Zinc carnosine, a health food supplement that stabilizes small bowel integrity and stimulates gut repair processes,” Gut 2007; 56(2):168-75.

Marambaud, P., “Resveratrol promotes clearance of Alzheimer's disease amyloid-beta peptides,” Jour Biol Chem 2005; 280(45):37377-82. 

Matsukura, T., et al., “Applicability of zinc complex of L-carnosine for medical use,” Biochem (Mosc) 2000; 65(7):817-23.

Mitchell, S., et al., “Resveratrol inhibits the express and function of the androgen receptor in LNcaP prostate cancer cells,” Cancer Res 1999; 59:5892–95.

Mitchell, T., “Resveratrol: Cutting-Edge Technology Available Today,” Life Extensions December, 2003. (Suppl).

Moussa, C., et al., “Resveratrol regulates neuro-inflammation and induces adaptive immunity in Alzheimer's disease,” Jour Neuroinflammation 2017; 14(1):1.

Movahed, A., et al., “Antihyperglycemic effects of short term resveratrol supplementation in type 2 diabetic patients,” Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013; 2013:851267. 

Mukamal, K., et al., “Roles of drinking pattern and type of alcohol consumed in coronary heart disease in men,” NEJM 2003; 348(2):109-18.

Naito, Y., “Effects of polaprezinc on lipid peroxidation, neutrophil accumulation, and TNF-alpha expression in rats with aspirin-induced gastric mucosal injury,” Dig Dis Sci 2001; 46(4):845-51.

Ooi, T., et al., “Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and genomic stability enhancement effects of zinc l-carnosine: A potential cancer chemopreventive agent?,” Nutr Cancer 2017;  69(2):201-10.

Ooi, T.., et al., “Zinc carnosine inhibits lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory mediators by suppressing NF-kappaB activation in raw 264.7 macrophages, independent of the MAPKs signaling pathway,” Bio Trace Elem Res 2016; 172(2):458-64.

Pasinetti, G., et al., “Roles of resveratrol and other grape-derived polyphenols in Alzheimer's disease prevention and treatment,” Biochim Biophys Acta 2015; 1852(6):1202-08.

Patel, K., et al., “Clinical pharmacology of resveratrol and its metabolites in colorectal cancer patients,” Cancer Res 2010; 70(19):7392-99. 

Salvamani, S., et al., “Antiartherosclerotic effects of plant flavonoids,” Biomed Res Int 2014; 2014:480258. 

Schroder, H., et al., “Myocardial infarction and alcohol consumption: a population-based case-control study,” Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2007; 17(8):609-15.

Semba, R., et al., “Resveratrol levels and all-cause mortality in older community-dwelling adults,” JAMA Intern Med 2014; 174(7):1077-84. 

Shankar, S., et al., “Chemoprevention by resveratrol: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic potential,” Front Biosci 2007; 12:4839-54.

Shimada, T., et al., “Polaprezinc down-regulates proinflammatory cytokine-induced nuclear factor-kappaB activation and interleukin-8 expression in gastric epithelial cells,” Jour Pharmacol Exp Ther 1999; 291(1):345-52.

Sunairi, M., t al., “Effect of Z-103, a new antiulcer agent, on Helicobacter pylori,” Jpn Pharmacol Ther 1994; 22:3771-75.

Suzuki, A., et al., “Effect of polaprezinc on oral mucositis, irradiation period, and time to discharge in patients with head and neck cancer,” Head Neck 2016; 38 (9):1387-92.

Suzuki, H., et al., “Polaprezinc attenuates the Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric mucosal leucocyte activation in Mongolian gerbils—a study using intravital videomicroscopy,” Alimentary Pharmacol Ther 2001; 1595):715-25.

Szkudelski, T., et al., “Resveratrol and diabetes: from animal to human studies,” Biochim Biophys Acta 2015; 1852(6):1145-54.

Takahashi, S., et al., “Repeated and long-term treatment with physiological concentrations of resveratrol promotes NO production in vascular endothelial cells,” Brit Jour Nutr 2012; 107(6):774-80.

Tome-Carneiro, J., et al., “Consumption of a grape extract supplement containing resveratrol decreases oxidized LDL and ApoB in patients undergoing primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: a triple-blind, 6-month follow-up, placebo-controlled, randomized trial,” Mol Nutr Food Res 2012; 56(5):810-21. 

Tome-Carneiro, J., et al., “Resveratrol in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease: a dietary and clinical perspective,” Ann N Y Acad Sci 2013; 1290:37-51. 

Vitaglione, P., et al., “Bioavailability of trans-resveratrol from red wine in humans,” Mol Nutr Food Res 2005; 49(5):495-504. 

Walle, T., “Bioavailability of resveratrol,” Ann N Y Acad Sci 2011; 1215:9-15. 

Walle, T., et al., “High absorption but very low bioavailability of oral resveratrol in humans,” Drug Metab Dispos 2004; 32(12):1377-82. 

Wang, H., et al., “Resveratrol in cardiovascular disease: what is known from current research?” Heart Fail Rev 2012; 17(3):437-48. 

Watari, I., et al., “Effectiveness of polaprezinc for low-dose aspirin-induced small-bowel mucosal injuries as evaluated by capsule endoscopy: a pilot randomized controlled study” BMC Gastroenterol 2013;13:108.

Watawabe, T., et al., “Polaprezinc prevents oral mucositis associated with radiochemotherapy in patients with head and neck cancer,” Int Jour Cancer 2010; 127(8):1984-90.

Witte, A., et al., “Effects of resveratrol on memory performance, hippocampal functional connectivity, and glucose metabolism in healthy older adults,” Jour Neurosci 2014; 34(23):7862-70. 

Yu, H., et al., “Resveratrol inhibits tumor necrosis factor-alpha-mediated matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression and invasion of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells,” Biomed Pharmacother 2008; 62(6):366-72.

Zbikowska, H., et al., “Antioxidants with carcinostatic activity (reseveratrol, vitamin E, and selenium) in modulation of platelet adhesion,” Jour Physiol Pharmacol 2000; 51:513–20.

Zhuang, H., et al., “Potential mechanism by which resveratrol, a red wine constituent, protects neurons,” Ann N Y Acad Sci 2003; 993:276-86.

 

Tea Tree Oil

Allen, P., “Tea tree oil: the science behind the antimicrobial hype,” Lancet 2001; 358:1245.

Arweiler, N., et al., “Clinical and antibacterial effect of tea tree oil—a pilot study,” Clin Oral Investig 2000; 4(2):70-3.

Asimi, H., et al., “A comprehensive review of vaginitis phytotherapy,” Pakistan Jour Biological Sci 2011; 14(21):960-66.

Bassett, I., et al., “A comparative study of tea-tree oil versus benzoylperoxide in the treatment of acne,” Med Jour Aust 1990; 153:455-58.

Braun, L., and Cohen, M., (Eds.) Herbs and Natural Supplements. 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

Bruynzeel, D., “Contact dermatitis due to tea tree oil,” Trop Med Int Health 1999; 4:630.

Buck, D., et al., “Comparison of two topical preparations for the treatment of onychomycosis: Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil and clotimazole,” Jour Fam Pract 1994; 38:601-05.

Carson, C., et al., “Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil gel (6%) for the treatment of recurrent herpes labialis,” Jour Antimicrob Chemother 2001; 48:450-51.

Carson, C., et al., “Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea tree) oil: a review of antimicrobial and other medicinal properties,” Clin Microbiol Rev 2006; 19(1):50-62.

Carson, C., et al., “Safety, efficacy and provenance of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil,” Contact Dermatitis 2001; 45(2):65-7.

Catalan, A., et al., “In vitro and in vivo activity of Melaleuca alternifolia mixed with tissue conditioner on Candida albicans,” Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2008; 105(3):327-32.

Chan, C., et al., “Activity of tea tree oil on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA),” Jour Hosp Infect 1998; 39:244-45.

Cox, S., et al., “The mode of antimicrobial action of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil),” Jour Appl Microbiol 2000; 88:170-75.

Dryden, M., et al., “A randomized, controlled trial of tea tree topical preparations versus a standard topical regimen for the clearance of MRSA colonization,” Jour Hosp Infect 2004; 56(4):283-86.

Enshaieh, S., et al., “The efficacy of 5% topical tea tree oil gel in mild to moderate acne vulgaris: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study,” Indian Jour Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2007; 73(1):22-5.

Ernst, E., “Adverse effects of herbal drugs in dermatology,” Brit Jour Dermatol 2000; 143:923-29.

Garossa, A., et al., “Activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil on Influenza virus A-PR-8: study on the mechanism of action,” Antiviral Res 2011; 89:83-8.

Henley, D., et al., “Prepubertal gynecomastia linked to lavender and tea tree oils,” NEJM 2007; 356(5):479-85.

Kim, J., et al., “Clinical and immunological responses in ocular demodecosis,” Jour Korean Med Sci 2011; 26(9):1231-37.

Klatz, R., The New Anti-Aging Revolution. North Bergen, NJ: Basic Health Publications, 2003.

Koh, K., et al., “Tea tree oil reduces histamine-induced skin inflammation,” Brit Jour Dermatol 2002; 147:1212-17.

LaPlante, K., “In vitro activity of lysostaphin, mupirocin, and tea tree oil against clinical methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus,” Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2007; 57(4):413-18.

Martin, K., et al., “Herbal medicines for treatment of fungal infections: a systematic review of controlled clinical trials,” Mycoses 2004; 47:87-92.

McCage, C., et al., “Development of a paw paw herbal shampoo for the removal of head lice,” Phytomedicine 2002; 9(8):743-48.

Messager, S., et al., “Effectiveness of hand-cleansing formulations containing tea tree oil assessed ex vivo on human skin and in vivo with volunteers using European standard EN 1499,” Jour Hosp Infect 2005; 59(3):220-28.

Millar, B., et al., “Successful topical treatment of hand warts in a paediatric patient with tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia),” Complement Ther Clin Pract 2008; 14(4):225-27.

Papadopoulos, C., et al., “Susceptibility of pseudomonads to Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil and components,” Jour Antimicrob Chemother 2006; 58(2):449-51.

Pearce, A., et al., “Reduction of nickel-induced contact hypersensitivity reactions by topical tea tree oil in humans,” Inflamm Res 2005; 54:22-30.

Reichling, J., et al., “In vitro studies on release and human skin permeation of Australian tea tree oil (TTO) from topical formulations,” Eur Jour Pharm Biopharm 2006; 64(2):222-28.

Reuter, J., et al., “Botanicals in dermatology: an evidence-based review,” Amer Jour Clin Dermatol 2010; 11(4):247-67.

Satchell, A., et al., “Treatment of dandruff with 5% tea tree oil shampoo,” Jour Amer Acad Dermatol 2002; 47(6):852-55.

Satchell, A., et al., “Treatment of interdigital tinea pedis with 25% and 50% tea tree oil solution: a randomized, placebo-controlled, blinded study,” Australas Jour Dermatol 2002; 43:175-78.

Schnitzler, P., et al., “Antiviral activity of Australian tea tree oil and eucalyptus oil against herpes simplex virus in cell culture,” Pharmazie 2001; 56(4):343-47.

Shapiro, S., et al., “The antimicrobial activity of essential oils and essential oil components towards oral bacteria,” Oral Microbiol Immunol 1994; 9(4):202-08.

Sherry, E., et al., “Percutaneous treatment of chronic MRSA osteomyelitis with a novel plant- derived antiseptic,” BMC Surg 2001; 1(1):1.

Soukoulis, S., et al., “The effects of a tea tree oil-containing gel on plaque and chronic gingivitis,” Aust Dent Jour 2004; 49(2):78-83.

Syed, T., et al., “Treatment of toenail onychomycosis with 2% butenafine and 5% Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil in cream,” Trop Med Int Health 1999; 4:284-87.

Takarada, K., et al., “A comparison of the antibacterial efficacies of essential oils against oral pathogens,” Oral Microbiol Immunol 2004; 19(1):61-4.

Thompson, G., et al., “A randomized controlled trial of tea tree oil (5%) body wash versus standard body wash to prevent colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in critically ill adults: research protocol,” BMC Infect Dis 2008; 8:161.

Tong, M., et al., “Tea tree oil in the treatment of tinea pedis,” Australas Jour Dermatol 1992; 33:145-49.

Veal, L., “The potential effectiveness of essential oils as a treatment for head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis,” Complement Ther Nurs Midwifery 1996; 2(4):97-101.

Vi Mondello, F., et al., “In vitro and in vivo activity of tea tree oil against azole-susceptible and -resistant human pathogenic yeasts,” Jour Antimicrob Chemother 2003; 51(5):1223-29.

Wallengen, J., “Tea tree oil attenuates experimental contact dermatitis,” Arch Dermatol Res 2011; 303:333-38.

Williamson, E., et al., “An investigation and comparison of the bioactivity of selected essential oils on human lice and house dust mites,” Fitoterapia 2007; 78(7-8):521-25.

 

Theanine

Ayoub, S., et al., “Introduction of neutral endopeptidase (NEP) activity of SK-N-SH cells by natural compounds from green tea,” Jour Pharm Pharmacol 2006; 58(4):495–501.

Bryan J., “Psychological effects of dietary components of tea: caffeine and L-theanine,” Nutr Rev 2008; 66(2):82-90.

Cho, H., et al., “Protective effect of the green tea component L-theanine on environmental toxins-induced neuronal cell death,” Neurotoxicology 2008; 29(4):656-62.

Cooper, R., et al., “Medicinal benefits of green tea: Part 1. Review of noncancer health benefits,” Jour Alter Complement Med 2005; 11(3): 521–528.

Egashira, N., et al., “Theanine prevents memory impairment induced by repeated cerebral ischemia in rats,” Phytother Res 2008; 22(1):65-8.

Hidese, S., et al., “Effects of chronic l-theanine administration in patients with major depressive disorder: an open-label study,” Acta Neuropsychiatry 2017; 29(2):72-9.

Johnson, T., “Quick relief from anxiety and stress without tranquilizer drugs,” Life Extension Aug 2007; 31–36.

Juneja, L., et al., “L-theanine: a unique amino acid of green tea and its relaxation effect in humans,” Trends Food Science Technol 1999; 10:199-204.

Kahathuduwa, C., et al., “Acute effects of theanine, caffeine and theanine-caffeine combination on attention,” Nutri Neurosci 2017; 20(6):369-77.

Kakuda, T., “Neuroprotective effects of the green tea components theanine and catechins,” Biol Pharm Bull 2002; 25(12):1513-18.

Kimura, K., et al., “L-theanine reduces psychological and physiological stress response,” Biol Psychol 2007; 74(1):39-45.

Lardner, A., “Neurobiological effects of the green tea constituent theanine and its potential role in the treatment of psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders,” Nutri Neurosci 2014; 17(4):145-55.

Lyon, M., “The effects of L-theanine in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a randomized placebo controlled trial,” Alt Med Rev 2011; 16(4):348-54.

Nobre, A., et al., “L-theanine, a natural constituent in tea, and its effect on mental state,” Asia Pac Jour Clin Nutr 17(Supp l):167-68.

Owen, G., et al., “The combined effects of L-theanine and caffeine on cognitive performance and mood,” Nutr Neurosci 2008; 11(4):193-98.

Ritsner, M., et al., “L-theanine relieves positive, activation, and anxiety symptoms of patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: an 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-center study,” Jour Clin Psychiatry 2011; 60:133-41.

Rogers, P., et al., “Time for tea: mood, blood pressure and cognitive performance effects of caffeine and theanine administered alone and together,” Psychopharmacol (Berl) 2008; 195(4):569-77.

Yamada, T., et al., “Effect of theanine, r-glutamylethylamide, on neurotransmitter release and its relationship with glutamic acid neurotransmission,” Nutr Neurosci 2005; 8(4):219– 226.

Yokogoshi, H., et al., “Reduction effect of theanine on blood pressure and brain 5-hydroxyindoles in spontaneously hypertensive rats,” Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1995; 59(4):615–18.

Zheng, G., et al., “Anti-obesity effects of three major components of green tea, catechins, caffeine and theanine in mice.” In Vivo 2004; 18(1):55–62.

 

Vinpocetine

Balestreri, R., et al., “A double-blind placebo controlled evaluation of the safety and efficacy of vinpocetine in the treatment of patients with chronic vascular senile cerebral dysfunction,” Jour Amer Geriatr Soc 1987; 35:425-30.

Bereczki, D., et al., “A systematic review of vinpocetine therapy in acute ischaemic stroke,” Eur Joour Clin Pharmacol 1999; 55:349-52.

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.

Bonoczk, P., et al., “Vinpocetine increases cerebral blood flow and oxygenation in stroke patients: a near infrared spectroscopy and transcranial Doppler study,” Eur Jour Ultrasound 2002; 15(1-2):85-91.

Feher, G., et al., “Effect of parenteral or oral vinpocetine on the hemorheological parameters of patients with chronic cerebrovascular diseases,” Phytomedicine 2009; 16(2-3):111-17.

Feigin, V., et al., “Vinpocetine treatment in acute ischaemic stroke: a pilot single-blind randomized clinical trial,” Eur Jour Neurol 2001; 8:81-5.

Grant, J., et al., “Analysis of dietary intake and selected nutrient concentrations in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome,” Jour Amer Diet Assoc 1996; 96:383-86.

Hayakawa, M., “Effect of vinpocetine on red blood cell deformability in stroke patients,” Arzneimittelforschung 1992; 42:425-27.

Hindmarch, I., et al., “Efficacy and tolerance of vinpocetine in ambulant patients suffering from mild to moderate organic psychosyndromes,” Int Clin Psychopharmacol 1991; 6:31-43.

Kidd, P., “A review of nutrients and botanicals in the integrative management of cognitive dysfunction,” Altern Med Rev 1999; 4:144-61.

Ley, B., et al., Boost Your Brain Power with Periwinkle Extract. Detroit Lakes, MN: BL Publications, 2000.

Miyazaki, M., et al., “The effect of a cerebral vasodilator vinpocetine, on cerebral vascular resistance by the Doppler ultrasonic techniques in patients with cerebrovascular disease,” Angiology 1995; 46(1):53-8.

Polich, J., et al., “Cognitive effects of a Ginkgo biloba/vinpocetine compound in normal adults: systematic assessment of perception, attention and memory,” Hum Psychopharmacol 2001: 16:409-16.

Santos, M., et al., “Synaptosomal response to oxidative stress: effect of vinpocetine,” Free Radic Res 2000; 32(1):57-66.

Szakacs, T., et al., “In vitro-in vivo correlation of the pharmacokinetics of vinpocetine,” Pol Jour Pharmacol 2001; 53(6):623-28.

Szilagyi, G., et al., “Effects of vinpocetine on the redistribution of cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism in chronic ischemic stroke patients: a PET study,” Jour Neurol Sci 2005; 229-230:275-84.

Taiji, H., et al., “Clinical study of vinpocetine in the treatment of vertigo,” JPN Pharmacol Ter 1986; 14:577.

Thal, L., et al., “The safety and lack of efficacy of vinpocetine in Alzheimer's disease,” Jour Amer Geriatr Soc 1989; 37:515-20.

Truss, M., et al., “Initial clinical experience with the selective phosphodiesterase-I isoenzyme inhibitor vinpocetine in the treatment of urge incontinence and low compliance bladder,” World Jour Urol 2000; 18(6):439-43.

Wollschlaeger, B., “Efficacy of vinpocetine in the management of cognitive impairment and memory loss,” JANA 2001; 4:25-30.

Wolters, E., et al., “A double blind placebo and piracetam controlled multicenter trial of vinpocetine in dementia of Alzheimer's type and vascular dementia,” Neurobiology Aging 1992; 13(Suppl 1):S127.

Yi, Y., et al., “Effect of vinpocetine on hemodynamics and neurologic impairment in senile patients with acute cerebral infarction,” Chinese Jour Clin Rehab 2004; 8(28):6122-23.

 

Zinc Carnosine

Arakawa, T., et al., “Effects of zinc L-carnosine on gastric mucosal and cell damage caused by ethanol in rats. Correlation with endogenous prostaglandin E2,” Dig Dis Sci 1990 35(5):559-66.

Cho C., et al., “The membrane-stabilizing action of zinc carnosine (Z-103) in stress-induced gastric ulceration in rats,” Life Sci 1991; 49:PL189-194.

Halpern, G., Ulcer Free: Nature’s Safe and Effective Remedy for Ulcers. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers, 2004.

Kashimura, H., “Polaprezinc, a mucosal protective agent, in combination with lansoprazole, amoxicillin and clarithromycin increases the cure rate of Helicobacter pylori infection,” Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1999; 13:483-87.

Kato, S., et al., “Effect of polaprezinc on impaired healing of chronic gastric ulcers in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats—role of insulin-like growth factors (IGF)-1,” Med Sci Monit 2001; 7(1):20-5.

Mahmood, A., et al., “Zinc carnosine, a health food supplement that stabilises small bowel integrity and stimulates gut repair processes,” Gut 2007; 56(2):168-75.

Matsukura, T., et al., “Applicability of zinc complex of L-carnosine for medical use,” Biochem (Mosc) 2000; 65(7):817-23.

Naito, Y., “Effects of polaprezinc on lipid peroxidation, neutrophil accumulation, and TNF-alpha expression in rats with aspirin-induced gastric mucosal injury,” Dig Dis Sci 2001; 46(4):845-51.

Ooi, T., et al., “Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and genomic stability enhancement effects of zinc l-carnosine: A potential cancer chemopreventive agent?,” Nutr Cancer 2017;  69(2):201-10.

Ooi, T.., et al., “Zinc carnosine inhibits lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory mediators by suppressing NF-kappaB activation in raw 264.7 macrophages, independent of the MAPKs signaling pathway,” Bio Trace Elem Res 2016; 172(2):458-64.

Shimada, T., et al., “Polaprezinc down-regulates proinflammatory cytokine-induced nuclear factor-kappaB activation and interleukin-8 expression in gastric epithelial cells,” Jour Pharmacol Exp Ther 1999; 291(1):345-52.

Sunairi, M., t al., “Effect of Z-103, a new antiulcer agent, on Helicobacter pylori,” Jpn Pharmacol Ther 1994; 22:3771-75.

Suzuki, H., et al., “Polaprezinc attenuates the Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric mucosal leucocyte activation in Mongolian gerbils—a study using intravital videomicroscopy,” Alimentary Pharmacol Ther 2001; 1595):715-25.

Suzuki, A., et al., “Effect of polaprezinc on oral mucositis, irradiation period, and time to discharge in patients with head and neck cancer,” Head Neck 2016; 38 (9):1387-92.

Watari, I., et al., “Effectiveness of polaprezinc for low-dose aspirin-induced small-bowel mucosal injuries as evaluated by capsule endoscopy: a pilot randomized controlled study,” BMC Gastroenterol 2013;13:108.

Watawabe, T., et al., “Polaprezinc prevents oral mucositis associated with radiochemotherapy in patients with head and neck cancer,” Int Jour Cancer 2010; 127(8):1984-90.

Wollschlaeger, B., “Zinc-carnosine for the management of gastric ulcers: clinical application and literature review,” JANA 2003; 6(2):32-9.

 

PART TWO: HEALTH CONDITIONS

 

Acne

Amer, M., et al., “Serum zinc in acne vulgaris,” Inter Jour Dermatol 1982; 21:481-84.

Baer, M., et al., “Acne in zinc deficiency,” Arch Dermatol 1978; 114:1093.

Cornbleet, R., et al., “Should we limit sugar in acne? “Arch Dermatol 196183; 968-69.

Dreno, B., et al., “Low doses of zinc gluconate for flammatory acne,” Acta Derm Venerol 1989; 69:541-43.

El-akawi, Z., et al., “Does the plasma level of vitamins A and E affect acne condition,” Clin Exp Dermatol 2006; 31:430-34.

Hilstrom, L., et al., “Comparison of oral treatment of zinc sulfate and placebo in acne vulgaris,” Brit Jour Dermatol 1977; 97:681-84.

Labadarios, D., et al., “Vitamin A in acne vulgaris,” Clin Exp Dermatol 1987; 12:432-36.

Leung, L., “Pantothenic acid deficiency as the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris,” Med Hypotheses 1995; 44:490-92.

Michaelsson, G., et al., “Serum zinc and retinol-binding protein in acne,” Brit Jour Dermatol 1977; 96:283-86.

Michaelsson, G., et al., “A double-blind study of the effect of zinc and oxytetracycline in acne vulgaris,” Bri Jour Dermaol 1977; 97:561-66.

Michaelsson, G., et al., “Erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity in acne vulgaris and the effect of selenium and vitamin E treatment,” Acta Derm Venerol 1984; 64:9-14.

Morris, G., “Use of vitamin C in acne vulgaris,” Arch Dermatol 1954; 70:364-64.

Rollman, O., et al., “Vitamin A in skin and serum—studies of acne vulgaris, atopic dermatitis, ichthyosis vulgaris and lichen planus,” Brit Jour Dermatol 1985; 113:405-13.

Saunders, T., “Favorable effects of vitamin A in a case of acne of long duration,” Arch Dermatol Symp 1944; 50:199.

Shalta, A., et al., “Topical nicotinamide compared with clindamycin gel in the treatment of inflammatory acne vulgaris,” Int Jour Dermatol 1995; 34:434-37.

Snider, B., et al., “Pyridoxine therapy for premenstrual acne flare,” Arch Dermatol 1974; 110:130-31.

Turnbull, J., “Changes in the systems affected by allergenic foods,” Amer Jour Dig Dis 1944; 11:329-336.

Verma, K., et al., “Oral zinc sulfate therapy in acne vulgaris: a double-blind trial,” Acta Derm Venerol 1980; 60:337-40.

White, C., “Food sensitization dermatoses,” Jour Allergy 1933; 4:151-53.

 

Adrenal Fatigue and Exhaustion

Baker, J., et al., “The naturopathic approach to adrenal dysfunction,” Townsend Letter 2005; Feb/March, p. 59-62.

Bland, J., Nutritional Endocrinology: Breakthrough Approaches for Improving Adrenal and Thyroid Function. Gig Harbor, WA: The Institute for Functional Medicine, 2002.

Brody, S., et al., “A randomized controlled trial of high dose ascorbic acid for reduction of blood pressure, cortisol, and subjective responses to psychological stress,” Psychopharmacol (Berl) 2012; 159(3):319-24.

Darbinyan, V., et al., “Rhodiola rosea in stress induced fatigue can double-blind crossover study of a standardized extract SHR-J with a repeated low dose regimen on the mental performance of healthy physicians during night duty,” Phytomed  2000; 7(5):365–71.

Delarue, J., et al., “Fish oil prevents the adrenal activation elicited by mental stress in healthy men,” Diabetes Metabol 2003; 29(3):289-95.

Fulder, S., et al., “Ginseng and the hypothalamic pituitary control of stress,” Amer Jour Chinese Med IX (2):112–118.

Gaffney, B., et al., “Panax ginseng and Eleutherococcus senticosus (Siberian ginseng) may exaggerate an already existing biphasic response to stress via inhibition of enzymes which limit the binding of stress hormones to their receptors,” Med Hypothesis 2001; 56(5):567–72.

Grandi, A., et al., “A comparative pharmacological investigation of ashwagandha and ginseng,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 1994; 44:131–35.

Heller, L., The Essentials of Herbal Care Part II. San Clemente, CA: Metagenics Inc., 2000.

Kelly, G., et al., “Nutritional and botanical interventions to assist with the adaption to stress.” Altern Med Rev 1999; 4(4):249–65.

Kelly, G., “Rhodioila rosea: a possible plant adaptogen,” Altern Med Rev 2001; 6(3):293-65.

Monteleone, P., et al., “Blunting by chronic phosphatidylserine administration of the stress-induced activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in healthy men,” Eur Jour Clin Pharmacol 1992; 42(4):385-88.

Peters, E., et al., “Vitamin C supplementation attenuates the increase in circulating cortisol, adrenaline and anti-inflammatory polypeptides following ultramarathon running,” Int Jour Sports Med 2001; 22(7):537-43.

Rege, N., et al., “Adaptogenic properties of six Rasuyana herbs used in ayurvedic medicine,” Phytotherapy Res 1999; 13:275–92.

Schmidt, M., Tired of Being Tired. Berkeley, CA: Frog, Ltd., 1995.

Smith, P., What You Must Know About Women’s Hormones. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers, 2010.

Tully, D., et al., “Modulation of steroid receptor-mediated gene expression by vitamin B6,” FASEB Jour 1994; 8:343–49.

Wilson, J., Adrenal Fatigue. Petaluma, CA: Smart Publications, 2001.

Zhu, U., et al., “The scientific rediscovery of an ancient Chinese herbal medicine: cordyceps sinensis,” Jour Alt Comple Med 1998; 4(3):289–303.

 

Alzheimer’s Disease

Affarra, P., et al., “The effects of phosphatidylserine n patients with mild cognitive decline,” Clin Trial Jour 1987; 24(1):109-114.

Aisen, P., et al., “High-dose B vitamin supplementation and cognitive decline in Alzheimer’s disease: a randomized controlled trial,” JAMA 2008; 300:1774-83.

Akhondzadeh, S., et al., “Alzheimer’s disease: a double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled trial,” Jour Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2003; 74(7):863-66.

Allegro, L., et al., “Oral phosphatidylserine in elderly patients with cognitive deterioration: an open study,” Clin Trials Jour 1987; 24:104-08.

Amaducci, L., et al., “Phosphatidylserine in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease: results of multicenter study,” Psychopharmacology Bull 1988; 24(1):130-34.

Annweiler, C., et al., “Dietary intake of vitamin D and cognition in older women: a large population-based study,” Neurology 2010; 75(20):1810-06.

Arterburn, L., “Distribution, interconversion, and dose response of n-3 fatty acids in humans,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2006; 83(6Suppl):1467S-1476S).

Arterburn, L., et al., “Algal-oil capsules and cooked salmon: nutritionally equivalent sources of docosahexaenoic acid,” Jour Amer Diet Assoc 2008; 108(7):1204-09.

Arterburn, L., et al, “Bioequivalence of Docosahexaenoic acid from different algal oils in capsules and in a DHA-fortified food,” Lipids 2007; 41(11):1011-24.

Balestreri, R., et al., “A double-blind placebo controlled evaluation of the safety and efficacy of vinpocetine in the treatment of patients with chronic vascular senile cerebral dysfunction,” Jour Amer Geriatr Soc 1987; 35:425-30.

Balu, M., et, al., “Modulatory role of grape seed extract on age-related oxidative DNA damage in central nervous system of rats,” Brain Res Bull 2006; 68(6):469-73.   

Bauer, I., et al., “Omega-3 supplementation improves cognition and modifies brain activation in young adults,” Hum Psychopharmacol 2014; 29(2):133-44.

Behl, C., et al., “Vitamin E protects nerve cells from amyloid beta protein toxicity,” Biochem Biophy Res Communications 1992; 186(20):944-50.

Birks, J., et al., “Ginkgo biloba for cognitive impairment and dementia,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007; 18(2):CD003120.

Blin, I., et al., “Effects of dimethylaminoethanol pyroglutamate (DMAE p-Glu) against memory deficits induced by scopolamine: evidence from preclinical and clinical studies,” Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2009; 207(2):210-12.

Bonavita, E., “Study of the efficacy and tolerability of L-acetylcarnitine therapy in the senile brain,” Int Jour Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 1986; 24:511-16.

Bonoczk, P., et al., “Role of sodium channel inhibition in neuroprotection: effect of vinpocetine,” Brain Re Bull 2000; 53(3):245-54.

Bowman, B., “Acetyl-L-carnitine and Alzheimer’s disease,” Nutr Rev 1992; 50:142-44.

Bradbury, J., “Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) an ancient nutrient for the modern human brain,” Nutrients 2011; 3(5):529-54.

Brazan, N., et al., “Endogenous signaling by omega-3-docosahexaenoic acid-derived mediators sustains homeostatic synaptic and circuitry integrity,” Mol Neurobiol 2011; 44(2):216-22.

Brazan, N., et al., “Docosahexaenoic acid signalolipidomics in nutrition, significance in aging, neuroinflammation, macular degeneration, Alzheimer’s and other neurodegenerative disease,” Ann Rev Nutr 2011; 31:321-51.

Brooks, J., et al., “Acetyl-L-carnitine slows decline in younger patients with Alzheimer’s disease: a reanalysis of a double-blind, placebo-controlled study using the trilinear approach,” Int Psychogeriatr 1998; 10:192-203.

Burns, A., et al., “Vitamin E deficiency,” Lancet 1992; 340:671.

Caffarra, P., et al., “The effects of phosphatidylserine in patients with mild cognitive decline: An open trial,” Clin Trials Jour 1987; 24:109-14.

Calvani, M., et al. “Action of acetyl-L-carnitine in neurodegeneration and Alzheimer’s disease,” Ann NY Acad Sci 1992; 663:483-86.

Cao, D., et al., “Docosahexaenoic acid promotes hippocampal neuronal development and synaptic function,” Jour Neurochem 2009; 111(2):510-21.

Carta, A., et al., “Acetyl-L-carnitine and Alzheimer’s disease,” Pharmacological considerations beyond the cholinergic sphere,” Ann NY Acad Sci 1993; 695:324-26.

Christen, Y., et al., “Oxidative stress and Alzheimer’s disease,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2000; 71 (Suppl):621S–629S.

Clarke, R., et al., “Folate, vitamin B12, and serum total homocysteine levels in confirmed Alzheimer’s disease,” Arch Neurol 1998; 55:1449–55.

Cole, G., et al., “Docosahexaenoic acid protects from amyloid and dendritic pathology in an Alzheimer’s disease mouse model,” Natr Health 2006; 18(3):249-59.

Cole, M., et al., “Low serum vitamin B12 in Alzheimer-type dementia,” Age Ageing 1984; 13:101-05.

Conquer, J., et al., “Fatty acid analysis of blood plasma of patients with Alzheimer’s disease, other types of dementia, and cognitive impairment,” Lipids 2000; 35:1305A–1312A.

Constantinidis, J., “The hypothesis of zinc deficiency in the pathogenesis of neurofibrillary tangles,” Med Hypoth 1991; 35:319-23.

Constantinidis, J., et al., “Treatment of Alzheimer’s disease by zinc compounds,” Drug Dev Res 1992; 27:1-14.

Crook, T., et al., “Effects of phosphatidylserine in aged-associated memory impairment,” Neurology 1991; 41(5):644–49.

Cucinotta, D., et al., “Multicenter clinical placebo-controlled study with acetyl-L-carnitine (LAC) in the treatment of mildly demented elderly patients,” Drug Dev Res 1988; 14:213-16.

Deijen, J., et al., “Vitamin B6 supplementation in elderly men: effects on mood, memory, performance and mental effort,” Psychopharmacology 1992; 109:489-96.

Delwaide, P., et al., “Double-blind randomized controlled study of phosphatidylserine in senile demented patients,” Acta Neurol Scand 1986; 73:136-40.

di Salvo, M., et al., “Biomedical aspects of pyridoxal 5’phosphate availability,” Front Biosci (Elite Ed) 2012; 4:897-913.

Dos Santos-Neto, L., et al., “The use of herbal medicine in Alzheimer’s disease—a systemic review,” Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2006; 3(4):441-45.

Durga, F., et al., “Effect of 3-year folic acid supplementation on cognitive function in older adults in the FACIT trial: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial,” Lancet 2007; 369:208-16.

Engelhart, M., et al., “Dietary intake of antioxidants and risk of Alzheimer disease,” JAMA 2002; 287:3223-29.

Enk, C., et al., “Reversible dementia and neuropathy associated with folate deficiency: 16 years after partial gastrectomy,” Scand Jour Haematol 1980; 25:63-66.

Ernest, E., et al., “Ginkgo biloba for dementia: a systematic review of double-blind, placebo-controlled trials,” Clin Drug Investig 1999; 17:301-08.

Eussen, S., et al., “Effect of oral vitamin B12 with or without folic acid on cognitive function in older people with mild vitamin B12 deficiency: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2006; 94:361-70.

Fioravanti, M., et al., “Cytidinediphosphocholine (CDP-choline) for cognitive and behavioral disturbances associated with chronic cerebral disorders in the elderly.” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005(2):CD000269.

Furuta, A., et al., “Localization of superoxide dismutases in Alzheimer’s disease and Down’s syndrome neocortex and hippocampus,” Amer Jour Pathol 1995; 146:357-67.

Fuso, A., et al., “S-adenosylmethionine reduces the progress of the Alzheimer-like features induced by B-vitamin deficiency in mice,” Neurobiol Aging 2012; 33:1482e1-1482e16.

Gaby, A., “Alzheimer’s Disease.” In Nutritional Medicine. 2nd Edition, Concord, NH: Fritz Perlberg Publishing, 2017.

Gibson, G., et al., “Reduced activities of thiamine-dependent enzymes in the brains and peripheral tissues of patients with Alzheimer’s disease,” Arch Neurol 1988; 45:836-40.

Gold, M., et al., “Plasma and red blood cell thiamine deficiency in patients with dementia of the Alzheimer’s type,” Arch Neurol 1995; 52:1081-86.

Goldman, R., Brain Fitness. New York: Doubleday, 1999.

Granata, Q., et al., “Phosphatidylserine in elderly patients. An open trial,” Clin Trials Jour 1987; 24(1):99-103.

Grostein, F., et al., “A randomized trial of beta carotene supplementation and cognitive function in men: The Physicians’ Health Study II,” Arch Inter Med 2007; 167:2184-90.

Hashimoto, M., et al., “Docosahexaenoic acid-induced protective effect against impaired learning in amyloid beta-infused rats is associated with increased synaptosomal membrane fluidity,” Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2006; 33(10): 934-39.

He, C., et al., “Improved spatial learning performance of fat-1 mice is associated with enhanced neurogenesis and neuritogenesis by docosahexaenoic acid,” Pro Natl Acad Sci USA 2009; 106(27):11370-75.

Hector, M., et al., “What are the psychiatric manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency?” Jour Amer Geriatr Soc 1988; 36:1105-12.

Heiss, W., et al., “Long-term effects of phosphatidylserine, pyritinol, and cognitive training in Alzheimer’s disease,” Cognitive Deterioration 1994; 5:88-98.

Horning, M., et al., “Endogenous mechanisms of neuro-protection: role of zinc, copper, and carnosine,” Brain Res 2000; 852(1):56-61.

Horrocks, L., et al., “Health benefits of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)” Pharmacol Res 1999; 40(3):211-25.

Hudson, S., et al., “Acetyl-L-carnitine for dementia,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003; (2):CD003158.

Kalmijn, S., et al., “Fatty acid intake and the risk of dementia and cognitive decline: a review of clinical and epidemiological studies,” Jour Nutr Health Aging 2000; 4(4):202–07.

Kanofsky, J., “Thiamine status and cognitive impairment in the elderly,” Jour Amer Coll Nutr 1996; 15:197-98.

Kanowski, S., et al, “Proof of efficacy of the Ginkgo biloba special extract EgB 761 in outpatients suffering from mild to moderate primary degenerative dementia of the Alzheimer type or multi-infarct dementia of the Alzheimer type or multi-infarct dementia,” Pharmacopsychiatry 1996; 29:47-56.

Kidd, P., Phosphatidylserine: Nature’s Brain Booster for Memory, Mood, And Stress. St. George: Total Health Communications, Inc., 2005.

Klatte, E., et al., “Combination therapy of donepezil and vitamin E in Alzheimer disease,” Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 2003; 17(2):113-16.

Kleijnen, J., et al., “Ginkgo biloba,” Lancet 1992; 340:1136-39.

Kristensen, M., et al., “Serum cobalamin and methylmalonic acid in Alzheimer dementia,” Acta Neurol Scand 1993; 87:475-81.

Kuboyama, T., et al., “Neuritic regeneration and synaptic reconstruction induced by withanolide A,” Brit Jour Pharmacol 2005; 144(7):961-71.

Kyle, D., et al., “Low serum docosahexaenoic acid is a significant risk factor for Alzheimer’s dementia,” Lipids 1999; 34:S245.

Lakhani, S., et al., “Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and thiamine deficiency after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery in obese patients,” Nutr Res 2008; 28:293-98

Le Bars, P., al., “Placebo-controlled double-blind randomized trial of an extract of Ginkgo biloba for dementia,” JAMA 1997; 278:1327-32.

Lehmann, J., et al., “Tryptophan malabsorption in dementia. Improvement in certain cases after tryptophan therapy as indicated by mental behavior and blood analysis,” Acts Psychiatry San 1981; 64:123-31.

Lemke, M., et al., “Plasma magnesium decrease and altered calcium/magnesium ratio in severe dementia of the Alzheimer type,” Biol Psychiatry 1995; 37:341-43.

Li, M., et al., “Protective effects of oligomers of grape seed polyphenols against beta-amyloid-induced oxidative cell death,” Ann NY Acad Sci 2004; 1030:317-29.

Llewellyn D., et al., “Vitamin D and cognitive impairment in the elderly U.S. population,” Jour Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2011; 66(1):59-65.

Mahl, M., et al., “A long term study of the effect of nicotinic acid medication on hypercholesterolemia,” Amer Jour Med Sci 1963; 246:673-77.

Martin, D., et al., “Time dependency of cognitive recovery with cobalamin replacement. A report of a pilot study,” Jour Amer Geriatr Soc 1992; 40:168-72.

Masaki, K., et al., “Association of vitamin E and C supplement use with cognitive function and dementia in elderly men,” Neurology 2000; 54:1265-72.

McCaddon, A., “Vitamin B12 in neurology and ageing; clinical and genetic aspects,” Biochimie 2013; 95(5):1066-76.

McCann, J., et al., “Is docosahexaenoic acid, an n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid, required for development of normal brain function? An overview of evidence from cognitive and behavioral tests in humans and animals,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2005; 82(2):281-95.

McDaniel, M., et al., “Brain-specific nutrients: a memory cure?” Nutrition 2003; 19(11-12):957-75.

Meador, K., et al., “Preliminary findings of high-dose thiamine in dementia of Alzheimer’s type,” Jour Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 1993; 6:222-29.

Mimori, Y., et al., “Thiamine therapy in Alzheimer’s disease,” Met Brain Dis 1996; 11(1):89-94.

Mitsuyama, Y., et al., “Serum and cerebrospinal fluid vitamin B12 levels in demented patients with CH3-B12 treatment—preliminary study,” Jpn Jour Psychiatry Neurol 1988; 42:65-71.

Monteleone, P., et al., “Effects of phosphatidylserine on the neuroendocrine response to physical stress in humans.” Neuroendocrinology 1990; 52:243-48.

Morris, M., et al., “Consumption of fish and n-3 fatty acids and risk of incident Alzheimer disease,” Arch Neurol 2003; 60(7):940-46.

Morris, M., et al., “Dietary intake of antioxidant nutrients and the risk of incident Alzheimer disease in a biracial community study,” JAMA 2002; 287:3230-37.

Morris, M., et al., “Homocysteine and Alzheimer’s disease,” Lancet Neurol 2003; 2(7):425A–28.

Morris, M., et al., “National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: hyperhomocysteinemia associated with poor recall in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2001, 73(5):927-33.

Morris, M., et al., “Relation of the tocopherol forms to incident Alzheimer disease and to cognitive change,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2005; 81:508-14.

Morris, M., et al., “Vitamin E and vitamin C supplement use and risk of incident Alzheimer disease,” Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 1998; 12:121-26.

Morrison, L., et al., “Brain S-adenosylmethionine levels are severely decreased in Alzheimer’s disease,” Jour Neurochem 1996; 67(3):1328-31.

Nichols, T, et al., “Alpha-lipoic acid: biological effects and clinical implications,” Alt Med Rev 1997; 2(3):177–13.

Nolan, K., et al., “A trial of thiamine in Alzheimer’s disease,” Arch Neurol 1991; 48:81-3.

Nourhashemi, F., et al., “Alzheimer’s disease: protective factors,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr  2000; 71(Suppl):643S–649S.

Nurk, E., “Plasma free choline, betaine and cognitive performance: the Hordaland Health Study,” Brit Jour Nutr 2013; 109(3):511-19.

Oberg, E., et al., “The prevention and delay of Alzheimer’s disease,” Integrative Med 2008; 7(3):54-9.

Packer, L., et al., “Alpha lipoic acid: a metabolic antioxidant which regulates NF-kappaB signal transduction and protects against oxidative injury,” Drug Metab Rev 1998; 30(2):245-75.

Packer, L., et al., “Neuroprotection by the metabolic antioxidant alpha lipoic acid,” Free-radical Biol Med 1997; 22:359-78.

Papandreou, M., et al., “Effect of polyphenol-rich wild blueberry extract on cognitive performance of mice, brain antioxidant markers and acetylcholinesterase activity,” Behav Brain Res 2008; 198(2):352-58.

Passeri, M., et al., “Acetyl-L-carnitine in the treatment of mildly demented elderly patients,” Intern Jour Clin Pharm Res 1988; 8(5):367-78.

Penland, J., et al., “Dietary boron, brain function, and cognitive performance,” Environ Health Perspect 1994; 102 (Suppl. 7):65-72.

Pettegrew, J., et al., “Clinical and neuro-chemical effects of acetyl-L-carnitine in Alzheimer’s disease,” Neurobiol Aging 1995; 16(1):1–4.

Polich, J., et al., “Cognitive effects of a Ginkgo biloba/vinpocetine compound in normal adults: systematic assessment of perception, attention and memory,” Hum Psychopharmacol 2001: 16:409-16.

Potocnik, F., et al., “Zinc and platelet membrane microviscosity in Alzheimer’s s. The in vivo effect of zinc on platelet membranes and cognition,” South Afr Med Jour 1997; 87:1116-19.

Puca, F., et al., “Exploratory trial of phosphatidylserine efficacy in mildly demented patients,” Clin Trials Jour 1987; 24:94-8.

Rai, G., et al., “Double-blind placebo controlled study of acetyl-L-carnitine in patients with Alzheimer’s dementia,” Curr Med Res Opin 1990; 11:638-47.

Ransmayr, G., et al., “Double-blind placebo-controlled trial of phosphatidylserine in elderly patients with arteriosclerotic encephalopathy,” Clin Trials Jour 1987; 24:62-72.

Ravaglia, G., et al., “Homocysteine and folate as risk factors for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2005; 82:636-43.

Regland, B., et al., “Low B12 levels related to high activity of platelet MAO in patients with dementia disorders. A retrospective study,” Acta Pychiatr Scand 1988; 78:451-57.

Riedel, W., et al., “Tryptophan depletion in normal volunteers produces selective impairment in memory consolidation,” Psychopharmacology 1999; 141:362-69.

Rondanelli, M., et al., “Effects of a diet integration with an oily emulsion of DHA-phospholipids containing melatonin and tryptophan in elderly patients suffering from mild cognitive impairment,” Nutr Neurosci 2012; 15(2):46-54.

Rubi, B., “Pyridoxal 5-phosphage (PLP) deficiency might contribute to the onset of Type I diabetes,” Med Hypotheses 2012; 78(1):179-82.

Salvioli, G., et al., “L-acetylcarnitine treatment of mental decline in the elderly,” Drugs Exp Clin Res 1994; 20:169A–176A.

Sanders, T., et al., “DHA status of vegetarians,” Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2009; 81(2-3):137-41.

Sano, M., et al., “A controlled trial of selegeline, alpha-tocopherol, or both as treatment for Alzheimer’s disease,” NEJM 1997; 336:1216A–1222A.

Sano., M., et al., “Double-blind parallel design pilot study of acetyl levocarnitine in patients with Alzheimer’s disease,” Arch Neurol 1992; 49:1137-41.

Sapira, J., et al., “Reversible dementia due to folate deficiency,” South Med Jour 1975; 68:776-77.

Savioli, G., et al., “L-acetylcarnitine treatment of mental decline in the elderly,” Drug Exp Clin Res 1994; 20:169-76.

Seamans, K., et al., “Vitamin D status and measures of cognitive function in healthy older European adults,” Eur Jour Clin Nutr 2010; 64(10):1172-78.

Sen, C., et al., “Molecular basis of vitamin E action: tocotrienol potently inhibits glutamate-induced pp60 kinas activation and death of HT5 neuronal cells,” NEJM 1997; 336:1216-22.

Seshadri, S., “Plasma homocystine as a risk factor for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease,” NEJM  2002; 346:476–83.

Shaw, D., et al., “Pilot study of amino acids in senile dementia,” Brit Jour Psychiatry 1981; 139:580-82.

Shevell, M., et al., “The neurology of cobalamin,” Cam Jour Neurol Sci 1992; 19:472-86.

Sinforiani, E., et al., “Cognitive decline in ageing brain. Therapeutic approach with phosphatidylserine,” Clin Trials Jour 1987; 24:115-24.

SMID Group. “Phosphatidylserine in the treatment of clinically diagnosed Alzheimer’s disease,” Jour Neural Transm 1987; 24(Suppl):287-92. 

Smith, D., et al., “Lack of effect of tryptophan treatment in demented gerontopsychiatric patients,” Acta Psychiatr San 1984; 70: 470-77.

Smith, P., What You Must Know About Memory Loss and How You Can Stop It. Garden City Park: Square One Publishers, 2014.

Spoganoli, A., et al., “Long-term acetyl-L-carnitine treatment of Alzheimer’s disease,” Neurology 1991; 41:1726-32.

Stokel, K., “DHA: an essential brain food,” Life Extensions Nov. 2012, p. 66-73.

Szilagyi, G., et al., “Effects of vinpocetine on the redistribution of cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism in chronic ischemic stroke patients: a PET study,” Jour Neurol Sci 2005; March:229-230, 275-84.

Tenissen, C., et al., “Homocysteine: a marker for cognitive performance? A longitudinal follow-up study,” Jour Nutr Health Aging 2003; 7(3):153–59.

Terano, T., et al., “Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation improves the moderately severe dementia from thrombotic cerebrovascular diseases,” Lipids 1999; 34(Suppl):S345-46.

Thal, L., et al., “A one-year multicenter placebo-controlled study of acetyl-L-carnitine in patients with Alzheimer’s disease,” Neurology 1996; 47(3):705–11.

Thal, L., et al., “A 1-year controlled trial of acetyl-L-carnitine in early-onset Alzheimer’s diseases,” Neurology 2000; 55:805-10.

Tucker, K., et al., “High homocysteine and low B vitamins predict cognitive decline in aging men: the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2005; 82:627-35.

Tully, C., et al., “Serum zinc senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles: findings from the Bun Study,” Neuroreport 1995; 6:2105-08.

van Goor, L., et al., “Review: cobalamin deficiency and mental impairment in elderly people,” Age Ageing 1995; 24:536-42.

van Tiggelen, C., et al., “Assessment of vitamin B12 status in CSF,” Amer Jour Psychiatry 1984; 141:136-37.

van Tiggelen, C., al., “Vitamin B12 levels of cerebrospinal fluid in patients with organic mental disorder,” Jour Orthomolec Psychiatry 1983; 12:305-11. 

Vecchi, G., et al., “Acetyl-L-carnitine treatment of mental impairment in the elderly: evidence from a multicenter study,” Arch Gerontol Geriatr 1991; Supp 2:159-68.

Villardita, C., et al., “Multicenter clinical trial of brain phosphatidyl serine in elderly patients with intellectual deterioration,” Clin Trials Jour 1987; 24:84–93.

Wald, D., et al., “Serum homocysteine and dementia: meta-analysis of eight cohort studies including 8669 participants,” Alzheim Dement 2011; 7(4):412-17.

Wang, A., et al., “Use of carnosine as a natural anti-senescence drug for human beings,” Biochemistry (Masc) 2000; 65:869-71.

Wang, H., et al., “Vitamin B12 and folate in relation to the development of Alzheimer’s disease,” Neurology 1991; 56:1188–94.

Ward, M., et al., “Effect of supplemental methionine on plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy men: a preliminary study,” Int Jour Vitam Nutr Res 2001; 71(1):82-6.

Watanable, C., et al., “The in vivo neuromodulatory effects of the herbal medicine gingko biloba,” Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2001; 98:6577-80.

Wettstein, A., et al., “Cholinesterase inhibitors and Ginkgo extracts—are they comparable in the treatment of dementia? Comparison of published placebo-controlled efficacy studies of at least six months’ duration,” Phytomedicine 2000; 6:383-401.

Wollschlaeger, B., “Efficacy of vinpocetine in the management of cognitive impairment and memory loss,” JANA 2001; 4:25-30.

Wolters, E., et al., “A double blind placebo and piracetam controlled multicenter trial of vinpocetine in dementia of Alzheimer's type and vascular dementia,” Neurobiology Aging 1992; 13(Suppl 1):S127.

Xu, S., et al., “Efficacy of tablet huperzine-A on memory, cognition and behavior in Alzheimer’s disease,” Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao 1995; 16:391-95.

Yaknik, C., et al., “Oral vitamin B12 supplementation reduces plasma total homocysteine concentration in women in India,” Asia Pac Jour Clin Nutr 2007; 16(1):103-09.

Yamashima, T., “A putative link of PUFA, GPR40 an adult-brain hippocampal neurons for memory,” Prog Neurobiol 2008; 84(2):105-15.

Yang, F., et al., “Curcumin inhibits formation of A oligomers and fibrils and binds plaques and reduces amyloid in vivo,” Jour Biol Chem 2005; 280(7):5892-5901.

Yao, A., et al., “Ginkgo biloba extract (EgB 761) inhibits beta-amyloid production by lowering free cholesterol levels,” Jour Nutr Biochem 2004; 15:749-56.

Yi, Y., et al., “Effect of vinpocetine on hemodynamics and neurologic impairment in senile patients with acute cerebral infarction,” Chinese Jour Clin Rehab 2004; 8(28):6122-23.

Zaman, Z., et al., “Plasma concentrations of vitamins A and E and carotenoids in Alzheimer’s disease,” Age Aging 1992; 21(20):91-94.

Zandi, P., et al., “Reduced risk of Alzheimer disease in users of antioxidant vitamin supplements: The Cache Country Study,” Arch Neurol 2004; 61:82-88.

Zeisel, S., Choline. In: Ross, A., Caballero, B., Cousins, R., Tucker, K., Ziegler, T., (Eds.) Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 11th Ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2014:416-26.

 

Anorexia Nervosa

Gatti D., et al., “Strong relationship between vitamin D status and bone mineral density in anorexia nervosa,” Bone 2015;78:212–15.

Holick, M., “Vitamin D, deficiency,” NEJM 2007;357(3):266–81.

Mehler, P., et al., “Treatment of osteopenia and osteoporosis in anorexia nervosa: a systematic review of the literature,” Int Jour Eat Disord 2009; 42(3):195–201.

Setnick, J., “Micronutreint deficiencies and supplementation in anorexia and bulimia nervosa: a review of literature,” Nutr Clin Pract 2010; 25(2):137-42.

Van Binsbergen CJ, Odink J, Van den Berg H, Koppeschaar H, Coelingh Bennink HJ. “Nutritional status in anorexia nervosa: clinical chemistry, vitamins, iron and zinc.” Eur Jour Clin Nutr. 1988;42(11):929–37.

Ward, N., et al., “Assessment of zinc status and oral supplementation in anorexia nervosa,” Jour Nutr Med 1990; 1:171–77.

Yager, J., et al., “Clinical practice. Anorexia nervosa,” NEJM 2005; 353(14):1481–88.

 

Anxiety

Akhondzadeh, S., et al., “Passionflower in the treatment of generalized anxiety: a pilot double-blind randomized controlled trial with oxazepam,” Jour Clin Pharm Ther 2001; 26(5):363-67.

Al-Momen, A., “Diminished vitamin B12 levels in patients with sickle cell disease,” Jour Inter Med 1995; 237:551-55.

Bermond, P., “Therapy of side effects of oral contraceptive agents with vitamin B6,” Acta Vitaminol Enzymol 1982; 4(1-2):45-54.

Boerner, R., et al., “Kava kava in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder, simple phobia and specific social phobia,” Phytother Res 2001; 15:646–47.

Braun, L., and Cohen, M., Herbs & Natural Supplements: An Evidence-Based Guide. 4th Ed. Vol 2. New York: Elsevier, 2015.

Cagnacci, A., et al., “Kava-Kava administration reduces anxiety in perimenopausal women,” Maturitas2003; 44:103–09.

Carroll, D., et al., “The effects of an oral multivitamin combination with calcium, magnesium, and zinc on psychological well-being in healthy young male volunteers: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial,” Psychopharmacol 2000; 150:220-25.

Dhawan, K., et al., “Anti-anxiety studies on extracts of Passiflora incarnata Linneaus,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 2001; 78:165–70.

Fisher, B., Attention Deficit Disorder. 2nd Ed., New York, NY: Informa Healthcare, 2007.

Gaby, A., Nutritional Therapy in Medical Practice. Carlisle, PA: Nutrition Seminars, 2003.

Govata, S., et al., “Effects from acupuncture in treating anxiety: integrative review,” Rev Bras Enferm 2016; 69(3):602-09.

Guerrera, M., et al., “Therapeutic uses of magnesium,” Amer Fam Physician 2009; 80(2):157-62.

Howard, J., et al., “Folate deficiency in psychiatric practice,” Psychosomatics 1975; 16:112-15.

Kennedy, D., et al., “Anxiolytic effects of a combination of Melissa officinalis and Valeriana officinalis during laboratory induced stress,” Phytother Res 2006; 20(2):96-102.

Kennedy, D., et al., “Attenuation of laboratory-induced stress in humans after acute administration of Melissa officinalis (Lemon Balm),” Psychosom Med 2004; 66(4):607-13.

Kiecolt-Glaser, J., et al., “Omega-3 supplementation lowers inflammation and anxiety in medical students: A randomized controlled trial,” Brain Behav Immun 2011; 25:1725-34.

Krolow, R., et al., “Oxidative imbalance and anxiety disorders,” Curr Neuropharmacol 2014; 12(2):193-204.

Malsch, U., et al.,” Efficacy of kava-kava in the treatment of non-psychotic anxiety, following pretreatment with benzodiazepines,” Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2001; 157:277–83.

Manzoni, G., et al., “Relaxation training for anxiety: a ten-years systematic review with meta-analysis,” BMC Psychiatry 2000; 8:41.

Mellman, T., “Sleep and anxiety disorders,” Psychiatry Clin North Amer 2006;29(4):1047-58.

Nuss, P., “Anxiety disorders and GABA neurotransmission: a disturbance of modulation,” Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2015; 11:165-75.

Pilkington, K., “Anxiety, depression and acupuncture: A review of the clinical research,” Auton Neurosci 2010; 157(1-2):91-5.

Sahley, B., Anxiety Epidemic. San Antonio, TX: Pain and Stress Publications, 1999.

Shaheen, E., et al., “Nutritional and herbal supplements for anxiety and anxiety-related disorders: systematic review,” Nutr Jour 2010; 9:42.

Smriga, M., et al., “Oral treatment with L-lysine and L-arginine reduces anxiety and basal cortisol levels in healthy humans,” Biomed Res 2007; 28(2):85-90.

Wetherell, J., et al., “Modular psychotherapy for anxiety in older primary care patients,” Amer Jour Geriatr Psy 2009;17(6):483-92.

Xu, Y., et al., “Novel therapeutic targets in depression and anxiety: antioxidants as a candidate treatment,” Curr Neuropharmacol 2014; 12(2):108-19.

 

Asthma

Crayhon, R., Designs for Health Institute’s Eating and Supplement Plans. Boulder, CO: Designs for Health Institute, 2000.

Doelman, C., et al., “Oxygen radicals in lung pathology,” Free Radic Biol Med 2000;9:381–400.

Greene, L., et al., “Asthma and oxidant stress: nutritional, environmental, and genetic risk factors,” Jour Amer Coll Nutr 1995; 14(4):317–24.

Harik-Khan, R., et al., “Serum vitamin levels and the risk of asthma in children,” Amer Jour Epidemiol 2004;159:351–357.

Hatch, G., et al., “Asthma, inhaled oxidants, and dietary antioxidants,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1995; 61(3 Suppl):625S–630S.

Kadrabova, J., et al., “Selenium status is decreased in patients with intrinsic asthma,” Biol Trac Elem Res 1996; 52(3):241–48.

Korn, S., et al., “Severe and uncontrolled adult asthma is associated with vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency,” Resp Res 2013; 14(25).

Picado C., et al., “Dietary micronutrients/antioxidants and their relationship with bronchial asthma severity,” Allergy 2001;56:43–9.

Pletsityi, K., et al., “Vitamin E: immunocorrecting effect in bronchial asthma patients,” Vopr Med Khim 1995;41:33–36.

Pollard, S., et al., “Vitamin D and COPD: who benefits from supplementation,” Lancet 2015; 3(2):89-91.

Riccioni, G., et al., “Antioxicant vitamin supplementation in asthma,” Ann Clin Lab Sci 2007; Winter (37):196-201.

Villani, F., et al., “Effect of dietary supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids on bronchial hyperreactivity in subjects with seasonal asthma,” Respiration 1998; 65(4):265–69.

Weiss, S., et al., “Diet as a risk factor for asthma,” Ciba Found Symp 1997; 206:244–57.

 

Atherosclerosis

Al-Mohissen, M., et al., “Niacin: from mechanisms of action to therapeutic uses,”Mini Rev Med Chem2010; 10:204– 17.

Berthold, H., et al., “Effect of policosanol on lipid levels among patients with hypercholesterolemia or combined hyperlipidemia: a randomized controlled trial,” JAMA2006; 295:2262– 69.

Bioedon L., et al., “Flaxseed and cardiovascular risk factors: results from a double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial,” Jour Amer Coll Nutr2008; 27:65– 74.

Brown AL, Lane J, Holyoak C, et al. “Health effects of green tea catechins in overweight and obese men: a randomized controlled cross-over trial.” Brit Jour Nutr 2011; 7: 1– 10.

Brown J., et al., “Monounsaturated fatty acids and atherosclerosis: opposing views from epidemiology and experimental animal models,” Curr Atheroscler Rep 2007; 9:494– 500.

Budoff , M., et al., “Aged garlic extract supplemented with B vitamins, folic acid and L-arginine retards progression of subclinical atherosclerosis: a randomized clinical trial,” Prev Med2009; 49:101– 07.

Curtiss, L., “Reversing atherosclerosis?” NEJM 2009; 360:1144– 46.

Davis W., et al., “Effect of a combined therapeutic approach of intensive lipid management, omega 3 fatty acid supplementation, and increased serum 25(OH) D on coronary calcium scores in asymptomatic adults,” Amer Jour Ther2009; 16:326– 32.

Demonty I., et al., “Continuous dose response relationship of the LDL cholesterol lowering effect of phytosterol intake,” Jour Nutr2009; 139: 271– 84.

Di Donna L., et al., “Statin-like principles of bergamot fruit (Citrus bergamia): isolation of 3 hydroxymethylglutaryl flavonoid glycosides,” Jour Nat Prod2009; 72: 1352– 54.

Djousse, L., et al., “Dietary cholesterol and coronary artery disease: a systematic review,” Curr Atheroscler Rep2009; 11:418– 22.

Erkkila, A., et al., “Dietary fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: an epidemiological approach,” Prog Lipid Res2008; 47: 172– 87.

Fuhrman B., et al., “Pomegranate juice polyphenols increase recombinant paroxonase-1 binding to high density lipoprotein: studies in vitro and in diabetic patients,” Nutrition2010; 26: 359– 66.

Gardner, C., et al., “Effect of raw garlic vs commercial garlic supplements on plasma lipid concentration in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: a randomized clinical trial,” Arch Intern Med2007; 167:346– 53.

Greyling, A., et al., “Effects of a policosanol supplement on serum lipid concentrations in hypercholesterolemic and heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemic subjects,” Brit Jour Nutr 2006; 95:968– 75.

Houston, M., “The role of nutraceutical supplements in the treatment of dyslipidemia,” Jour Clin Hypertens (Greewich) 2012; 14:121-32.

Houston M., et al., “Effect of combination pantethine, plant sterols, green tea extract, delta-tocotrienol and phytolens on lipid profiles in patients with hyperlipidemia,” JANA2010; 13:15– 20.

Kelley D., et al., “Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation decreases remnant-like particle cholesterol and increases the (n-3) index in hypertriglyceridemic men,” Jour Nutr 2008; 138:30– 5.

Langsjoen, P., et al., “Overview of the use of coenzyme Q10 in cardiovascular disease,” Bio Factors 1999; 9:273–84.

Lee, J., et al., “Effects of high dose modified release nicotinic acid on atherosclerosis and vascular function: a randomized, placebo controlled, magnetic resonance imaging study,” Jour Amer Coll Cardiol2009; 54:1787– 94.

Liu J., et al., “Chinese red yeast rice (Monascus purpureus) for primary hyperlipidemia: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials,” Chin Med. 2006; 1: 4.

Lu, Z., et al., “Effect of Xuezhikang, an extract from red yeast Chinese rice, on coronary events in a Chinese population with previous myocardial infarction,” Amer Jour Cardiol2008; 101: 1689– 93.

Mandasescu, S., et al., “Flaxseed supplementation in hyperlipidemic patients,” Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat lasi2005; 109:502– 06.

McRae M., “Treatment of hyperlipoproteinemia with pantethine a review and analysis of efficacy and tolerability,” Nutr Res2005; 25:319– 33.

McRae M., “Vitamin C supplementation lowers serum low-density cholesterol and triglycerides: a meta-analysis of 13 randomized controlled trials,” Jour Chiropr Med. 2008; 7:48– 58.

Micallef, M., et al., “The lipid-lowering effects of phytosterols and (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids are synergistic and complementary in hyperlipidemic men and women,” Jour Nutr2008; 138:1085– 90.

Mollace V., et al., “Hypolipidemic and hypoglycaemic activity of bergamot polyphenols: from animal models to human studies,” Fitotherapia2011; 82:309– 16.

Mori T., et al., “Purified eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids have differential effects on serum lipids and lipoproteins, LDL particle size, glucose and insulin in mildly hyperlipidemic men,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr2000; 71:1085– 94.

Nohr L., et al., “Resin from the Mukul Myrrh tree, guggul, can it be used for treating hypercholesterolemia: a randomized, controlled study,” Complement Ther Med2009; 17:16– 22.

Othman R., et al., “Beyond cholesterol lowering effects of plant sterols: clinical and experimental evidence of anti-inflammatory properties,” Nutr Rev2011; 69: 371– 82.

Patch, C., et al., “Plant sterols as dietary adjuvants in the reduction of cardiovascular risk: theory and evidence,” Vasc Health Risk Manag2006; 2:157– 62.

Pins L., et al., “Dietary and nutraceutical options for managing the hypertriglyceridemic patient,” Prog Cardiovasc Nurs2006; 21:89– 93.

Plotnick, G., et al., “Effect of antioxidant vitamins on the transient impairment of endothelium-dependent brachial artery vasoactivity following a single high-fat meal,” JAMA 1997; 276(20):1682–86.

Prasad K., “Flaxseed and cardiovascular health,” Jour Cardiovasc Pharmacol2009; 54:369– 77.

Prasad K., “Tocotrienols and cardiovascular health,” Curr Pharm Des2011; 17:2147– 54.

Price, J., et al., “Antioxidant vitamins in the prevention of cardiovascular disease,” Eur Heart Jour 1997; 18:719–27.

Reaven, P., et al., “Effect of dietary antioxidant combinations in humans,” Arterioscler Throm 1993; 13:590–600.

Rinnium, E., et al., “Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary disease in men,” NEJM 1993; 328:1450–56.

Rissanen T., et al., “Fish oil-derived fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid and the risk of acute coronary events: the Kuopio ischaemic heart disease risk factor study,” Circulation2000; 102:2677– 79.

Ryan A., et al., “Clinical overview of algal-docosahexaenoic acid: effects on triglyceride levels and other cardiovascular risk factors,” Amer Jour Ther2009; 16:183– 92.

Sabeva, N., et al., “Phytosterols differently influence ABC transporter expression, cholesterol efflux and inflammatory cytokine secretion in macrophage foam cells, “Jour Nutr Biochem2011; 22:777– 83.

Saremi A., et al., “The utility of omega-3 fatty acids in cardiovascular disease,” Amer Jour Ther2009; 16:421– 36.

Simon, J., et al., “Vitamin C and cardiovascular disease: a review,” Jour Amer Coll Nutr 1992; 11:107–25.

Soni K., et al., “Effect of oral curcumin administration on serum peroxides and cholesterol levels in human volunteers,” Indian Jour Physiol Pharmacol1992; 36:273– 75.

Stampfer, M., et al., “Vitamin E consumption and the risk of coronary disease in women,” NEJM 1997; 328:144–49.

Studer M., et al., “Effect of different anti-lipidemic agents and diets on mortality: a systemic review,” Arch Int Med 2005; 165:725– 30.

Szapary P., et al., “Guggulipid for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia: a randomized controlled trial,” JAMA. 2003; 290:765– 72.

Tinahones FJ, Rubio MA, Garrido-Sanchez L, et al. Green tea reduces LDL oxidability and improves vascular function. Jour Amer Coll Nutr2008; 27:209– 13.

Ulbricht C., et al., “Guggul for hyperlipidemia: a review by the natural standard research collaboration,” Complement Ther Med2005; 13:279– 90.

Zheng, X., et al., “Green tea intake lowers fasting serum total and LDL cholesterol in adults: a meta-analysis of 14 randomized controlled trials,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr2011; 94:601– 10.

 

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Bekaroglu, M., et al., “Relationships between serum free fatty acids and zinc, and ADHD: A research note,” Child Psychol Psychiatry 1996; 37:225–27.

Bioch, M., et al., “Nutritional supplements for the treatment of ADHD,” Child Adolesent Psychiatry 2014; 23(4):883-97.

Breggin, P., Talking Back to Ritalin. Monroe, Maine: Common Conrage Press, 1998.

Brenner, A., et al., “The effects of megadoses of selected B complex vitamins on children with hyperkinesis: controlled studies with long term followup,” Jour Learning Dis 1982; 15:258.

Colquhoun, V., et al., “A lack of essential fatty acids as a possible cause of hyperactivity in children,” Med Hypotheses 1981; 7:681.

Kozielec, T., et al., “Assessment of magnesium levels in children with ADHD,” Magnes Res 1997; 10:143–48.

Lyon, M., Healing the Hyperactive Brain. Calgary AB: Focused Publishing, 2000.

Sahley, B., Control Hyperactivity, ADD Naturally. San Antonio, TX: Pain and Stress Publications, 1999.

Sahley, B.,  Is Ritalin Necessary? San Antonio, TX: Pain and Stress Publications, 1999.

Sarris, J., et al., “Complementary medicines (herbal and nutritional products) in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): A systematic review of the evidence,” ComplemTher Med 2011; 19(4):216-27.

Starobrat-Hermelin, B., et al., “The effects of magnesium physiological supplementation on hyperactivity in children with ADHD. Positive response to magnesium oral loading test,” Magnes Res 1997; 10:149–56.

Stevens, L., et al., “Essential fatty acids metabolism in boys with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1995; 62:761–68.

Stordy, B.,  The LCP Solution. New York: Balantine Books, 2000.

Van Oudheusden, L., et al., “Efficacy of carnitine in the treatment of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder,” Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2002; 67(1):33.

 

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)

AUA Practice Guidelines Committee, “AUA guideline on management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (2002). Chapter 1: diagnosis and treatment recommendations,” Jour Urol 2003; 170:530-47.

Berry, S., et al., “The development of human benign prostatic hyperplasia with age,” Jour Urol 1984; 132(3):474-79.

Evans, B., et al., “Inhibition of 5-alpha reductase in genital skin fibroblasts and prostate tissue by dietary lignans and isoflavonoids,” Jour Endocrinol 1995; 147:295-302.

Gaby, A., Nutritional Medicine. Concord, NH: Fritz Perlberg Publishing, 2011.

Hammarsten, J., “Components of the metabolic syndrome—risk factors for the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia,” Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 1998; 1:157-62.

Morley, J., “The Aging Male,” Clinics in Geriatric Medicine. 2010; 26(2):223-39.

Murray, M., “Pygeum Africanum (Bitter Almond).” In Pizzorno, J., et al. (Eds.) Textbook of Natural Medicine. 4th Ed., St. Louis: Elsevier, 2013.

Rakel, D., “Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.” In Rakel, D. Integrative Medicine. 3rd Ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier, 2012, p. 538-43.

Wahlqvist, M., et al., “Phytoestrogens: emerging in multifaceted plant compounds,” Med Jour Aust 1997; 167:119-20.

Yarnell, E., et al., Serenoa Repens (Saw Palmetto).” In Pizzorno, J., et al. (Eds.) Textbook of Natural Medicine. 4th Ed. St. Louis: Elsevier, 2013.

 

 

Cancer

Ames, B., et al., “Are vitamins and mineral deficiencies a major cancer risk?” Nat Rev Center 2002; 2:694.

Bradlow, H., et al., “Multifunctional aspects of the action of vitamin C as an antitumor agent,” Ann NY Acad Sci 1999; 869:204–13.

Clark, L., et al., “Decreased incidence of prostate cancer with selenium supplementation: results of a double-blind cancer prevention trial,” Brit Jour Urol 998; 81:730–34.

Clark, L., et al., “Effects of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in patients with carcinoma of the skin,” JAMA 1996; 276(24):1957–63.

Colgan, M., The New Nutrition.Vancouver, BC, Canada: Apple Publishing, 1995.

Cram, E., et al., “Indole-3-carbinol inhibits CDK6 expression in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells by disruption 5p1 transcription factor interactions with a composite element in the CDK6 gener promotor,” Jour Biol Chem 2001; 22:276(25):2332–34.

Crayhon, R., Designs For Health Institute’s Eating and Supplement Plans. Boulder, CO: Designs for Health Institute, 2000.

Giovanucci, E., et al., “Folate, methionine, and alcohol intake and risk of colorectal adenoma,” Jour Natl Cancer Inst1993 ; 85:875–84.

Giovannucci, E., et al., “Intake of carotenoids and retinal in relation to risk of prostate cancer,” Jour Natl Cancer Instit 1995; 87:1767–76.

Giovannucci, E., et al., “MVI use, folate and colon cancer in women,” Ann Int Med 1998; 129:517–24.

Heinonen, O., et al., “Prostate cancer and supplementation with alpha-tocophenols and beta-carotene: incidence and mortality in a controlled trial,” Jour Natl Cancer Inst 1998; 90(6):4400–46.

Kabat, G., et al., “Dietary intake of selected B vitamins in relation to risk of major cancers in women,” Brit Jour Cancer 2008, 99: 816-21.

Kucuk, O., “Phase II randomized clinical trial of lycopene supplementation before radical prostatectomy,” Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2001; 10(8):861–68.

Mason, J., et al., “Folate and colonic carcinogenesis: searching for a mechanistic understanding,” Jour Nutr Biochem 1994; 5:170–75.

Olson, K., et al., “Vitamins A and E: further clues for prostate cancer prevention,” Jour Natl Cancer Inst 1998; 90(6):414–15.

Overad, K., “Coenzyme Q10 in health and disease,” European Jour Clin Nutr 1999; 53(10):764–70.

Prasad, K., et al., “Vitamin E and cancer prevention: recent advances and future potentials,” Jour Amer Coll Nutr 1992; 11:487–500.

Tsao, S., et al., “Oxidant stress and B vitamins status in patients with non-small cell lung cancer,” Nutr Cancer 2007; 59: 8-13.

White, E., et al., “Relationship between vitamin and calcium supplement use and colon cancer,” Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1997; 6:769–74.

Willett, W., et al., “Nutrition and cancer: summary of the evidence,” Cancer Causes Control 1996; 7:178–80.

Wong, G., et al., “Dose-ranging study of indole-3-C for breast cancer prevention,” Jour Cell Biochem 1997; 28-29:111–16.

Xing, N., et al., “Quercein inhibits the expression and function of the androgen receptor in LCCaP prostate cancer cells,” Carcinogenesis 2002; 22(3):409–14.

 

Candidiasis

Anonymous. “Mucocutaneous fungal lesions and iron deficiency,” Nutr Rev 1976; 34:203.

Bergsson, G., et al., “In vitro killing of candida albicans by fatty acids and monoglycerides,” Antimicrobial Agents Chemother 2001; 45(11):3209-12.

Carson, C., et al., “Antimicrobial activity of the major components of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia,” Jour Appl Bacteriol 1995; 78(3):265-69.

Crayhon, R., Designs For Health Institute’s Eating and Supplement Plans. Boulder, CO: Designs for Health Institute, 2000.

D’Auria, F., et al., “Effect of propolis on virulence factors of Candida albicans,” Jour Chemother 2003; 15:454-60.

Dhamgaye, S., et al., “Molecular mechanisms of action of herbal antifungal alkaloid berberine, in Candida albicans,” PLoS ONE 2014; 9(8):e104554.

Ertekin, M., et al., “Effect of oral zinc supplementation on agents of oropharyngeal infection in patients receiving radiotherapy for head and neck cancer,” Jour Int Med Res 2003; 31:253-66.

Gaby, A., “Candidiasis (Candida-related Complex)” in Gaby, A., Nutritional Medicine. Concord, NH: Fritz Perlberg Publishing, 2017.

Galland, L., “Nutrition and candidiasis,” Jour Orthomolec Psychiatry 1985; 14:50-60.

Higgs, J., “Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis: iron deficiency and the effects of iron therapy,” Proc R Soc Med 1973; 66:802-04.

Jenkins, W., et al., “Nutritional deficiency in oral candidosis,” Int Jour Oral Surg 1977; 6:204-10.

Krantman, H., et al., “Immune function in pure iron deficiency” Amer Jour Dis Child 1982; 136:840-44.

Mahajan, V., et al., “Antimycotic activity of berberine sulphate. An alkaloid from an Indian medicinal herb,” Sabouraudia 1982; 20:79-81.

Moore, G., et al., “The fungicidal and fungistatic effects of an aqueous garlic extract on medically important yeast-like fungi,” Mycologia 1977; 69:341-48.

Ota, C., et al., “Antifungal activity of propolis on different species of Candida,” Mycoses 2001; 44:375-78.

Polizzi, B., et al., “Case report: successful treatment with cimetidine and zinc sulphate in chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis,” Amer Jour Med Sci 1996; 311:189-90.

Sadhu, D., et al., “Sensitivity of yeasts isolated from cases of vaginitis to aqueous extracts of garlic,” Mykosen 1980; 23:691-98.

Schrauzer, G., et al., “Selenium in the maintenance and therapy of HIV-infected patients,” Chem Biol Interact 1994; 91:199-205.

Shils, M., et al., “Selenium deficiency and immune functions in home TPN patients,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1983; 37:716.

Stepanovic, S., et al., In vitro antimicrobial activity of propolis and synergism between propolis and antimicrobial drugs,” Microbiol Res 2003; 158:353-57.

Stiles, J., et al., “The inhibition of Candida albicans by oregano,” Jour Appl Nutr 1995;47:96-102.

Sullivan, A., et al., “The place of probiotics in human intestinal infections,” Int Jour Antimicrob Agents 2002; 20:313-19.

Talpur, N., et al., “Medical herbal oils: antifungal effects of the edible oil of oregano,” Jour Amer Coll Nutr 2000; 19(5):689.

Vazquez, J., et al., “Efficacy of alcohol-based and alcohol-free Melaleuca oral solution for the treatment of fluconazole-refractory oropharyngeal candidiasis in patients with AIDS,” HIV Clin Trials 2002; 3:379-85.

Watson, C., The effects of oral garlic on vaginal candida colony counts: a randomized placebo controlled double-blind trial,” BJOG 2014; 121:498-506.

 

Cataracts

Anshel, J., What You Must Know About Food and Supplements for Optimal Vision Care. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers, 2015.

Babizhayeo, M., et al., “Efficacy of n-acetyl carnosine in the treatment of cataracts,” Drugs Res Develop 2002; 3(2):87–103.

Bouton, S., “Vitamin C and the aging eye,” Arch Intern Med 1939; 63:930-45.

Bravetti, G., “Preventive medical treatment of senile cataract with vitamin E and anthocyanosides,” Clinical evaluation,” Ann Ophthalmol Clin Ocul 1989; 115:109.

Brown, L., et al., “A prospective study of carotenoid intake and risk of cataract extraction in US men,” Amer Jour Nutr 1999; 70:517-24.

Chasan-Taber, L., et al., “A prospective study of carotenoid and vitamin A intakes and risk of cataract extraction in US women,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1999; 70:509-16.

Cumming, R., et al., “Diet and cataract: the blue mountains eye study,” Opthal 2000; 107(3):4505–06.

Giblin, F., et al., “Gluthione: a vital lens antioxidant,” Jour Ocul Pharmacol Ther 2000; 16(2):121–35.

Granado, F., et al., “Nutritional and clinical relevance of lutein in human health,” Brit Jour Nutr 2003; 90:487-502.

Head, K., et al., “Natural therapies for ocular disorders part two: cataracts and glaucoma,” Alt Med Rev 2001; 6:141–66.

Jacques, P., et al., “Long-term nutrient intake and early age-related nuclear lens opacities,” Arch Opath 2001; 119(7):1009-19.

Jacques, P., et al., “Long-term vitamin C supplement use: prevalence of early age-related lens opacities,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1997; 66:911–16.

Karakucuk, S., et al., “Selenium concentrations in serum, lens, and aqueous humour of patients with senile cataract,” Arch Ophthalmol Scand 1995; 73:329-32.

Kolosova, N., et al., “Comparison of antioxidants in the ability to prevent cataract in prematurely aging OXYS rats,” Bull Exp Biol Med 2004; 137(3):249-51.

Kuzniarz, M., et al., “Use of vitamin supplements and cataract: The Blue Mountains Eye Study,” Amer Jour Ophthalmol 2000; 118:1556-63.

Lyle, B., et al., “Antioxidant intake and risk of incident age-related nuclear cataracts in the Beaver Dame Eye Study,” Amer Jour Epidemiol 1999; 149:801-09.

Ma, L., et al., “A dose-response meta-analysis of dietary lutein and zeaxanthin intake in relation to risk of age-related cataract,” Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2014; 252(1):63-70.

Mares-Perlman, J., et al., “Vitamin supplement use and incident cataracts in population-based study,” Arch Ophtalmol 2000; 118(11):1556-63.

Murray, M., et al., “Senile Cataracts.” In Pizzorno, J., et al. (Eds.) Textbook of Natural Medicine. 3rd Ed., St Louis: Elsevier.

Olmedilla, B., et al., “Lutein, but not alpha-tocopherol, supplementation improves visual function in patients with age-related cataracts: a 2-year double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study,” Nutrition 2003; 19:21-24.

Olmedilla, B., et al., “Serum status of carotenoids and tocopherols in patients with age-related cataracts: a case-control study,” JourNutr Health Aging 2002; 6(1):66–8.

“Preserving Clear Vision.” Life Extension Feb 2003.

Quinn, P., et al., “Carosine: its properties, functions and potential therapeutic applications,” Mol Aspects Med 1992; 13(5):379–444.

Rathbun, W., “Influence on lenticular glutathione research,” Ophthalmic Res 1995; 27(Suppl 1):13-17.

Rathbun, W., et al., “Glutathione metabolic pathway as a scavenging system in the lens,” Ophthalmic Res 1979; 11:172-76.

Ringvold, A., et al., “Senile cataract and ascorbic acid loading,” Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) 1985; 63:277-80.

Robertson, J., et al., “A possible role for vitamins C and E in cataract prevention,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1991; 53:346S–351S.

Robertson, J., et al., “Vitamin E intake and risk of cataract in humans,” Ann NY Acad Sci 1993; 372–82.

Rose, M., et al., Save Your Eyesight. New York: Warner Books, 1998.

Skalka, H., et al., “Cataracts and riboflavin deficiency,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1981; 34:861-63.

Taylor, A., et al., “Long-term intake of vitamins and carotenoids and odds of early age-related cortical posterior subcapsular lens opacities,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2002; 75(3):540–49.

Valero, M., et al., “Vitamin C is associated with reduced risk of cataract in a Mediterranean population,” Jour Nutr 2002; 132:1299-1306.

Varma, S., et al., “Diabetic cataracts and flavonoids,” Science 1977; 195(4274):205-06.

Varma, S., et al., “Scientific basis for medial therapy of cataracts by antioxidants,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1991; 53:335S–345S.

Vu, H., et al, “Lutein and zeaxanthin and the risk of cataract: the Melbourne visual impairment project,” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2006; 47(9):3783-86.

Wang, A., et al., “Use of carnosine as a natural anti-senescence drug from human beings,” Biochem 2000; 65(7)869–71.

Whanger, P., et al., “Effects of selenium, chromium, and antioxidants on growth, eye cataracts, plasma cholesterol and blood glucose in selenium deficient, vitamin E supplemented rats,” Nutr Rep Int 1975; 12:345-58.

 

Cervical Cancer/Cervical Dysplasia

Ahn, W., et al., “Protective effects of green tea extracts (polyphenon E and EGCG) on human cervical lesions,” Eur Jour Cancer Prev 2003; 12(5):383-90.

Bell, M., et al., “Placebo-controlled trial of indole-3-carbinol in the treatment of CIN,” Gynecol Oncol 2000; 78:123-29.

Bosch, E., et al., Natural Standard Herb and Supplement Reference: Evidence-Based Clinical Reviews. St. Louis: Mosby, 2005.

Butterworth, J., et al., “Folate deficiency and cervical dysplasia,” JAMA 1992; 267:528-33.

Butterworth, J., et al., “Improvement in cervical dysplasia associated with folic acid therapy in users of oral contraceptives,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1982; 35:73-82.

Butterworth, J., et al., “Oral folic acid supplementation for cervical dysplasia: a clinical intervention trial,” Amer Jour Obstet Gynecol 1992; 166:803-09.

Clarke, E., et al., “Cervical dysplasia: association with sexual behavior, smoking, and oral contraceptive use?” Amer Jour Obstet Gynecol 1985; 151:612-16.

Dawson, E., et al., “Serum vitamin and selenium changes in cervical dysplasia,” Fed Proc 1984; 43:612.

de Vet, H., et al., “The effect of beta-carotene on the regression and progression of cervical dysplasia: a clinical experiment,” Jour Clin Epidemol 1991; 44:273-83.

Del, P., et al., “Oral diindolylmethane (DIM): pilot evaluation of a nonsurgical treatment for cervical dysplasia,” Gynecol Oncol 2010; 116 (3):464-67.

ESCOP, EDCOP Monograhs: The Scientific Foundation for Herbal Medicinal Products. Stuggart: Thieme, 2003.

Fairley, C., et al., “A randomized clinical trial of beta-carotene vs. placebo for the treatment of cervical HPV infections,” Jour Gynecol Cancer 1996; 6:225-30.

Flatley, J., et al., “Folate status and aberrant DNA methylation are associated with HPV infection and cervical pathogenesis,” Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009; 18(10):2782-89.

Hale, I., et al., “Proteinase activity and stability of natural bromelain preparations,” Int Immunopharmacol 2005; 5(4):783-93.

Hamburger, M., et al., “Preparative purification of the major anti-inflammatory triterpenoid esters from Marigold (Calendula officinalis),” Fitoterapia 2003; (74(4):328-339.

Harper, J., et al., “Erythrocyte folate levels, oral contraceptive use and abnormal cervical cytology,” Acta Cytol 1994; 38:324-30.

Hudson, T., “Consecutive case study research of carcinoma in situ of cervix employing local escharotic treatment combined with nutritional therapy,” Jour Naturopath Med 1991; 2:6-10.

Hudson, T., and Murray, M., “Cervical Dysplasia.” In Pizzorro, J., et al. (Eds.) Textbook of Natural Medicine. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingston/Elsevier, 2013.

Hwang, B., et al., “Antimicrobal constituents from goldenseal (the Rhizomes of Hydrastis canadensis) against selected oral pathogens,” Planta Med 2003; 69(7):623-27.

Hwang, J., et al., “Dietary supplements reduce the risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia,” Inter Jour Gyn Cancer 2010; 20(3):398-403.

Keefe, K., et al., “A randomized, double blind, phase III trial using oral beta-carotene supplementation for women with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia,” Cancer Epid 2001; 10:1029-35.

La Vecchia, C., et al., “Dietary vitamin A and the risk of invasive cervical cancer,” Inter Jour Cancer 1984; 34:319-22.

Lai, P., et al., “Antimicrobial and chemopreventive properties of herbs and spices,” Curr Med Chem 2004; 11(11):1451-60.

Liu, T., et al., “A longitudinal analysis of human papilloma virus 16 infection, nutritional status, and cervical dysplasia progression,” Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1995; 4:373-80.

Low-Dog, T., Women’s Health in Complementary and Integrative Medicine: A Clinical Guide. St Louise: Elsevier, 2004.

Mackerras, D., et al., “Randomized double-blind trial of beta-carotene and vitamin C in women with minor cervical abnormalities,” Brit Jour Cancer 1999; 79:1448-53.

Marshall, J., et al., “Diet and smoking in the epidemiology of cancer of the cervix,” Jour Natl Cancer Inst 1983; 70:847-51.

McCutcheson, A., et al., “Antiviral screening of British Columbian medicinal plants,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 1995; 49(2):101-10.

Meyskens, J., et al., “Enhancement of regression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia II (moderate dysplasia) with topically applied all-trans-retinoic acid: a randomized trial,” Jour Natl Cancer Inst 1994; 86:539-43.

Nascimento, G., et al., “Antibacterial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals on antibiotic-resistant bacteria,” Brazilian Jour Microbiol 2000; 31(4):247-56.

Newfield, L., et al., “Estrogen metabolism and human papillomavirus-induced tumors of the larynx: chemo-prophylaxis with indole-3-carbinol,” Anticancer Res 1993; 13:337-41.

Okimasu, E., et al., “Inhibition of phospholipase A2 and platelet aggregation by glycyrrhizin, an anti-inflammatory drug,” Acta Med Okayama 1983; 37:355-91.

Patterson, B., et al., “Naturally occurring selenium compounds in cancer chemoprevention trials: a workshop summary,” Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1997; 6:63-69.

Pelleter, O., et al., “Vitamin C and tobacco,” Int Jour Vitam Nutr Res 1977; 16:147-69.

Piyathilake, C., et al., “Lower risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in women with high plasma folate and sufficient vitamin B12 in the post-folic acid fortification era,” Cancer Prev Res 2009; 2(7):658-64.

Ramaswamy, P., et al., “Vitamin B6 status in patients with cancer of the uterine cervix,” Nutr Cancer 1984; 6:176-80.

Romm, A., et al., “Conditions of the Reproductive Organs.” In Romm, A., Botanical Medicine for Women’s Health. St. Louis: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier, 2010.

Romney, S., et al., “Effects of beta-carotene and other factors on outcome of cervical dysplasia and human papillomavirus infection,” Gynecol Oncol 1997; 65:483-92.

Romney, S., et al., “Retinoids and the prevention of cervical dysplasias,” Amer Jour Obstet Gynecol 1981; 141:890-94.

Romney, S., et al., “Nutrients antioxidants in the pathogenesis and prevention of cervical dysplasias and cancer,” Jour Cell Biochem 1995; 23(Suppl):96-103.

Romney, S., et al., “Plasma vitamin C and uterine cervical dysplasia,” Amer Jour Obstet Gynecol 1985; 151:978-80.

Sah, J., et al., “Epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway: evidence for direct inhibition of ERK1/2 and AKT kinases,” Jour Biol Chem 2004; 26:279(13):12755-62.

Scazzocchio, F., et al., “Antibacterial activity of Hydrastis canadensis extract and its major isolated alkaloids,” Planta Medica 2001; 67(6):561-64.

Sedgo, R., et al., “Vitamin A, carotenoids, and risk of persistent oncogenic human papillomavirus infection,” Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prevent 2002; 11(9):876-84.

Tomita, L., et al., “Diet and serum micronutrients in relation to cervical neoplasia and cancer among low-income Brazilian women,” Int Jour Cancer 2009; 126:703-14.

Villinski, J., et al., “Antibacterial activity and alkaloid content of Berberis thunbergii, Berberis vulgaris, and Hydrastis canadensis,” Pharm Biol 2003; 41(8):551-57.

Wassertheil-Smoiler, S., et al., “Dietary vitamin C and uterine cervical dysplasia,” Amer Jour Epidemiol 1981; 114:714-24.

Webb, J., “Nutritional effects of oral contraceptive use,” Jour Repro Med 1980; 25(4):150-56.

Whitehead, N., et al., “Megaloblastic changes in the cervical epithelium: association with oral contraceptive therapy and reversal with folic acid,” JAMA 1973; 226:1421-24.

Wichtl, M., Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticas: A Handbook for Practice on a Scientific Basis. 4th Ed. Stuttgart: Medpharm. 2004.

Wylie-Rosett, J., et al., “Influence of vitamin A on cervical dysplasia and carcinoma in situ,” Nutr Cancer 1984; 6:49-57.

 

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Behan, P., et al., “Effect of high doses of essential fatty acids on the post viral fatigue syndrome,” ACTA Neurologic Scand 1990; 87(3):209–16.

Bested, A., Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Fibromyalgia. Nashville, TN: Cumberland House, 2006.

Bralley, J., et al., “Treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome with specific amino acid supplementation,” Jour App Nutr 1994; 46(3):74–8.

Castro-Marrero, J., et al., “Effect of coenzyme Q10 plus nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide supplementation on maximum heart rate after exercise testing in chronic fatigue syndrome—A randomized, controlled, double-blind trial,” Clin Nutr 2016; 35(4):826-34.

Crayhon, R., Designs For Health Institute’s Eating and Supplement Plans. Boulder, CO: Designs for Health Institute, 2000.

Dalakas, M., et al., “Zidovadine-induced mitochondrial myopathy is associated with muscle carnitine deficiency and lipid storage,” Ann Neurol 1994; 35(4):482–87.

Demitrack, M. et al., “Chronic fatigue syndrome: a disease of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis?” Ann Med 1994; 26:1-3.

Demitrack, M., et al., “Evidence for impaired activation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome,” Jour Clin Endocrinol Metabol 1991; 73:1224-34.

Flatarone, M., et al., “The effect of exercise on natural killer cell activity in young and old subjects,” Jour Gerontol 1989; 44:M37-45.

Forsyth, L., et al., “Therapeutic effect of oral NADH on the symptoms of patients with chronic fatigue syndrome,” Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1999; 82:185–91.

Hawkes, K., Breakthroughs in Managing Chronic Pain & Fibromyalgia. Gig Harbor, WA: Metagenics Educational Programs, 2002.

Juhl, J., et al., “Fibrobyalgia and the serotonin pathway,” Altern Med Rev 1998; 3:367–75.

Kury, P., et al., “The effect of prostaglandin E1 and E2 on the human erythrocyte as monitored by spin labels,” Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1974; 56:478-83.

Land, L., et al., “Antioxidative effective effective of ubiquinines on mitochondrial membranes,” Biochem Jour 1984; 222:463–66.

Lundell, K., et al., “Clinical activity of folinic acid in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome,” Arzneimittelforschung 2006; 56:399-404.

Maddock, J., et al., “Biological properties of acetyl cysteine: assay development and pharmacokinetic studies,” Eur Jour Respir Dis 1980; 61(Suppl 111):52–8.

Morris, G., et al., “Coenzyme Q10 depletion in medical and neuropsychiatric disorders: potential repercussions and therapeutic implications,” Mol NeuroBiol 2013; 48(3):803-903.

Murray, M., “Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.” In Murray, M., Textbook of Natural Medicine. 3rd Ed., Vol 2, St. Louis, MO: Churchill Livingstone, 2006.

Nicolson, G., “Mitochondrial dysfunction and chronic disease: treatment with natural supplements,” Alter Ther Health Med 2014; 20(Suppl 1):18-25.

Nies, K., et al., “Treatment of the fibromyalgia syndrome,” Jour Musculoskel Med 1992; 9(5):20–6.

Packer, L., et al., “Alpha-lipoic acid as a biological antioxidant,” Free Rad Biol Med 1995; 19(2):227–50.

Pittler, M., et al., “Hawthorn extract for treating chronic heart failure: meta-analysis of randomized trials,” Amer Jour Med 2003; 114(8):665-74.

Plioplys, A., et al., “Electron-microscopic investigation of muscle mitochondria in chronic fatigue syndrome,” Neuropsycholbiol 1995; 32:175–81.     

Plioplys, A., et al., “Serum levels of carnitine in chronic fatigue syndrome: clinical correlates,” Neuropsycholbiol 1995; 32:132–38.

Rao, A., et al., “A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of a probiotic in emotional symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome,” Gut Path 2009; 1:6.

Rigden, S., et al., “Evaluation of the effect of a modified entero-hepatic resuscitation program in chronic fatigue syndrome patients,” Jour Adv Med  1998; 11(4):247–62.

Romano, T., et al., “Magnesium deficiency in fibromyalgia syndrome,” Jour Nutr Med 1994; 4:165-67.

Teitelbaum, J., et al., “The use of D-ribose in chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia: a pilot study,” (Abstract). Jour Altern Complement Med 2006; 12 (9):857-62.

Werbach, M., “Nutritional strategies for treating chronic fatigue syndrome,” Altern Med Rev 2000; 5(2):93-108.

 

Closed Head Injury

Crayhon, R., “Nutritional Medicine Update,” Seminar, 2003.

Gordon, M., Traumatic Brain Injury: A Clinical Approach to Diagnosis and Treatment. Encino, CA: Millennium Health Centers, 2016.

Erdman, J., Oria, M., Pillsbury, L., (Eds.), Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Nutrition, Trauma, and the Brain. Nutrition and Traumatic Brain Injury: Improving Acute and Subacute health Outcomes in Military Personnel. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2011.

Young B., et al., “Zinc supplementation is associated with improved neurologic recovery rate and visceral protein levels of patients with severe closed head injury,” Jour Neurotrauma 2009; 13(1).

 

Common Cold

Bukutu C., et al., “Complementary, holistic, and integrative medicine: The common cold,” Pediatr Rev 2008; 29(12):e66-e71.

Das, R., e tal., “Zinc for the common cold,” JAMA 2014; 311(14):1440-41.

Hemila, H., et al., “Vitamin C for preventing and treating the common cold,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013; 1:CD000980.

Karsch-Volk, M., et al., “Echinacea for preventing and treating the common cold,” JAMA 2015; 313(6):618-19.

Linde, K., et al., “Echinacea for preventing and treating the common cold,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006; 25;(1):CD000530.

Mousa, H., “Prevention and treatment of influenza, influenza-like illness, and common cold by herbal, complementary, and natural therapies,” Jour Evid Based Complementary Alter Med 2017; 22(1):166-74.

Nahas, R., “Complementary and alternative medicine for prevention and treatment of the common cold,” Can Fam Physician 2011; 57(1):31-6.

Ran, L., et al., “Extra dose of vitamin C based on a daily supplementation shortens the common cold: A meta-analysis of 9 randomized controlled trials,” Biomed Res Int 2018; Jul 5; 2018:1837634.

 

Congestive Heart Failure

Aquilani, R., et al., “Oral amino acid supplements improve exercise capacities in elderly patients with chronic heart failure,” Amer Jour Cardiol 2008; 101(Suppl):104E-110E.

Azuma, J,, et al., “Double-blind randomized cross-over trial of taurine in congestive heart failure,” Curr Ther Res 1983; 34(4):543–57.

Azuma, J., et al., “Therapeutic effect of taurine in congestive heart failure: A double-blind crossover trial,” Clin Cardiol 1985; 8:276–82.

Baggio, E., et al., “Italian multicenter study on the safety and efficacy of coenzyme Q10. Drug Surveillance Investigators,” Mol Aspects Med 1994; 15:S287-S294.

Bashir, Y., et al., “Effects of long-term oral magnesium chloride replacement in congestive heart failure secondary to coronary artery disease,” Amer Jour Cardiol 1993; 72:1156-62.

Bayram, M., et al., “D-Ribose aids heart failure patients with preserved ejection fraction and diastolic dysfunction: a pilot study,” Ther Adv Cardiovasc Dis 2015; 9(3):56-65.

Berman, M., et al., “Coenzyme Q10 in patients with end-stage heart failure awaiting cardiac transplantation: a randomized, placebo-controlled study,” Clin Cardiol 2004; 217:295-99.

Brody, J., et al., “Folic acid deficiency in congestive heart failure,” Brit Heart Jour 1969; 31:741-44.

Caponnetto, S., et al., “Efficacy of L-propionyl-carnitine treatment in patients with left ventricular dysfunction,” Eur Hear Jour 1994; 15:1267-73.

Cohen, N., et al., “Metabolic and clinical effects of oral magnesium supplementation in furosemide-treated patients with severe congestive heart failure,” Clin Cardiol 2000; 23(6):433–36.

Cohen, N., et al., “Serum magnesium aberrations in furosemide (frusemide) treated patients with congestive heart failure: pathophysiological correlates and prognostic evaluation,” Heart 2003; 89:411-16.

Dzugan, S., “Natural Approaches in the treatment of congestive heart failure,” Life Extension 2003.

Folkers, K., et al., “Biochemical rationale and myocardial tissue data on the effective therapy of cardiomyopathy with coenzyme Q-10,” Proc Natl Acad Sci 1985; 82:901-04.

Ford, J., et al., “Cardiovascular disease and vitamin D supplementation: trial analysis, systematic review, and meta-analysis,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2014; 100:746-55.

Frandsen, E., “Gastric achylia and so-called B-hypovitaminotic symptoms in cardiac disease,” Acta Med Scand 1949; 135:381-90.

Fugh-Berman, A., et al., “Herbs and dietary supplements in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease,” Prev Cardiol 2000; 3(1):24–32.

Furbetta, D., et al., “Behavior of hydrochloric acid secretion in cardiopathies,” JAMA 1951; 146:1615.

Gaby, A., Congestive Heart Failure and Dilated Cardiomyopathy In Gaby, A., Nutritional Therapy. 2nd Ed. Concord, NH, Fritz Perlberg Publishing, 2017.

Gavagan, T., et al., “Cardiovascular disease,” Prim Care 2002; 29(2):323–38.

Gottlieb, S., et al., “Does intravenous magnesium sulfate decrease arrhythmia frequency in CHF,” Circulation 1991; 84(Suppl II):11-59.

Huxtable, R., “Regulation of taurine in the heart.” In Barbeau, A., Huxtable R., (Eds.). Taurine and Neurological Disorders. New York: Raven Press, 1978; 5-17.

Hyde, R., et al., “Folic acid malabsorption in cardiac failure,” Gut 1968; 9:717-21.

Ikram, H., et al., “The role of selenium deficiency in occidental dilated cardiomyopathy,” NZ Med Jour 1989; 102:100-02.

Investigators of the Study on Propionyl-L-carnitine in Chronic Heart Failure. Study on propionyl-L-carnitine in chronic heart failure,” Eur Heart Jour 1999; 20:70-6.

Keith, M., et al., “B vitamin deficiency in hospitalized patients with heart failure,” Jour Amer Diet Assoc 2009; 109:1406-10.

Langsjoen, P., et al., “Long-term efficacy and effects of coenzyme Q10 therapy for idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy,” Amer Jour Cardiol 1990; 65:521–23.

Langsjoen, P., et al., “Pronounced increase of survival of patients with cardiomyopathy when treated with coenzyme Q10 and conventional therapy,” Int Jour Tissu Reac 1990; 12:163–68.

Langsjoen P., et al., “Supplemental in patients with advanced congestive heart failure,” Biofactors 2008; 32:119-28.

Leslie, D., et al., “Is there a role for thiamine supplementation in the management of heart failure?” Amer Hear Jour 1996; 131:1248-50.

Lombardi, C., et al., “Effects of oral administration of orodispersible levo-carnosine on quality of life and exercise performance in patients with chronic heart failure,” Nutrition 2015; 31:72-8.

Mancini, M., et al., “Controlled study on the therapeutic efficacy of propionyl-L-carnitine in patients with congestive heart failure,” Arzneimittelforshung 1992; 42:1101-04.

Mendoza, C., et al., “Reversal of refractory congestive heart failure after thiamine supplementation: report of a case and review of literature,” Jour Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 2003; 8:313-16.

Mereles, D., et al., “Effects of the main green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate on cardiac involvement in patients with AL amyloidosis,” Clin Res Cardiol 2010; 99:483-90.

Moerti, D., et al., “Dose-dependent effects of omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids on systolic left ventricular function, endothelial function, and markers of inflammation in chronic heart failure of nonischemic origin: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-arm study,” Amer Heart Jour 2011; 161:915:e1915.e9.

Morelli, V., et al., “Alternative therapies: part II, congestive Heart failure and hypercholesterolemia,” Amer Fam Physician 2000; 62(6):1325–30.

Morisco, C., et al., “Effect of coenzyme Q10 in patients with congestive heart failure: a long-term multicenter randomized study,” Clin Investig 1993; 71:S134-S136.

Mortensen, S., et al., “The effect of coenzyme Q10 on morbidity and mortality in chronic heart failure. Results from Q-SYMBIO: a randomized double-blind trial,” JACC Heart Fail 2014; 2:641-49.

Murray, M., Congestive Heart Failure. In Pizzorno J., Murray, M., Textbook of Natural Medicine. St Louis: Elsevier, 2013.

Nodari, S., et al., “Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on left ventricular function and functional capacity in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy,” Jour Amer Coll Cardiol 2011; 57:870-79.

Oladapo, O., et al., “Serum and urinary magnesium during treatment of patients with chronic congestive heart failure,” Afr Jour Med Med Sci 2000; 29:301-03.

Pittler, M., et al., “Hawthorn extract for treating chronic heart failure: meta-analysis of randomized trials,” Amer Jour Med 2003; 114:665-74.

Poggesi, L., et al., “Effect of coenzyme Q10 on left ventricular function in patients with dilative cardiomyopathy. A medium-term randomized double-blind study versus placebo,” Curr Ther Res 1991; 49:878-86.

Pucciarelli, G., et al., “The clinical and hemodynamic effects of propionyl-l-carnitine in the treatment of congestive heart failure,” Clin Ther 1992; 141(11):379–84.        

Raab, W., “Myocardial electrolytes derangement: crucial feature of pluri-casual, so-called coronary, heart disease,” Ann NY Acad Sci 1969; 147:629-86.

Rector, T., et al., “Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of supplemental oral L-arginine in patients with heart failure,” Circulation 1996; 93:2135-41.

Rizos, I., “Three-year survival of patients with heart failure caused by dilated cardiomyopathy and L-carnitine administration,” Amer Hear Jour 2000; 139(2 Pt 3):S120-S123.

Schaffer, S., et al., “Interaction between the actions of taurine and angiotension II,” Amino Acids 2000; 18(4):305–18.

Schmidt, U., et al., “Efficacy of the hawthorn (crataegus) preparation, LI 132 in 78 patients with chronic congestive heart failure defined as NYHA functional class II,” Phytomedicine 1994; 1:17–24.

Schulman, S., et al., “L-arginine therapy in acute myocardial infarction: the Vascular Interaction With Age in Myocardial Infarction (VINTAGE MI) randomized clinical trial,” JAMA 2006; 295:58-64.

Sole, M., et al., “Conditioned nutritional requirements and the pathogenesis and treatment of myocardial failure,” Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metabolic Care 2000; 3(6):417–24.

Song, X., et al., “Efficacy and safety of L-carnitine treatment for chronic heart failure: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials,” Biomed Res Intern 2017; Article ID: 6274854.

Stepura, O., et al., “Magnesium orotate in severe congestive heart failure(MACH),” Inter Jour Cardiol 2009; 131:293-95.

Sueta, C., et al., “Effect of acute magnesium administration on the frequency of ventricular arrhythmia in patients with heart failure,” Circulation 1994; 89:660-66.

Tran, M., et al., “Role of coenzyme Q10 in clinical heart failure, angina, systolic hypertension,” Pharmacotherapy 2001; 7:797–806.

Trauchert, M., “Efficacy and safety of crataegus extract WS 1442 in comparison with placebo in patients with chronic stable New York Heart Association class-III heart failure,” Amer Heart Jour 2002; 143:910-15.

Wester, P., et al., “Intracellular electrolytes in cardiac failure,” Acta Med Scand 1986; Suppl 207:33-6.

Witte, K., et al., “The effect of micronutrient supplementation on quality-of-life and left ventricular function in elderly patients with chronic heart failure,” Eur Heart Jour 2005; 26:2238-44.

Yuan, L., et al., “Correlation of selenium, glutathione peroxidase activity and lipoperoxidation rates in dilated cardiomyopathy,” Clin Med Jour 1989; 102:670-71.

 

Crohn’s Disease

Aghdassi, E., et al., “Antioxidant vitamin supplementation in Crohn’s disease decreases oxidative stress: a randomized controlled trial,” Amer Jour Gastroenterol 2003; 98:348-53.

Animashaun, A., et al., “The effect of zinc and vitamin C supplementation on the immune status of patients with Crohn’s disease,” Clin Nutri 1990; 9:137-46.

Belluzzi, A., et al., “Effect of an enteric coated fish-oil preparation or relapses in Crohn’s disease,” NEJM 1996; 334(24):1557–60.

Bermejo, F., et al., “Should we monitor vitamin B12 and folate levels in Crohn’s disease patietns?” Scand Jour Gastroenterol 2013; 48:1272-77.

Calder, P., et al., “N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cytokine production in health and disease,” Ann Nutr Metab 1997; 41(4):203–34.

Camilo, M., et al., “Vitamin A and zinc in inflammatory bowel disease,” Scand Jour Gastroenterol 1982; 78(Suppl):357.

Chowers, Y., et al., “Increased levels of homocysteine in patients with Crohn’s disease are related to folate levels,” Amer Jour Gastroenterol 2000; 95:3498-3502.

Crayhon, R.,  Designs For Health Institute’s Eating and Supplement Plans. Boulder, CO: Designs for Health Institute, 2000.

Di Sabatino, A., et al., “Oral butyrate for mildly to moderately active Crohn’s disease,” Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2005; 22:789-94.

Feagan, B., et al., “Omega-3 fatty acids for the maintenance of remission in Crohn disease: the EPIC Randomized Controlled Trials,” JAMA 2008; 299:1690-99.

Fernandes, G., et al., “Dietary lipids and risk of autoimmune disease,” Clin Immunopathol 1994; 72(2):193–97.

Fleming, C., et al., “Zinc nutrition in Crohn’s disease,” Dig Dis Sci 1981; 26:865-70.

Gaby, A., “Crohn’s Disease.” In Nutritional Medicine. 2nd Ed., Concord, NH: Fritz Perlberg Publishing, 2017.

Gasche, C., et al., “Iron, anaemia, and inflammatory bowel diseases,” Gut 2004; 53:1190-97.

Gerhardt, H., et al., “Therapy of active Crohn disease with Boswellia serrata extract H 15,” Z Gastroenterol 2001; 39(1):11-7.

Gerlach, K., et al., “Symptomatic hypomagnesemia complicating regional enteritis,” Gastroenterology 1970; 59:567-74.

Goldin, B., et al., “Health benefits of probiotics,” Brit Jour Nutr 1998; 80(4):S203–S207.

Guandalini, S., “Use of Lactobacillus-GG in paediatric Crohn’s disease,” Dig Liver Dis 2002; 34(Suppl 2):S63-S65.

Gupta, P., et al., “Is lactobacillus GG helpful in children with Crohn’s disease? Results of a preliminary, open-label study,” Jour Paediatr Gastroenterol Nutri 2000; 31:453-57.

Guslandi, M., et al., “Saccharomyces boulardii in maintenance treatment of Crohn’s disease,” Dig Dis Sci 2000; 45:1462-64.

Hessov, I., et al., “Magnesium deficiency after ileal resection for Crohn’s disease,” Scand Jour Gastroenterol 1983; 18:643-49.

Hinks, L., et al., “Reduced concentrations of selenium in mild Crohn’s disease,” Jour Clin Pathol 1988; 41:198-201.

Hoffbrand, A., et al., “Folate deficiency in Crohn’s disease: incidence, pathogenesis, and treatment,” BMJ 1986; 2:71-5.

Holt, P., et al., “Curcumin therapy in inflammatory bowel disease: a pilot study,” Dig Dis Sci 2005; 50:2191-93.

Hughes, R., et al., “Leukocyte ascorbic acid in Crohn’s disease,” Digestion 1978; 17:272-74.

Imes, S., et al., “Vitamin C status in 137 outpatients with Crohn’s disease,” Jour Clin Gastroenterol 1986; 8:443-46.

Jobin, C., et al., “Curcumin blocks cytokine-mediated NK-kappa B activation and proinflammatory gene expression by inhibiting inhibitory factor 1-kappa B kinase activity,” Jour Immunol 1999; 163(6):3474-83.

Johansson, C., et al., “Tryptophan concentration in serum of patients with regional enteritis: it’s possible relation to depression,” Acta Med Scand 1973; 194:551-52.

Jorgensen, S., et al., “Clinical trial: vitamin D3 treatment in Crohn’s disease—a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study,” Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2010; 32:377-83.

Lambert, D., et al., “Crohn’s disease and vitamin B12 metabolism,” Dig Dis Sci 1996; 41:1417-22.

Lanfranchi, G., et al., “Serum zinc concentrations in Crohn’s disease,” Dig Dis Sci 1982; 27:1141-42.

Lavy As., et al., “Deficiency of water-soluble vitamins in Crohn’s disease,” Dig Dis Sci 1995; 40:2549.

Lehr, L., et al., “Total body potassium depletion and the need for preoperative nutritional support in Crohn’s disease,” Ann Surg 1982; 196:709-14.

Lorenz-Meyer, H., et al., “Omega-3 fatty acids and low carbohydrate diet for maintenance of remission in Crohn’s disease. A randomized controlled multicenter trial,” Scand Jour Gastroenterol 1996; 31:778-85.

Lukaczer, D., “Gastroenterology, part II: gastrointestinal disorders: clinical applications using the functional medicine perspective,” Applying Functional Medicine in Clinical Practice. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 2002.

Main, A., et al., “Clinical experience of zinc supplementation during intravenous nutrition in Crohn’s disease: value of serum and urine zinc measurements,” Gut 1982; 23:984-91.

Main, A., et al., “Magnesium deficiency in chronic inflammatory bowel disease and requirements during intravenous nutrition,” Jour Parent Enteral Nutri 1981; 5:15-9.

Mullin, G., Inflammatory Bowel Disease In Pizzorno, J., Murray, M., (Eds.) Textbook of Natural Medicine. 4th Ed. St. Louis: Elsevier, 2013.

Myung, S., et al., “Zinc deficiency manifested by dermatitis and visual dysfunction in a patient with Crohn’s disease,” Jour Gastroenterol 1998; 33:876-79.

Novak, J., et al., “Prevalence and correlates of vitamin K deficiency in children with inflammatory bowel disease,” Sci Rep 2014; 4:4768.

Pettit, S., et al., “Ascorbic acid absorption in Crohn’s disease. Studies using L-[carboxyl-14C] ascorbic acid,” Dig Dis Sci 1989; 34:559-66.

Plein, K., et al., “Therapeutic effects of Saccharomyces boulardii on mold residual symptoms in a stable phase of Crohn’s disease with special respect to chronic diarrhea—a pilot study,” Z Gastroenterol 1993; 31:129-34.

Robinson, D., et al., “Suppression of autoimmune disease by dietary n-3 fatty acids,”Jour Lipid Res 1993; 34(8):1435–44.

Romagnuolo, J., et al., “Hyperhomocystememia and inflammatory bowel disease: prevalence and predictors in a cross-sectional study,” Amer Jour Gastroenterol 2001; 96:2143-49.

Rosenberg, I., et al., “Nutritional aspects of inflammatory bowel disease,” Ann Rev Nutri 1985; 5:463-84.

Saibeni, S., et al., “Low vitamin B6 plasma levels, a risk factor for thrombosis, in inflammatory bowel disease: role of inflammation and correlation with acute phase reactants,” Amer Jour Gastroenterol 2003; 98:112-17.

Schuette, S., et al., “Bioavailability of Mg glycinate versus MgO in Crohn’s disease patients with ileal resection,” Magnes Trace Elem 1990; 9:332.

Sentongo, T., et al., “Vitamin D status in children, adolescents, and young adults with Crohn disease,” Amer Jour Clin Nutri 2002; 76:1077-81.

Shoda, R., et al., “Therapeutic efficacy of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in experimental Crohn’s disease,” Jour Gastroenter 1995; 30 (Suppl 8):98–101.

Siguel, E., et al., “Prevalence of essential fatty acid deficiency in patients with chronic gastrointestinal disorders,” Metabolism 1996; 45:12-23.

Skogh, M., et al., “Vitamin A in Crohn’s disease,” Lancet 1980; 1:766.

Soares-Mota, M., et al., “High prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in Crohn’s disease patients according to serum retinol levels and the relative dose-response test,” World Jour Gastroenterol 2015; 21:1614-20.

Solomons, N., et al., “Zinc deficiency in Crohn’s disease,” Digestion 1977; 16:87-95.

Souba, W., et al., “The role of glutamine in maintaining a healthy gut and supporting the metabolic response to injury and infection.” Jour Surgical Res 1990; 48:383–91.

Sturniolo, G., et al., “Zinc absorption in Crohn’s disease,” Gut 1980; 21:387-91.

Suibhne, T., et al., “Vitamin D deficiency in Crohn’s disease: prevalence, risk factors and supplement use in an outpatient setting,” Jour Crohns Colitis 2012; 6:182-88.

van der Hulst, R., et al., “Glutamine and the preservation of gut integrity,” Lancet 1993; 341:1363-65. 

 

Depression

Amani, R., et al., “Correlation between dietary zinc intakes and its serum levels with depression scales in young female students,” Biol Trace Elem Res 2010; 137:150–58.

Birdsall, T., et al., “5-hydroxytrytophan: a clinically-effective serotonin precursor,” Alter Med Rev 1998; 3(4):271–80.

Bottiglieri, T., et al., “Folate, vitamin B12, and neuropsychiatric disorders,” Nutr Rev 1996; 54(12):383–90.

Conner, T., et al., “Optimal serum selenium concentrations are associated with lower depressive symptoms and negative mood among young adults,” Jour Nutr 2014; 145:59–65.

Copper, A., et al., “Enhancement of the antidepressant action of fluoxetine by folic acid: a randomized placebo controlled trial,” Jour Affective Dis 2000; 60:121–30.

Crayhon, R., Designs for Health Institute’s Eating and Supplement Plans. Boulder, CO: Designs for Health Institute, 2000.

Criconia, A., et al., “Results of treatment with S-adenosyl-L-methioione in patients with major depression and internal illness,” Curr Ther Res 1994; 55:666-74.

Edwards, R., et al., “Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids levels in the diet and RBC membranes of depressed patients,” Jour Affective Dis 1998; 48:149–55.

Ekramzadeh, M., et al., “Association of depression with selenium deficiency and nutritional markers in the patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis,” Jour Nutr 2015; 25:381–87.

Ernst, E., et al., “Adverse effects profile of the herbal antidepressant St. John’s wort (Hypercium perforatum L),” Eur Jour Clin Pharmacol 1998; 54:589–94.

Galland, L., “Neuroendocrine imbalance in patient care,” Functional Medicine Approaches to Endocrine Disturbances of Aging. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute of Functional Medicine, 2001.

Garzya, G., et al., “Evaluation of the effects of L-acetyl carnitine on senile patients suffering from depression,” Drugs Exp Clin Res 1990; 16:101–06.

Gu, Y., et al., “Association between serum magnesium levels and depression in stroke patients,” Aging Dis 2016; 7:687–90.

Hedaya, R., The Antidepressant Survival Guide. New York, NY: Three Rivers Press, 2000.

Huang, R., et al., “Effect of probiotics on depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials,” Nutrients 2016; 898):483.

Lai, J., et al., “The efficacy of zinc supplementation in depression: Systematic review of randomised controlled trials,” Jour Affect Disord 2012; 136:e31–e39.

Linde, K., et al., “St John’s wort for depression-an overview and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials,” BMJ 1996; 313:253–58.

Maes, M., et al., “Lowered omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in serum phospholipids and cholestreyl esters of depressed patients,” Psychiatry Res 1999; 85:275–91.

Maserejian, N., et al., “Low dietary or supplemental zinc is associated with depression symptoms among women, but not men, in a population-based epidemiological survey,” Jour Affect Disord 2012; 136:781–88.

Mehta, A., et al., “Pharmacologic effects of Withania somnifera root extract on GABA receptor complex,” Indian Jour Med Res 1991; 94:213–15.

Mischoulon, D., et al., “A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) verus escitalopram in major depressive disorder,” Jour Clin Psychiatry 2014; 75:370-76.

Penninx, B., et al., “Vitamin B12 deficiency and depression in physically disabled older women: epidemiological evidence from the women’s health and aging study,” Amer Jour Psy 2000; 157:715–21.

Rakofsky, J., et al., “Review of nutritional supplements for the treatment of bipolar depression,” Depression Anxiety 2014; 31(5): 379-90.

Sakina, M., et al., “A psycho-neuropharmacological profile of centella asiatica extract,” Fitoterrpin 1990; LXI(4):291–96.

Sarris, J., et al., “Bipolar disorder and complementary medicine: current evidence, safety issues, and clinical considerations,” Jour Altern Complement Med 2011; 17(10):881-90.

Sawada, T., et al., “Effect of zinc supplementation on mood states in young women: A pilot study,” Eur Jour Clin Nutr 2010; 64:331–33.

Tarleton, E., et al., “Role of magnesium supplementation in the treatment of depression: A randomized clinical trial,” PLoS ONE 2017; 12:e0180067.

Tempesta, E., et al. “L-acetylcarnitine in depressed elderly subjects. A cross-over study vs. placebo,” Drugs Exp Clin Res 1987; 13:417–23.

Wang, J., et al., “Zinc, magnesium, selenium and depression: A review of the evidence, potential mechanisms and implications,” Nutrients 2018; 1095):584.

Werbach, M., Nutritional Influences on Mental Illness: A Sourcebook of Clinical Research Tarzana, CA: Third Line Press, Inc, 1991.

 

Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetic Neuropathy

Abdel-Barry, J., et al., “Hyoglycaemic effect of aqueous extract of the leaves of Trigonella foenum-graecum in healthy volunteers,” East Mediterr Health Jour 2000; 6:83-88.

Anderson, R., et al., “Beneficial effects of chromium for people with type II diabetes,” Diabetes 1996; 45:124A.

Anderson, R., et al., “Chromium, glucose intolerance, and diabetes,” Jour Amer Coll Nutr 1998; 17(6):548-55.

Anderson, R., et., al., “Elevated intake of supplemental chromium improve glucose and insulin variables in individuals with type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes 1997; 46(11):1786–91.

Anderson, R., et al., “Tea enhances insulin activity,” Jour Agric Food Chem 2002; 50:7182-86.

Baskaran, K., et al., “Antidiabetic effect of a leaf extract form Gymnema sylvestre in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 1990; 30:295-305.

Birdsall, T., et al., “Therapeutic applications of taurine,” Altern Med Rev 1998; 3:128-36.

Boden, G., et al., “Effects of vanadyl sulfate on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus,” Metabol 1996; 45(9):1130–35.

Borissova, A., et al., “The effect of vitamin D3 on insulin secretion and peripheral insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients,” Int Jour Clin Pract 2003; 57(4):258-61.

Bustamante, J., et al., “Alpha-lipoic acid in liver metabolism and disease,” Free Rad Biol Med 1998; 24(6):1023–39.

Chausmer, A., et al., “Zinc, insulin and diabetes,” Jour Amer Coll Nutr 1998; 17(2):109–15.

Chiu, K., et al., “Hypovitaminosis D is associated with insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2004; 79:820-25.

Cohen, N., et al., “Oral vanadyl sulfate improves hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus,” Amer Society Clin Invest 1995; 95:2501-09.

Crayhon, R., Designs for Health Institute’s Eating and Supplement Plans. Boulder, CO: Designs for Health Institute, 2000.

Cunningham, .J, et al., “Micronutrients as nutriceutical interventions in diabetes mellitus,” Jour Amer Coll Nutr 1998; 17(1):7–10.

de Bock, M., et al., “Olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf polyphenols improve insulin sensitivity in middle-aged overweight men: a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial,” PLoS One 2013; 8(3):e57622.

De Grandis, D., et al., “Acetyl-L-carnitine in the treatment of diabetic neuropathy: a long-term, randomized, placebo-controlled study,” Drugs R D 2002; 3(4):223-31.

Del Toma, E., et al., “Soluble and insoluble dietary fiber in diabetic diets,” Eur Jour Clin Nutr 1988; 42:313–19.

Demattia, G., et al., “Reduction of oxidative stress by oral n-acetyl-L-cysteine treatment decreases plasma soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 concentrations in non-obese, non-diplipidaemic, normotensive patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes,” Diabetologia 1998; 41:1392–96.

Dominguy, L, et al. “Magnesium responsiveness to insulin and insulin-like growth factor I in erythrocytes from normotensive and hypertensive subjects,” Jour Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998; 83:4402–07.

Elamin, A., et al., “Magnesium and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus,” Diab Res Clin Pract 1990; 10:203–09.

Estrada, D., et al., “Stimulation of glucose uptake by the natural coenzyme alpha lipoic acid/thioctic acid,” Diabetes 1996; 45:1798-1804.

Everson, J., “Unexpected benefits of olive leaf extract,” Life Extension June 2013, p. 28-35.

Fantus, I., et al., “Multifunctional actions of vanadium compounds on insulin signaling pathways: evidence for preferential enhancement of metabolic versus mitogenic effects,” Mol Cell Biochem 1998; 182(1-2):109–19.

French, R., et al., “Role of vanadium in nutrition: metabolism essentiality and dietary considerations,” Life Sciences 1992; 52:339–46.

Galvan, A., et al.,  “Insulin decrease circulating vitamin E levels in humans,” Metabolism 1996; 45(8):998–1003.

Gerbi, A., et al., “Neuroprotective effect of fish oil in diabetic neuropathy,” Lipids 1999; 34(Suppl):93–4.

Goldfine, A., et al., “Metabolic effects of vanadyl sulfate in humans with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: in vivo and in vitro studies,” Metabolism 2000; 49(3):400-10.

Goldfine, A., et at., “Vanadium improves insulin sensitivity,” Jour Clin Endocrin Metabol 1995; 80(11):3311-19.

Gonzalez, M., et al., “Hypoglycemic activity of olive leaf,” Planta Med 1992; 38(6):513-15.

Han, M., et al., “Epigallocatechin gallate, a constituent of green tea, suppresses cytokine-induced pancreatic B-cell damage,” Experiment Molecular Med 2003; 35(2):136-39.

Hipkiss, A., et al., “Carnosine, the anti-ageing, anti-oxidant dipeptide, may react with protein carbonyl groups,” Mech Ageing Dev 2001; 122:1431-45.

Horrobin, D., et al., “Essential fatty acids in the management of impaired nerve function in diabetes,” Diabetes 1997; 46(Suppl2):S90–S93.

Houseknecht, K., et al., “Dietary conjugated linoleic acid normalizes impaired glucose tolerance in the Zucker diabetic fatty fa/fa rat,” Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1998; 247(3):911.

Imanshahidi, M., et al., “Pharmacological and therapeutic effects of Berberis vulgaris and its active constituent, berberine,” Phytother Res 2008; 22:999-1012.

Imparl-Radosevich, J., et al., “Regulation of PTP-1 and insulin receptor kinase by fractions from cinnamon: implications for cinnamon regulation of insulin signaling,” Horm Res 1998; 50:177-182.  

Jacob, S., et al., “Oral administration of RAC-alpha-lipoic modulates insulin sensitivity in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus: a placebo-controlled pilot trial,” Free Radic Biol Med 1999; 27(3-4):309–14.

Kao, W., et al., “Serum and dietary magnesium and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: The Atherosclerosis in Communities Study,” Arch Int Med 1999; 159(18):2151-59.

Keen, H., et al., “Treatment of diabetic neuropathy with gama-linolenic acid,” Diabetes Care 1993; 16(1):8–15.

Khan, A., et al., “Insulin potentiating factor and chromium content of selected foods and spices,” Biol Trace Element Res 1990; 24:183-88.

Kim, K., et al., “Taurine ameliorates hyperglycemia and dyslipdemia by reducing insulin resistance and leptin level in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats with long-term diabetes,” Exp Mol Med 2012; 44(11):665-73.

Konrad, T., et al., “Alpha-lipoic acid treatment decreases serum lactate and pyruvate cones and improves glucose effectiveness in lean and obese patients with type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes Care 1999; 22(2):280–87.

Lambert, J., et al., “Potential interaction between warfarin and boldo-fenugreek,” Pharmacotherapy 2001; 21:509-512.

Leclere, C., et al., “Viscous guar gums lower glycemic responses after a solid meal: mode of action,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1994; 59(Supp):776S.

Lefebure, P., et al., “Improving the action of insulin,” Clin Invest Med 1995; 18(4):340–47.

Lima, M., et al., “The effect of magnesium supplementation in increasing doses on the control of type 2 diabetes,” Diabetes Care 1998; 21:682-86.

Linday, L., et al., “Trivalent chromium and the diabetes prevention program,” Med Hypothesis 1997; 49:47–9.

Lukaczer, D., “Applied Endocrinology: Insulin Resistance and Chronic Disease.” In Applying Functional Medicine in Clinical Practice. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 2002.

Lukaczer, D., “Nutritional support for insulin resistance,” App Nutrit Sci Rep 2001; p. 1-8.

Luo, J., et al., “Dietary polyunsaturated (n-3) fatty acids improve adipocyte insulin action and glucose metabolism in insulin resistant rats: relation to membrane fatty acids,” Jour Nutr 1996; 126:1951–58.

Macbash, M., et al., “Therapeutic evaluation of the effect of biotin on hyperglycemia in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus,” Jour Clin Biochem Nutr 1993; 14:211–18.

MacDonald, H., et al., “Conjugated linolenic acid and disease prevention: a review of current knowledge,” Jour Amer Col Nutr 2000; 19(2):111S–118S.

Macleavy, I., “The forgotten longevity benefits of taurine,” Life Extension July 2013; p. 38-46.

Madar, Z., et al., “Glucose-lowering effect of fenugreek in non-insulin dependent diabetics,” Eur Jour Clin Nutr 1988; 42:51-54.

Malone, J., et al., “Diabetic cardiomyopathy and carnitine deficiency,” Jour Diabetes Complications 1999; 13(2):86–90.

McCarty, M., et al., “Complementary measures for promoting insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle,” Med Hyotheses 1998; 51:451–64.

Mertz, W., et al., “Interaction of chromium with insulin: a progress report,” Nutr Rev 1998; 56:174-77.

Mingrone, G., et al., “L-carnitine improves glucose disposal in type 2 diabetic patients,” Jour Amer Coll Nutr 1999; 18:77-82.

Morcos, M., et al., “Effect of alpha-lipoic acid on the progress of endothelial cell damage and albuminura in patients with diabetes mellitus: an exploratory study,” Diabet Res Clin Pract 2001; 52:175–83.

Nahas, R., “Type 2 Diabetes.” In Rakel, D., Integrative Medicine. 3rd Ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier, 2012.

Nrati, A., et al., “Influence of nopal intake upon fasting glycemia in type II diabetics and health subjects,” Arch Invest Med 1991; 22(1):51-56.

Okuda, Y., et al., “Long-term effects of eicosapentsenoic acid on diabetic peripheral neuropathy and serum lipids in patients with type II diabetes mellitus,” Jour Diab Comp 1996; 10:280–87.

Pacifici, L., et al., “Counter action on experimentally induced diabetic neuropathy by levocarnitine acetyl,” Int Jour Clin Pharmacol Res 1992; 12:231–36.

Packer, L., The Antioxidant Miracle. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 1999.

Packer, L., et al., “Neuroprotection by the metabolic antioxidant alpha lipoic acid,” Free-radical Biol Med 1997; 22:359-78.

Paolisso, G., et al., “Daily magnesium supplements improve glucose handling in elderly subjects,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1992; 55:1161–67.

Paolisso, G., et al., “Pharmacologic doses of vitamin E improve insulin action in healthy subjects and non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1993; 57:650–56.

Patil, S., et al., “Allergy to fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum),” Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1997; 78:297-300. 

Philipson, H., et al., “Dietary fiber in the diabetic diet,” ACTA Med Scand 1983; 671(Suppl):91–3.

Pieper, G., et al., “Oral administration of the antioxidant, n-acetyl cysteine, abrogates diabetes-induced endothelial dysfunction,” Jour Cardiovascular Pharmacol 1998; 32:101–05.

Poudyal, H., et al., “Olive leaf extract attenuates cardiac, hepatic, and metabolic changes in high carbohydrate-high fat-fed rats,” Jour Nutr 2010; 140(5):946-53.

Preuss, H., et al., “The insulin system: influence of antioxidants,” Jour Amer Coll Nutr 1998; 17(2):101–02.

Quatraro, A., et al., “Acetyl-L-carnitine for symptomatic diabetic neuropathy,” Diabetologia 1993; 38:123.

Reaven, P., et al., “Dietary and pharmacologic regimens to reduce lipid peroxidation in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus,” Amer Clin Nutr 1995; 62:1483S–1489S.

Reaven, G., et al., “Pathophysiology of insulin resistance in human disease,” Physiological Rev 1995; 75(3):473–85.

Ripa, S., et al., “Zinc and diabetes mellitus,” Minerva Med 1995; 86(10):415–21.

Rodriguez-Moran, M., et al., “Oral magnesium supplementation improves insulin sensitivity and metabolic control in type 2 diabetic subjects: a randomized double-blind controlled trial,” Diabetes Care 2003; 26(4):1147-52.

Salonen, J., et al., “Increased risk of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus at low plasma vitamin E concentrations: a four year follow up study in men,” BMJ 1995; 311:1124-27.

Saltiel, A., et al., “Thiazolidinediones in the treatment of insulin resistance and type II diabetes,” Diabetes 1996; 45:1661–69.

Salway, J., et al., “Effect of myo-onositol on peripheral-nerve function in diabetes,” Lancet 1978; 1282–84.

Samiec, P., et al., “Glutathione in human plasma: decline in association with aging, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetes,” Free Rad Biol Med 1998; 24(5):699–704.

Seelig, M., et al., “Consequences of magnesium deficiency on the enhancement of stress reactions: preventive and therapeutic implications: a review,” Jour Amer Coll Nutr 1994; 13(5):429–46.

Shamberger, R., et al., “The insulin-like effects of vanadium,” Jour Adv Med 1996; 9(2):121–31.

Shanmugasundaram, E., et al., “Use of Gymnema sylevestre leaf extract in the control of blood glucose in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 1990; 30:281-94.

Sharma, R., et al. “Effect of fenugreek seeds and leaves on blood glucose and serum insulin responses in human subjects,” Nutr Res 1986; 6:1353-64.

Sharma, R., et al., “Toxicological evaluation of fenugreek seeds: a long term feeding experiment in diabetic patients,” Phytother Res 1996; 10:519-520.

Srivatava, Y., et al., “Antidiabetic and adaptogenic properties of Momordica charantia extract: an experimental and clinical evaluation,” Phytotherapy Res 1993; 7:285-89.

Takahashi, R., et al., “Evening primrose oil and fish oil in non-insulin-dependant diabetes,” Prostaglandins Leulcot Essent Fatty Acids 1993; 49(2):569–71.

Tatuncu, B., et al., “Reversal of defective nerve conduction with vitamin E supplementation in type II diabetics; a preliminary study,” Diabetes Care 1998; 21:1915–18.

Thompson, D., et al., “Micronutrients and antioxidants in the progression of diabetes,” Nutr Res 1995; 15(9):1377–1410.

Verma, S., et al., “Nutritional factors that can favorably influence the glucose/insulin system: vanadium,” Jour Amer Coll Nutr 1998; 17(1):11–8.

Vuskan, V., et al., “American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L) reduces postprandial glycemia in nondiabetic subjects and subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Arch Intern Med 2000; 160(7):1009-13.  

Vuskan, V., et al., “Konjac-Mannan and American ginseng emerging alternatives therapies for type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Jour Amer Coll Nutr 2001; 20(5 Supp):370S-380S; discussion 381S-383S.

Wainstein J., et al., “Olive leaf extract as a hypoglycemic agent in both human diabetic subjects and in rats,” Jour Med Food 2012; 15(7):605-10.

Wascher, T., et al., “Effects of low-dose L-arginine in non-insulin diabetes mellitus: a potential role for nitric oxide,” Med Sci Res 1993; 21:669–770.

Welinhinda, J., et al., “Effect of Moourdica charantia on the glucose tolerance in maturity onset diabetes,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 1986; 17:277–82.

Yeh, G., et al., “Systematic review of herbs and dietary supplements for glycemic control in diabetes,” Diabetes Care 2003; 26(4):1277-94.

Zhang, H., et al., “Biotin administration improves the impaired glucose tolerance of streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats,” Jour Nutr Sci Vitaminol 1997; 43:271-80.

Zibadi, S., et al., “Reduction of cardiovascular risk factors n subjects with type 2 diabetes by pycnogenol supplementation,” Nutr Res 2008; 28:315-20.

Ziegler, D., et al., “Treatment of symptomatic diabetic peripheral neuropathy with the anti-oxidant alpha-lipoic acid. A 3-week multicenter randomized controlled trial (ALADIN study),” Diabetologia 1995; 38:1425–33.

 

Dry Eyes

Campbell, A., et al., “Treatment of brittle nails and dry eyes,” Brit Jour Dermatol 1981; 105:113.

Chandra, D., et al., “Topical vitamin A palmitate in dry eyes,” Afro-Asian Jour Ophthalmol 1988; 7:74-80.

Kobayashi, T., et al., “Effect of retinol palmitate as a treatment for dry eye: a cytological evaluation,” Ophthalmologica 1997; 211:358-61.

Oxholm, P., et al., “Patients with primary Sjogren’s syndrome treated for two months with evening primrose oil,” Scan Jour Rheumatol 1986; 15:103-08.

Quinn, P., et al., “Carnosine: its properties, functions and potential therapeutic applications,” Mol Aspects Med 1992; 13(5):379-444.

Rose, M., et al., Save Your Sight. New York, NY: Warner Books, 1998.

 

Eczema

Bath-Hextall, F., et al., “Dietary supplements for established atoptic eczema,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012; Feb 15; 2:CD005205.

Block, W., et al., “Modulation of inflammation and cytokine production by dietary (n-3) fatty acids,” Nutrition 1996; 126:1515–33.

Crayhon, R., Designs for Health Institute’s Eating and Supplement Plans. Boulder, CO: Designs for Health Institute, 2000.

Grattan, C., et al., “Essential-fatty-acid metabolites in plasma phospholipids in patients with ichthyosis vulgaris, acne vulgaris and psoriasis,” Clin Exp Dermatol 1990; 15(3):174–76.

Schlichte, M., et al., “Diet and eczema: a review of dietary supplements for the treatment of atopic dermatitis,” Dermatol Pract 2016; 6(3):23-9.

Wright, S., et al., “Oral evening primrose seed oil improves atopic eczema,” Lancet 1982; 2:1120.

Fibroids

Chez, R., “The etiology and treatment of uterine fibroids,” Altern Ther 2002; 8:32-33.

Cohen, J., et al., “Functional menorrhagia: treatment with bioflavonoids and vitamin C,” Curr Ther Res 1960; 2:539.

Das, U., “Is obesity an inflammatory condition,” Nutrition 2001; 17:953-66.

Dean, D., et al., “Steroid oestrogens in plants: re-estimation of oestrone in pomegranate seeds,” Phytochemistry 1971; 10:2215-16.

Gao, Y., et al., “Clinical study on effect of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F on uterine leiomyoma,” Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi 2000; 35:430-32.

Hudgins, A., et al., “Vitamins B, C, and niacin for dysmenorrheal therapy,” West Our Surg 1954; 62:610-11.

Hudson, T., “Uterine Fibroids.” In Pizzorro, J., and Murray, M., (Eds.) Textbook of Natural Medicine. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingston/Elsevier, 2013.

Michnovicz, J., et al., “Altered estrogen metabolism and excretion in humans following consumption of indole-3-carbinol,” Nutr Cancer 1991; 16(1):59-66.

Miksicek, R., “Estrogenic flavonoids: structural requirements for biological activity,” Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1995; 208:44-50.

Nesby-O’Dell, S., et al., “Hypovitaminosis D prevalence and determinants among Afro American and white women of reproductive age: Third National and Nutritional Examination Survey, 1988-1994,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2002; 76:187-92.

Romm, A., et al., “Conditions of the Reproductive Organs.” In Romm, A., Botanical Medicine for Women’s Health. St. Louis: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier, 2010.

Smith, P., What You Must Know About Women’s Hormones. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers, 2010.

Warshowsky, A., “Uterine Fibroids (Leiomyomata).” In Integrative Medicine. 3rd Ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier, 2012.

Wise, L., et al., “Polycystic ovary syndrome and risk of leiomyomata,” Fertil Steril 2007; 87:1108-15.

 

Food Allergies

Chan, M., et al., “Effects of three dietary phytochemicals from tea, rosemary and turmeric on inflammation-induced nitrite production,” Cancer Lett 1995; 96(1):23–9.

Crayhon, R., Designs for Health Institute’s Level II Eating and Supplement Plans. Boulder CO: Designs for Health Institute, Inc., 1999.

Jakazawa, T., et al., “Metabolites of orally administered perilla frutescens extract in rats and humans,” Biol Pharm Bul 2000; 23(1):122–27.

Kodama, M., et al., “Autoimmune disease and allergy are controlled by vitamin C treatment,” In Vivio 1994; 8(2):251–57.

Mindell, E., Smith, P., What You Must Know About Allergy Relief. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers, 2016.

Musonda, C., et al., “Quercetin inhibits hydrogen peroxide (H202)-induced NF-KappaB DNA binding activity and DNA damage in Hep G2 cells,” Carcinogensis 1998; 19(9):1583–89.

Packer, L., et al., “Alpha-lipoic acid as a biological antioxidant,” Free Rad Biol Med 1995; 19(2):227–50.

Sult, T., et al., “Th1/Th2 balances: a natural therapeutic approach to Th2 polarization in allergy,” Applied Nutritional Science Reports 2003.

Tate, G., et al., “Suppression of acute and chronic inflammation by dietary gamma linolenic acid,” Jour Rheumatol 1989; 16(6):729–34.

 

Gout

Boss, G., et al., “Failure of folic acid (pteroylglutamic acid) to affect hyperuricemia,” Jour Lab Clin Med 1980; 96:783-89.

Choi, H., et al., “Vitamin C intake and the risk of gout in men: a prospective study,” Arch Intern Med 2009; 169:502-07.

Fan, L., et al., “Effects of coenzyme Q10 supplementation on inflammatory markers: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials,” Pharmacol Res 2017; 119:128-36.

Gaby, A., “Gout.” In Nutritional Medicine. 2nd Ed., Concord, NH: Fritz Perlberg Publishing, 2017.

Huang, H., et al., “The effects of vitamin C supplementation on serum concentrations of uric acid: results of a randomized controlled trial,” Arthritis Rheum 2005; 52:1843-47.

Jacob, R., et al., “Consumption of cherries lowers plasma urate in healthy women,” Jour Nutr 2003; 133:1826-29.

Jancin, B., “Cherry juice flowing in gout treatment pipeline,” Fam Pract News 2010; Sept 1:38.

Kyllastinen, M., et al., “Dietary vitamin C supplementation and common laboratory values in the elderly,” Arch Gerontol Geriatr 1990; 10:297-301.

Lewis, A., et al., “Inhibition of mammalian xanthine oxidase by folate compounds and amethopterine,” Jour Biol Chem 1984; 259:12-15.

Murray, M., “Gout.” In Pizzorno, J., and Murray, M., Textbook of Natural Medicine. St. Louis: Elsevier, 2013.

Plouvier, B., et al., “Folic acid, xanthine oxidase, and uric acid,” Ann Inter Med 1978; 88:269.

Prasongwatana, V., et al., “Uricosuric effect of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) in normal and renal-stone former subjects,” Jour Ethnophamracol 2008; 117:491-95.

Schlesinger, N., et al., “Pilot studies of cherry juice concentrate for gout flare prophylaxis,” Jour Arthritis 2012; 1:101.

Selloum, L., et al., “Effects of favonols on the generation of superoxide anion radicals by xanthine oxidase and stimulated neutrophils,” Arch Biochem Biophys 2001; 395:45-56.

Shay, K., et al., “Alpha-lipoic acid as a dietary supplement: Molecular mechanisms and therapeutic potential,” Biochem Biophys Acta 2009; 1790(10):1149-60.

Shen, F., et al., “Inhibition of xanthine oxidase by purpurogallin and silymarin group,” Anticancer Res 1998; 18(1A):263-67.

Shi, Y., et al., “Quercetin lowers plasma uric acid in prehyperuricaemic males: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial,” Brit Jour Nutr 2016; 115:800-06.

Stein, H., et al., “Ascorbic acid-induced uricosuria: a consequence of megavitamin therapy,” Ann Inter Med 1976; 84:386-88.

Tate, G., et al., “Suppression of monosodium urate crystal-induced acute inflammation by diets enriched with gamma-linolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid,” Arthritis Rheum 1988; 32:1543-51.

 

Hair Loss

Amor, K., et al., “Does D matter? The role of vitamin D in hair disorders and hair follicle cycling,” Dermatol Online Jour 2010; 16(2):3.

Anonymous. “Vitamin B6 may halt hair loss in OC patients,” Fam Pract News 1973; August 1, p. 24.

Auerbach, R., “Low iron levels,” Arch Dermatol 1968; 98:681.

Banihashemi, M., et al., “Serum Vitamin D3 Level in patients with female pattern hair loss,” Int Jour Trichology 2016; 8(3):116-20.

Berger, R., et al., “The effects of minoxidil, 1% pyrithione zinc and a combination of both on hair density: a randomized controlled trial,” Brit Jour Dermatol 2003; 149(2):354-62.

Deloche, C., et al., “Low iron stores: a risk factor for excessive hair loss in non-menopausal women,” Eur Jour Dermatol 2007; 17(6):507-12.

Gaby, A., “Alopecia.” In Nutritional Medicine, 2nd Ed., Concord, NH: Fritz Perlberg Publishing, 2017.

Hard, G., “Non-anemic iron deficiency as an etiologic factor in diffuse loss of hair of the scalp in women,” Acta Derm Venereol 1963; 43:562-69.

Innis, S., et al., “Possible biotin deficiency in adults receiving long-term parenteral nutrition,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1983; 37:185-97.

Kantor, J., et al., “Decreased serum ferritin is associated with alopecia in women,” Jour Invest Dermatol 2003; 121(5):985-88.

Kay, R., et al., “A syndrome of acute zinc deficiency during total parenteral alimentation in man,” Ann Surg 1976; 183:331-40.

Kobren, S., The Truth About Women's Hair Loss. Chicago, IL: Contemporary Books, 2000. 

Krause, K., et al., “Vitamin status in patients on chronic anticonvulsant therapy,” Int Jour Vitamin Nutri Res 1982; 5294):375-85.

Mesinkovska, N., et al., “Hair: what is new in diagnosis and management? Female pattern hair loss update,” Dermatol Clin 2013; 31(1):119-27.

Mock, D., et al., “Biotin catabolism is accelerated in adults receiving long-term therapy with anticonvulsants,” Neurology 1997; 49:1444-47.

Mock, D., et al., “Biotin deficiency: an unusual complication of parenteral alimentation,” NEJM 1981; 304:820-23.

Moeinvaziri, M., et al., “Iron status in diffuse telogen hair loss among women,” Acta Dermatovenerol Croat 2009; 17(4):279-84.

Rasheed, H., et al., “Serum ferritin and vitamin D in female hair loss: do they play a role?” Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2013; 26(2):101-07.

Sato, S., “Iron deficiency: structural and microchemical changes in hair, nails, and skin,” Semin Dermatol 1991; 10:313-19.

Sealey, V., et al., “Smoking accelerates biotin catabolism in women,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2004; 80(4):932-35.

Shmunes, E., “Hypervitaminosis A in a patient with alopecia receiving renal dialysis,” Arch Dermatol 1979; 115:882-83.

Skolnik, P., et al., “Human essential fatty acid deficiency. Treatment of topical application of linoleic acid,” Arch Dermatol 1977; 113:939-41.

Trost, L, et al., “The diagnosis and treatment of iron deficiency and its potential relationship to hair loss,” Jour Amer Acad Dermatol 2006; 54(5):824-44.

Weismann, K., et al., “Acquired zinc deficiency dermatosis in man,” Arch Dermatol 1978; 114:1509-11.

Wright, J., Dr. Wright’s Guide to Healing with Nutrition. New Canaan, CT: Keats Publishing, 1990, 558-59.

Zempleni, J., et al., “Biotin and biotinidase deficiency,” Expert Rev Endocrinol Metabol 2008; 3(6):715-24.

 

Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

Calder, P., et al., “N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cytokine production in health and disease,” Ann Nutr Metab 1997; 41(4):203–34.

Christianson, A., and Murray, M., “Hypothyroidism.” In Pizzorno, J., and Murray, M., Textbook of Natural Medicine. St. Louis: Elsevier/Churchill Livingstone.

Crayhon, R., Designs for Health Institute’s Eating and Supplement Plans. Boulder, CO: Designs for Health Institute, 2000.

Drutel, A., et al., “Selenium and the thyroid gland: more good news for clinicians,” Clin Endocrinol (Oxf.) 2013; 78(2):155-56.

Fernandes, G., et al., “Dietary lipids and risk of autoimmune disease,” Clin Immunopathol 1994; 72(2):193–97.

Gartner, R., et al., “Selenium supplementation in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis decreases thyroid peroxidase antibodies concentration,” Jour Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002; 87:1687-91.

Gartner, R., et al., “Selenium in the treatment of autoimmune thyroiditis,” Biofactors 2003; 19:165-70.

Hu, S., et al., “Multiple nutritional factors and the risk of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis,” Thyroid 2017; 27(5):597-610.

Rayman, M., et al., “Multiple nutritional factors and thyroid disease, with particular reference to autoimmune thyroid disease,” Proc Nutr Soc 2019; 78(1):34-44.

Robinson, D., et al., “Suppression of autoimmune disease by dietary n-3 fatty acids,” Jour Lipid Res 1993; 34(8):1435–44.

Smith, P. What You Must Know About Thyroid Disorders. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers, 2016.

 

Hepatitis C

Calland, N., et al., “Polyphenols inhibit hepatitis C virus entry by a new mechanism of action,” Jour Virol 2015; 89:10053–63.

Crayhon, R., Designs for Health Institute’s Level II Eating and Supplement Plans. Boulder CO: Designs for Health Institute, Inc, 1999.

Luper, S., et al., “A review of plants used in the treatment of liver disease: part I,” Alt Med Rev 1998; 3(6):410–21.

Niederau, C., et al., “Polyunsaturated phosphatidyl choline and interferon alpha for treatment of chronic hepatitis B and C: a multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, Leich Study Group,” Hepatogastroenterology 1998; 45(21):797–804.

Packer, L., The Antioxidant Miracle. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 1999.

Pennisi, M., et al., “Resveratrol in hepatitis C patients treated with pegylated-interferon-alpha-2b and ribavirin reduces sleep disturbance,” Nutrients 2017; 9(8):897.

Stern, E., et al., “Two cases of hepatitis C treated with herbs and supplements,” Jour Alt Complemet Med 1997; 3(1):77–82.

 

High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

Appel, L., et al., “Does supplementation with fish oil reduce blood pressure? A meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials,” Arch Int Med 1993; 153:1429–38.

Arora, P., et al., “Vitamin D therapy in individuals with prehypertension or hypertension: the DAYLIGHT trial,” Circulation 2015; 131:254-62.

Aybak, M., et al., “Effect of oral pyridoxine hydrochloride supplementation on arterial blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension,” Arzneimittelforschung 1995; 45:1271-73.

Borrello, G., et al., “The effects of magnesium oxide on mild essential hypertension and quality of life,” Curr Ther Res 1996; 57:767–74.

Braverman, E., Hypertension and Nutrition. New Canaan, CT: Keats Publishing, Inc, 1996.

Brull, V., et al., “Effects of a quercetin-rich onion skin extract on 24 h ambulatory blood pressure and endothelial function in overweight-to-obese patients with (pre)hypertension: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over trial,” Brit Jour Nutr 2015; 114(8):1263-77.

Cappuccio, F., et al., “Lack of effect of oral magnesium on high blood pressure: a double blind study,” Brit Med Jour 1985; 291:235-38.

Colin, P., et al., “Effect of dietary patterns on blood pressure control in hypertensive patients: results from the dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) trial,” Amer Jour Hypertens 2000; 13:949–55.

Dakshinamurti, K., et al., “Hypertension, calcium channel and pyridoxine (vitamin B6),” Mol Cell Biochem 1998; 188:137-48.

DeBusk, R., “Dietary supplements and cardiovascular disease,” Curr Atheroscler Rep 2000; 2:508-14.

Dewitte, B., “Natural extracts lower blood pressure,” Life Extensions Oct. 2014; p. 56-64.

Digiesi, V., et al., “Coenzyme Q10 in essential hypertension,” Mol Aspects Med 1994; 15(Suppl):S257–S263.

Digiesi, V., et al., “Effect of coenzyme Q10 on essential arterial hypertension,” Curr Ther Res 1990; 47:841-45.

Digiesi, V., et al., “L-carnitine adjuvant therapy in essential hypertension,” Clin Ter 1994; 144(5):391-95.

Dong, J., et al., “Effect of oral L-arginine supplementation on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials,” Amer Heart Jour 2011; 162:959-86.

Duffy, S., et al., “Treatment of hypertension with ascorbic acid,” Lancet 1999; 356:2048–50.

Egert, S., et al., “Quercetin reduces systolic blood pressure and plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein concentrations in overweight subjects with a high-cardiovascular disease risk phenotype: a double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over study,” Brit Jour Nutr 2009; 102:1065-74.

Engelhard, Ys., et al., “Natural antioxidants from tomato extract reduce blood pressure in patients with grade-1 hypertension: a double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study,” Amer Heart Jour 2006; 151:100.

Forman, J., et al., “Effect of vitamin D supplementation on blood pressure in blacks,” Hypertension 2013; 61:779-85.

Fotherby, M., et al., “Effect of vitamin C on ambulatory blood pressure and plasma lipids in older persons,” Jour Hypertens 2000; 18:411-15.

Fujita, T., et al., “Effects of increased adrenomeduallary activity and taurine in young patients with borderline hypertension,” Circulation 1987; 75:525-32.

Gaby, A., “Hypertension.” In Nutritional Medicine. 2nd Ed., Concord, NH: Fritz Perlberg Publishing, 2017.

Gilani, A., et al., “Blood pressure lowering effect of olive is mediated through calcium channel blockade,” Int Jour Food Sci Nutr 2005; 56(8):613-20.

Heagerty, As., et al., “Influence of dietary linoleic acid on leucocyte sodium transport and blood pressure,” Brit Med Jour 1986; 293:295-97.

Horigan, G., et al., “Riboflavin lowers blood pressure in cardiovascular disease patients homozygous for the 677CT polymorphism in MTHFR,” Jour Hypertens 2010; 28:478-86.

Houston, M., Handbook of Hypertension. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009.

Houston, M., “The role of nutrition and nutraceutical supplements in the treatment of hypertension,” World Jour Cardiol 2014; 6(2):38-66.

Houston, M., “The role of vascular biology, nutrition and nutraceuticals in the prevention and treatment of hypertension,” The Heart on Fire: Modifiable Factors Beyond Cholesterol. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute of Functional Medicine, 2003.        

Houston, M., What Your Doctor May Not Tell You About Hypertension. New York, NY: Warner Books, Inc., 2003.

Houston, M., and Hawkins, R., Hypertension Handbook for Clinicians and Students. Birmingham, AL, ANA Publishing, 2005.

Levison, P., et al., “Effects of n-3 fatty acids in essential hypertension,” Amer Jour Hypertens 1990; 3:754–60.

Maebashi, M., et al., “Suppressive effect of potassium on renin release,” Jpn Circ Jour 1968; 32:1265-68.

Mangoni, A., et al., “Vascular and blood pressure effects of folic acid in older patients with cardiovascular disease,” Jour Amer Geriatr Soc 2001; 49:1003-04.

Margolin G., et al., “Blood pressure lowering in elderly subjects: a double-blind crossover study of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1991; 53:652-72.

McCarron, D., et al., “Blood pressure response to oral calcium in persons with mild to moderate hypertension,” Ann Inter Med 1985; 103:825-31.

McMackin, C., et al., “Effect of combined treatment with alpha lipoic acid and acetyl-L-carnitine on vascular function and blood pressure in coronary artery disease patients,” Jour Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 2007; 994):249-55.

McMillan, D., “Antihypertensive effects of fish oil,” NEJM 1989; 321:1610.

Meneely, G., et al., “High sodium-low potassium environment an hypertension,” Amer Jour Cardiol 1976; 38:768-85.

Morris, C., et al., “Effect of calcium supplementation in an older population with mildly increased blood pressure,” Amer Jour Hypertens 1992; 5:230-37.

Mullan, B., et al., “Ascorbic acid reduces blood pressure and arterial stiffness in type 2 diabetes,” Hypertension 2002; 40:804-09.

Murray, M., “Hypertension.” In Pizzorno, J. and Murray, M., Textbook of Natural Medicine. St Louis: Elsevier/Churchill Livingstone, 2013.

Naismith, D., et al., “The effect of low-dose potassium supplementation on blood pressure in apparently healthy volunteers,” Brit Jour Nutr 2003; 90:53-60.

Nowson, C., et al., “Effect of calcium carbonate on blood pressure in normotensive and hypertensive people,” Hypertension 1989; 13:630-39.

Ortiz, M., et al., “Antioxidants block angiotensin II-induced increase in blood pressure and endothelin,” Hyptertension 2001; 38(3 pt. 2):655–59.

Paran, E., et al., “The effects of natural antioxidants from tomato extract in treated but uncontrolled hypertensive patients,” Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 2009; 23:145-51.

Perrinjaquet-Moccetti, T., “Food supplementation with an olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf extract reduces blood pressure in borderline hypertensive monozygotic twins. Phytother Res 2008; 22(9):1239-42.

Pilz, S., et al., “Effects of vitamin D on blood pressure and cardiovascular risk factors: a randomized controlled trial,” Hypertension 2015; 65:1195-1201.

Prisco, D., et al., “Effect of medium-term supplementation with a moderate dose of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on blood pressure in mild hypertensive patients,” Thromb Res 1998; 91:105-12.

Purvis, J., et al., “Effect of oral magnesium supplementation on selected cardiovascular risk factors in non-insulin-dependent diabetics,” Arch Fam Med 1994; 3:503-08.

Resnick, L., et al., “Outpatient therapy of essential hypertension with dietary calcium supplementation,” Jour Amer Coll Cardiol 1984; 3(2):616.

Sacks, F., et al., “Effect on blood pressure of potassium, calcium, and magnesium in women with low habitual intake,” Hypertension 1998; 31:131-38.

Sacks, F., et al.,“Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) diet,” NEJM 2001; 344(1):3–9.

Siani, A., et al., “Controlled trial of long term oral potassium supplements in patients with mild hypertension,” Brit Med Jour 1987; 294:1453-56.

Sigh, R., et al.,“Effects of hydrosoluble coenzyme Q10 on blood pressures and insulin resistance in hypertensive patients with coronary artery disease,” Jour Human Hyperten 1999; 13:203–08.

Silagy, C., et al., “A meta-analysis of the effect of garlic on blood pressure,” Jour Hyperten 1994; 12:463–68.

Sinatra, S., Lower Your Blood Pressure in Eight Weeks. New York, NY: Ballantine Books, 2003.

Sinatra, S., and Houston, M., Nutritional and Integrative Strategies in Cardiovascular Medicine. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2015.

Singer, P., et al., “Long-term effect of mackerel diet on blood pressure, serum lipids and thromboxane formation in patients with mild essential hypertension,” Atherosclerosis 1986; 62:259-65.

Singh, R., et al., “Current zinc intake and risk of diabetes and coronary artery disease and factors associated with insulin resistance in rural urban population of North India,” Jour Amer Coll Nutr 1998; 17:564-70.

Singh, R., et al., “Effect of hydrosoluble coenzyme Q10 on blood pressures and insulin resistance in hypertensive patients with coronary heart disease,” Jour Hum Hypertens 1999; 13:203-08.

Stevens, V., et al., “Long-term weight loss and change in blood pressure results of the trials of hypertension prevention, phase II,” Ann Int Med  2001; 34:1–11.

Susalit, E., et al., “Olive (Olea europaea) leaf extract effective in patients with stage-1 hypertension: comparison with Captopril,” Phytomedicine 2011; 18(4):251-58.

Tannen, R., “Effects of potassium on blood pressure control,” Ann Intern Med 1983; 98:773-80.

Treasure, J., et al., “Role of dietary potassium in the treatment of hypertension,” Hypertension 2983; 5:864-72.

Vasdey, S., et al., “The antihypertensive effect of arginine,” Int Jour Angiol 2008; 17(1):7-22.

Vasdey, S., et al., “The antihypertensive effect of cysteine,” Int Jour Angiol 2009; 18(1):7-21.

Vollmer, V., et al., “Effects of diet and sodium intake on blood pressure: subgroup analysis of the DASH-sodium trial,” Ann Int Med 2001; 135:1019–28.

Widman, L., et al., “The dose-dependent reduction in blood pressure through administration of magnesium. A double blind placebo controlled cross-over study,” Amer Jour Hypertens 1993; 6:41-5.

Witham, M., et al., “Cholecalciferol treatment to reduce blood pressure in older patients with isolated systolic hypertension: the VitDISH randomized controlled trial,” JAMA Intern Med 2013; 173:1672-79.

Witteman, J., et al., “Reduction of blood pressure with oral magnesium supplementation in woman with mild to moderate hypertension,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1994; 60:129–35.

Wollin, S., et al., “Alpha-lipoic acid and cardiovascular disease,” Jour Nutr 2003; 133(11):3327-30.

Yamagami, T., et al., “Bioenergetics in clinical medicine. Studies on coenzyme Q10 and essential hypertension,” Res Common Chem Pathol Pharmacol 1975; 11:273-88.

Zemel, P., et al., “Metabolic and hemodynamic effects of magnesium supplementation in patients with essential hypertension,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1990; 51:665-69.

 

High Cholesterol (Hypercholesterolemia)

Ackermann, R., et al., “Garlic shows promise for improving some cardiovascular risk factors,” Arch Intern Med 2001; 161:813–24.

Adler, A., et al., “Effect of garlic and fish oil supplementation on serum lipid and lipoprotein concentration in hypercholesterolemic men,” Ann Jour Clin Nutr 1997; 65:445–50.

Ajuluchukwu, J., “Comparative study of the effect of tocotrienols and -tocopherol on fasting serum lipid profiles in patients with mild hypercholesterolaemia: a preliminary report,” Niger Postgrad Med Jour 2007; 14(1):30-3.

Alcocer, L., et al., “A comparative study of policosanol versus acipimox in patients with type II hypercholesterolemia,” Int Jour Tissue React 1999; XX(3):85–92.

Anderson, J., et al., “High-fiber diets for diabetic and hypertriglyceridemic patients,” Can Med Assoc Jour 1980; 123:975.

Anderson, J., et al., “Oat-bran cereal lowers serum total and LDL cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic men,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1990; 52:495–99.

Arruzazabala, M., et al., “Comparative study of policosanol, aspirin, and the combination therapy of policosanol-aspirin on platelet aggregation in healthy volunteers,” Pharmacological Res 1997; 36(4):293–97.

Avogaro, P., et al., “Effect of pantethine on lipids, lipoproteins and apolipoproteins in man,” Curr Ther Res 1983; 33:488.

Baker, W., et al., “A meta-analysis evaluating the impact of chitosan on serum lipids in hypercholesterolemic patients,” Ann Nutr Metab 2008; 55:368–74.

Berthold, H., et al., “Effect of policosanol on lipid levels among patients with hypercholesterolemia or combined hyperlipidemia: a randomized controlled trial,” JAMA2006; 295:2262–269.

Bertolini, S., et al. “Lipoprotein changes induced by pantethine in hyperlipoproteinemic patients: adults and children,” Int Jour Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol 1986; 24:630–37.

Braverman, E., Hypertension and Nutrition. New Canaan, CT: Keats Publishing, Inc. 1996.

Brown, L., et al., “Cholesterol-lowering effects of dietary fiber: a meta-analysis,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1999; 69:30–42.

Bundy, R., et al., “Artichoke leaf extract (Cynara scolymus) reduces plasma cholesterol in otherwise healthy hypercholesterolemic adults: a randomized, double blind placebo- controlled trial,” PhytoMed 2008; 15(9):668-75.

Castano, G., et al., “Comparisons of the efficacy and tolerability of policosanol with atorvastatin in elderly patients with type II hypercholesterolemia,” Drugs Ageing 2003; 20(2):153–63.

Castano, G., et al., “Effects of policosanol and pravastatin in lipid profile, platelet aggregation and endothelemia in older hypercholesterolemic patients,” Int Jour Clin Pharm Res 1999; 19:105–16.

Castano, G., et al., “A long-term study of policosanol in the treatment of intermittent claudication,” Angiology 2001; 52:115–25.

Castano, G., et al., “Effects of policosanol on older patients with hypertension and type II hypercholesterolemia,” Drugs R&D 2002; 3(3):402–08.

Castano, G., et al., “Effects of policosanol on postmenopausal women with type II hypercholesterolemia,” Gynecol Endocrinol 2000; 14(3):187–95.

Castano, G., et al., “Effects of policosanol treatment on the susceptibility of low density lipoprotein (LDL) isolated from healthy volunteers to oxidative modification in vitro,” Brit Jour Clin Pharmacol 2000; 50(3):255–62.

Chen, J., et al., “Meta-analysis of natural therapies for hyperlipidemia: plant sterols and stanols versus policosanol,” Pharmacotherapy 2005; 25:171–83.

Cicero, A., et al., “Lipid lowering nutraceuticals in clinical practice: position paper from an International Lipid Expert Panel,” Arch Med Sci 2017; 13(5):965-1005.

Cighetti, G., “Modulation of HMG-CoA reductase activity by pantetheine/pantethine,” Biochim Biophys Acta 1988; 963:389–93.

Colgan, M., The New Nutrition. Vancouver, BC, Canada: Apple Publishing, 1995.

Crespo, E., et al., “Comparative study of the efficacy and tolerability of policosanol and lovastatin in patients with hypercholesterolemia and noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus,” Int Jour Clin Pharm Res 1999; 19:117–27.

Davis, W., et al., “Monotherapy with magnesium increases abnormally low high density lipoprotein cholesterol: a clinical assay,” Curr Ther Res 1984; 36:341–46.

Devarai, S., et al., “The role of dietary supplementation with plant sterols and stanols in the prevention of cardiovascular disease,” Nutr Rev 2006; 64(7 Part 1): 348-54.

Evans, M., et al., “Pantethine, a derivative of vitamin B5, favorably alters total, LDL and non-HDL cholesterol in low to moderate cardiovascular risk subjects eligible for statin therapy: a triple-blinded placebo and diet-controlled investigation,” Vasc Health Risk Manag2014; 10:89–100.

Gaby, A., Nutritional Medicine. 2nd Ed. Concord, NH: Fritz Perlberg Publishing, 2017.

Gaby, A., Nutritional Therapy in Medical Practice. Carlisle, PA: Nutrition Seminars, 2003.

Gaddi, A., et al., “Controlled evaluation of pantethine, a natural hyplipidemic compound, in patients with different forms of hyperlipoproteinemia,” Atherosclerosis 1984; 50:73.

Galeone, F., et al., “The lipid-lowering effect of panthethine in hyperlipidemic patients: a clinical investigation,” Curr Ther Res 1983; 34:383.

Giglio, R., et al., “The effect of bergamot on dyslipidemia,” Phytomedicine2016; 23:1175–81.

Gittleman, A., Super Nutrition for Menopause. New York, NY: Avery Publishing Group, 1998.

Guyton, J., et al., “Extended release niacin vs gemfibrozil for the treatment of low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol,” Arch Intern Med 2000; 160:1177-184.

Gylling, H., et al., “Plant sterols and plant stanols in the management of dyslipidaemia and prevention of cardiovascular disease,” Atherosclerosis 2014; 232(2):346-60.

Head, K., et al., “Inositol hexaniacinate a safer alternative to niacin,” Alt Med Rev 1996; 1(3):176–84.

Heber, D., et al., “Cholesterol-lowering effects of a proprietary Chinese red-yeast-rice dietary supplement,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1999; 69:231–36.

Jain, S., et al., “Effect of modest vitamin E supplementation on blood glycated hemoglobin and triglyceride levels and red cell indices in Type I diabetic patients,” Jour Amer Coll Nutr 1996; 15(5):458–61.

Jenkins, D., et al., “Effect on blood lipids of very high intakes of fiber in diets low in saturated fat and cholesterol,” NEJM 1993; 329:21-26.

Kumar, M., et al., “Cholesterol-lowering probiotics as potential biotherapeutics for metabolic diseases,” Exp Diabetes Res 2012; 2012:902917.

Li, X., et al., “Effect of berberine on promoting the excretion of cholesterol in high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic hamsters,” Jour Transl Med 2015; 13:278.

Liu, J., “Chinese red yeast rice (Monascus purpureus) for primary hyperlipidemia: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials,” Chin Med2006; 1:4.

Maebashi, M., et al., “Lipid-lowering effect of carnitine in patients with type IV hyperlipoproteinemia,” Lancet 1978; 805–08.

Maggi, G., et al., “Pantethine: a physiological lipomodulating agent, in the treatment of hyperlipidemias,” Curr Ther Res 1982; 32:380.

Maioli, M., et al., “Effect of pantethine on the subfractions of HDL in dyslipemic patients,” Curr Ther Res 1984; 35:307.

Mas, R., et al., “Effects of policosanol in patients with type II hypercholesterolemia and additional coronary risk factors,” Clin Pharmacol Ther 1999; 65:439–47.

Menendez, R., et al., “Policosanol modulates HMG-Co-A reducatase activity in cultured fibroblasts,” Arch Med Res 2001; 32:8–12.

Mistry, P., “Natural cholesterol-lowering products: focus on probiotics,” Brit Jour Community Nurs 2014; 19(Supp 10):S14-S18.

Moruisi, K., et al., “Phytosterols/stanols lower cholesterol concentrations in familial hypercholesterolemic subjects: a systematic review with meta-analysis,” Jour Amer Coll Nutr 2006; 25(1)41-8.

Nityanand, S., et al., “Clinical trials with guggulipidCa new hypolipidaemic agent from gum guggul,” Econ Med Plant Res 1991; 5:47–82.

Onakpoya, I., “The effect of green tea on blood pressure and lipid profile: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials,” Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2014; 24:823–36.

Ortensi, E., et al., “A comparative study of policosanol versus simvastatin in elderly patients with hypercholesterolemia,” Curr Ther Res 1997; 58:390–401.

Pola, P., et al.,  Statistical evaluation of long-term L-carnitine therapy I hyperlipoproteinaemias,” Drugs Expti Clin Res 1983; 9:925–34.

Prasad, K., “Tocotrienols and cardiovascular health,” Curr Pharm Des 2011; 17(21):2147-54.

Press, R., et al., “The effect of chromium picolinate on serum cholesterol and apolipoprotein fractions in human subjects,” West Jour Med 1990; 152:41–5.

Qureshi, A., et al., “Novel tocotrienols of rice bran modulate cardiovascular disease risk parameters of hypercholesterolemic humans,” Nutr Biochem 1997; 8:290–98.

Reiner, Z., et al., “Effects of rice policosanol on serum lipoproteins, homocysteine, fibrinogen and C-reactive protein in hypercholesterolaemic patients,” Clin Drug Invest2005; 25:701–07.

Ried, K., et al., “Effect on garlic on serum lipids: an updated meta-analysis,” Nutr Rev2013; 71:282–99.

Ried, K., “Garlic lowers blood pressure in hypertensive individuals, regulates serum cholesterol, and stimulates immunity: an updated meta-analysis and review,” Jour Nutr2016; 146:389S–396S.

Rizzo, M., et al. “Effects of chitosan on plasma lipids and lipoproteins: a 4-month prospective pilot study,” Angiology 2014; 65:538–42.

Rumberger, J., et al., “Pantethine, a derivative of vitamin B(5) used as a nutritional supplement, favorably alters low-density lipoprotein cholesterol metabolism in low- to moderate-cardiovascular risk North American subjects: a triple-blinded placebo and diet-controlled investigation,” Nutr Res2011; 31:608–15.

Sahebkar, A., “Effect of garlic on plasma lipoprotein(a) concentrations: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials,” Nutrition 2016; 32:33–40.

Satyavati, G., et al., “Guggulipid: A promising hypolipidemic agent from gum guggul (Commiphora),” Econ Med Plant Res 1991; 5:47–80.

Serban, M., et al., “Impact of L-carnitine on plasma lipoprotein(a) concentrations: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials,” Sci Rep 2016; 6:19188.

Singh, K., et al., “Guggulsterone, a potent hypolipidaemic, prevents oxidation of low density lipoprotein,” Phytother Res 1997; 11:291–94.

Singh, R., et al., “Hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of Commiphora mukul as an adjunct to dietary therapy in patients with hypercholesterolemia,” Cardiovas Drugs Ther 1994; 8(4):659–64.

Sprecher, D., et al., “Efficacy of psyllium in reducing serum cholesterol levels I hypercholesterolemic patients o high-or low-fat diets,” Ann Int Med 1993; 119:545–54.

Tenenbaum, A., et al., Fibrates are an essential part of modern anti-dyslipidemic arsenal: spotlight on atherogenic dyslipidemia and residual risk reduction,” Cardiovasc Diabetol 2012; Oct 11; 11:125.

Tomeo, A., et al., “Antioxidant effects of tocotrienols in patients with hyperlipidemia and carotid stenosis,” Lipids 1995; 12:1179–83.

Urberg, M., et al., “Hypocholesterolemic effects of nicotinic acid and chromium supplementation,” Jour Family Pract 1988; 27:603–06.

Vasanthi, H., et al., “Tocotrienols and its role in cardiovascular health--a lead for drug design,” Curr Pharm Des 2011; 17(21):2170-75.

Venero, C., et al., “Lipid-lower efficacy of red yeast rice in a population intolerant to statins,” Amer Jour Cariol 2010; 105:664-66.

Verma, S., et al., “Effect of Commiphora mukul (gum guggulu) in patients with hyperlipidemia with special reference to HDL cholesterol,” Indian Jour Med Res 1988; 87:356–60.

Warshafsky, E., et al., “Effect of garlic on total serum cholesterol,” Ann Int Med 1993; 119:599–605.

Wolever, T., et al., “Psyllium reduces blood lipids in men and women with hyperlipidemia,” Amer Jour Med Sci 1994; 307:269–73.

Zarei, A., et al., “A quick overview on some aspects of endocrinological and therapeutic effects of Berberis vulgaris L. Avicenna,” Jour Phytomed 2015; 5:485–97.

Zhao, S., et al., “Xuezhikang, an extract of cholestin, protects endothelial function through anti-inflammatory and lipid-lowering mechanisms in patients with coronary heart disease,” Circulation 2004; 110(8):915-20.

Zheng, X., et al., “Green tea intake lowers fasting serum total and LDL cholesterol in adults: a meta-analysis of 14 randomized controlled trails,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2011; 94:601-10.

 

Hyperthyroidism and Hypothyroidism

Aihara, K., et al., “Zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium metabolism in thyroid disease,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1984:40(1):26–35.

Berger, N., et al., “Influence of selenium supplementation on the post-traumatic alterations of the thyroid axis: a placebo-controlled trial,” Intensive Care Med 2001; 27(1):91-100.

Berry, M., et al., “The role of selenium in thyroid hormone action,” Endocrine Rev 1992; 13:207–20.

Brownstein, D., Overcoming Thyroid Disorders. West Bloomfield, MI: Medical Alternatives Press, 2002.

Brucker-David, F., “Effects of environmental synthetic chemicals on thyroid function,” Thyroid 1998; 8(9):827-56.

Campbell, N., et al., “Ferrous sulfate reduces thyroxine efficacy in patients with hypothyroidism,” Ann Intern Med 1992; 117(12):1010-13.

Christianson, A., and Murray, M., “Hypothyroidism.” In Pizzorno, J., and Murray, M., Textbook of Natural Medicine. St. Louis: Elsevier/Churchill Livingstone, 2013.

Contempre, B., et al. “Effect of selenium supplementation on thyroid hormone metabolism in an iodine and selenium deficient population,” Clin Endocrinol 1992; 36:579-83. 

Crayhon, R., Designs for Health Institute’s Eating and Supplement Plans. Boulder, CO: Designs for Health Institute, 2000.

Divi, R., et al., “Anti-thyroid isoflavones from soybean: isolation, characterization, and mechanism of action,” Biochem Pharmacol 1997; 54:10, 1087–96.

Feidt-Rasmussen, U., et al., “Effect of clomifene on thyroid function in normal men,” Acta Endocrinol 1979; 90(1):43-51.

Gaby, A., Nutritional Medicine. 2nd Ed., Concord, NH: Fritz Perlberg Publishing, 2017.

Kelly, G., “Peripheral metabolism of thyroid hormones: A review,” Alt Med Rev 2000; 5(4):306-33.

Kohrle, J., et al., “The deiodinase family: selenoenzymes regulating thyroid hormone availability and action,” Cell Mol Life Sci 2000; 57:1853–63.

Lazarus, J., et al., “Lithium therapy and thyroid function: A long-term study,” Psychol Med 1981; 11(1):85-92.

Maebashi, M., et al., “Urinary excretion of carnitine in patients with hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism: augmentation by thyroid hormone,” Metabolism 1977; 26(4):351–56.

Mano, T., et al., “Vitamin E and coenzyme Q10 concentrations in the thyroid tissues of patients with various thyroid disorders,” Amer Jour Med Sci 1998; 315(4):230–32.

Meinhold, H., et al., “Effects of selenium and iodine deficiency on iodothyronine diodinases in brain thyroid and peripheral tissue,” JAMA 1992; 19:8–12.

Nelis, G., et al., “The effect of oral cimetidine on the basal and stimulated values of prolactin, thyroid stimulating hormone, follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone,” Postgrad Med Jour 1980; 56(651):26-9.

Newman, C., et al., “Amiodarone and the thyroid: A practical guide to the management of thyroid dysfunction induced by amiodarone therapy,” Heart 1998; 79:121-27.

Nishiyama, S., et al., “Zinc supplementation alters thyroid hormone metabolism in disabled patients with zinc deficiency,” Jour Amer Coll Nutr 1994; 13:62–7.

Northcutt, R., et al., “The influence of cholestyramine on thyroxine absorption,” JAMA 1969; 208(10):1857-61.

Pansini, F., et al., “Effect of the hormonal contraception on serum reverse triiodothyronine levels,” Gynecol Obstet Invest 1987; 23:133.

Rachman, B., “Managing endocrine imbalance; autoimmune-induced thyroidopathy and chronic fatigue syndrome,” Functional Medicine Approaches to Endocrine Disturbances of Aging. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute For Functional Medicine, 2001.

Rootwelt, K., et al., “Effect of carbamazepine, phenytoin and phenobarbitone on serum levels of thyroid hormones and thyrotropin in humans,”  Scand Jour Clin Lab Invest 1978; 38(8):731-36.

Rose, N., et al., “The role of iodine in autoimmune thyroiditis,” Clin Reviews in Immunology 1997; 17:511-17.

Shames, R., Thyroid Power: 10 Steps to Total Health. New York, NY: HarperResource, 2001.

Sherman, S., et al., “Sucralfate causes malabsorption of L-thyroxine,” Amer Jour Med 1994; 96(6):531-35. 

Singh N., et al., “Effect of calcium carbonate on the absorption of levothyroxine,” JAMA 2000; 283(21):2822-25.

Smith, P., What You Must Know About Thyroid Disorders. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers, 2016.

Smith, P., What You Must Know About Women’s Hormones. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishing, 2010.

Sperber, A., et al., “Evidence for interference with the intestinal absorption of levothyroxine sodium by aluminum hydroxide,” Arch Intern Med 1992; 152(1):183-84.

St. Germain, D., “Selenium, deiodinases, and endocrine function.” In Hatfield (Ed): Selenium Its Molecular Biology and Role in Human Health. Boston: Kluwer, 2001, p. 189-202.

Starr, M., Hypothyroidism: Type 2. Columbia, MO: Mark Starr Trust, 2005.

Takasu, N., et al., “Rifampin-induced hypothyroidism in patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis,” NEJM 2005; 352(5):518-19.

Temple, L., “Hypothyroidism.” In Rakel, D., Integrative Medicine. 4th Ed, Philadelphia: Elsevier, 2018.

Vliet, E., Women, Weight and Hormones. New York, NY: M. Evans and Company, 2001.

 

Inflammation

Rountree, R., “Immune Dysfunction and Inflammation, Part II,” Applying Functional Medicine I Clinical Practice. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 2002.

Shaik-Dasthagirisaheb, Y., et al., “Role of vitamins D, E, and C in immunity and inflammation,” Jour Biol Regul Homeostat Agents 2013; 27(2):291-95.

Wood, A., et al.,Patterns of dietary intake and serum carotenoid and tocopherol status are associated with biomarkers of chronic low-grade systemic inflammation and cardiovascular risk,” Brit Jour Nutr 2014; 112(8):1341-52.

 

Insomnia

Abbasi, B., “The effect of magnesium supplementation on primary insomnia in elderly: A double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial,” Jour Res Med Sci 2012; 17(12):1161-69.

Chesson, A., et al., “Current trends in the management of insomnia,” Emergency Med April 2002.

Edling, C., et al., “Occupational exposure to organic solvents as a cause of sleep apnea,” Brit Jour Indust Med  1993; 50:276–79.

Garfinkel, D., et al., “Improvement of sleep quality in elderly people by controlled-release melatonin,” Lancet 1995; 346(8974):541–44.

Goldman, R., Sleep: Essential for Optimal Health. Chicago, IL: American Academy of Anti-Aging Physicians, 2003.

Haimov, I., et al., “Melatonin replacement therapy of elderly insomniacs,” Sleep 1995; 18(7):598–603.

Hornyak, M., et al., “Magnesium therapy for periodic leg movements-related insomnia and restless legs syndrome: an open pilot study,” Sleep 1998; 21:501–05.

James, S., et al., “Melatonin administration in insomnia,” Neuropsychopharm 1990; 3(1):19–23.

Kayumov, L., et al., “A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study of the effect of exogenous melatonin in delayed sleep phase syndrome,” Psychosom Med 2001; 63:40-8.

Pastora, J., et al., “Flavonoids from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L, Lamiaceae),” Acta Pol Pharm 2002; 59(2):139–43.

Schmidt, M., Tired of Being Tired. Berkeley, CA: Frog, Ltd, 1995.

Speroni, E., et al., “Neuropharmacologicial activity of extracts from Passiflora incarnate,” Planta Med 1988; 488–91.

Steiger, A., et al., “Effects of hormones on sleep,” Horm Res 1998; 49(3-4):125–30.

 

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

Belluzzi, A., et al., “Effect of an enteric coated fish-oil preparation or relapses in Crohn’s disease,” NEJM 1996; 334(24):1557–60.

Crayhon, R., Designs for Health Institute’s Eating and Supplement Plans. Boulder, CO: Designs for Health Institute, 2000.

Drisko, J., et al., “Treating irritable bowel syndrome with a food elimination diet followed by food challenge and probiotics,” Jour Amer Coll Nutr 2006; 25(6):514-22.

Floch, M., “Use of diet and probiotic therapy in the irritable bowel syndrome: analysis of the literature,” Jour Clin Gastroenterol 2005; 39(5 Suppl 3):S243-S246.

Gupta, I., et al., “Effects of Boswellia serrata gum resin in patients with ulcerative colitis,” Eur Jour Med Res 1997; 2(1):37–43.

Liu, J., et al., “Enteric-coated peppermint-oil capsules in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: a prospective, randomized trial,” Jour Gastroenterol 1997; 32(6):765–68.

Nobaek, S., et al., “Alteration of intestinal microflora is associated with reduction in abdominal bloating and pain in patients with IBS,” Amer Jour Gastroenterol 2000; 95(5):1231–38.

Pittler, M., et al., “Peppermint oil for irritable gowel syndrome: a critical review and metanalysis,” Amer Jour Gastroenterol 1998; 93:1131-35.

Salomon, P., et al., “Treatment of ulcerative colitis with fish oil n-3-omega-fatty acid: an open trial,” Jour Clin Gastro 1990; 12(2):157–61.

Shen, Y., et al., “Complementary and alternative medicine for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome,” Cam Fam Physician 2009; 55(2):143-48.

Shoda, R., et al., “Therapeutic efficacy of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid in experimental Crohn’s disease,” Jour Gastroenter 1995; 30 (Suppl 8):98A–101A.

Stenson, W., et al., “Dietary supplementation with fish oil in ulcerative colitis,” Ann Int Med 1992; 116(8):607–14.

Wald, A., et al., “Behavioral and complementary approaches for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome,” Nutr Clin Pract 2008; 23(3):284-92.

Yi-Hao, A., et al., “Complementary and alternative medicine for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome,” Can Fam Physician 2009; 55(2):143-48.

 

Leaky Gut Syndrome

Farshchi, M., et al., “A viewpoint on the leaky gut syndrome to treat allergic asthma: a novel opinion,” Jour Evid Based Complementary Altern Med 2017; 22(3):378-80.

Fukui, H., “Increased intestinal permeability and decreased barrier function: Does it really influence the risk of inflammation,” Inflamm Intest Dis 2016; 1(3):135-45.

Goldin, B., et al., “Health benefits of probiotics,” Brit Jour Nutr 1998; 80(4):S203–S207.

Lukaczer, D., “Gastroenterology, part II: gastrointestinal disorders: clinical applications using the functional medicine perspective.” In Applying Functional Medicine in Clinical Practice. Gig Harbor WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 2002.

Maes, M., et al., “Normalization of leaky gut in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is accompanied by a clinical improvement: effects of age, duration of illness and the translocation of LPS from gram-negative bacteria,” Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2008; 29(6):902-10.

Nebot-Vivinus, M., et al., “Multispecies probiotic protects gut barrier function in experimental models,” World Jour Gastroenterol 2014; 20(22):6832-43.

Odenwald, M., et al., “Intestinal permeability defects: is it time to treat,” Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2013; 11(9):1075-83.

Simeonova, D., et al., “Recognizing the leaky gut as a trans-diagnostic target for neuroimmune disorders using clinical chemistry and molecular immunology assays,” Curr Top Med Chem 2018; 18(19):1641-55.

Souba, W., et al., “The role of glutamine in maintaining a healthy gut and supporting the metabolic response to injury and infection,” Jour Surgical Res 1990; 48:383–91.

 

Leg Cramps

Braverman, E., Hypertension and Nutrition. New Canaan, CT: Keats Publishing, Inc. 1996.

Connolly, P., et al., Treatment of nocturnal leg cramps: a crossover trial of quinine vs vitamin E,” Arch Intern Med 1992; 152:1877–78.

Garrison, S., et al., “The effect of magnesium infusion on rest cramps: randomized controlled trial,” Jour Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2011; 66(6):661–66.

Guay, D., “Are there alternatives to the use of quinine to treat nocturnal leg cramps?” Consult Pharm 2008; 23(2):141–56.

Roffe, C., et al., “Randomised, crossover, placebo controlled trial of magnesium citrate in the treatment of chronic persistent leg cramps,” Med Sci Monit 2002; 8(5):CR326–CR330.

Roguin, M., et al., "Effect of magnesium oxide supplementation on nocturnal leg cramps. A randomized clinical trial," JAMA Int Med 2017; 177(5):617-23.

 

Lupus

Abou-Raya, A., et al., “The effect of vitamin D supplementation on inflammatory and hemostatic markers and disease activity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a randomized placebo-controlled trial,” Jour Rheumatol 2013; 40:265-72.

Bello, K., et al., “Omega-3 in SLE: a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial of endothelial dysfunction and disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus,” Rheumatol Inter 2013; 33:2789-96.

Bonakdar, Z., et al., “Vitamin D deficiency and its association with disease activity in new cases of systemic lupus erythematous,” Lupus 2011; 20:1155-60.

Calder, P, et al., “N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cytokine production in health and disease,” Ann Nutr Metab 1997; 41(4):203–34.

Chen, J., et al., “The effects of Chinese herbs on improving survival and inhibiting anti-ds DNA antibody production in lupus mice,” Amer Jour Chin Med 1993; 21: 257-62.

Chou, C., “The anti-inflammatory effect of an extract of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook.f. on adjuvant-induced paw edema in rats and inflammatory mediator release,” Phytother Res 1997; 11:152-54.

Chou, C., et al., “The inhibitory effect of common traditional anti-rheumatic herb formulas on prostaglandin E and interleukin 2 in vitro: a comparative study with Tripterygium wilfordii,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 1998; 62:167-71.

Crayhon, R., Designs for Health Institute’s Eating and Supplement Plans.  Boulder, CO: Designs for Health Institute, 2000.

Duffy, E., et al., “The clinical effect of dietary supplementation with omega-3 fish oils and/or copper in systemic lupus erythematosus,” Jour Rheumatol 2004; 31:1551-56.

Fernandes, G., et al., “Dietary lipids and risk of autoimmune disease,” Clin Immunopathol 1994; 72(2):193–97.

Gaby, A., “Lupus.” In Nutritional Medicine. 2nd Ed. Concord, NH: Fritz Perlberg Publishing, 2017.

Garcia, R., et al., “Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder scores are elevated and respond to N-acetylcysteine treatment in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus,” Arthritis Rheum 2013;65:1313-18.

Khajehdehi, P., et al., “Oral supplementation of turmeric decreases proteinuria, hematuria, and systolic blood pressure in patients suffering from relapsing or refractory lupus nephritis: a randomized and placebo-controlled study,” Jour Ren Nutr 2012; 22(1):50–7.

Lai, Z., et al., “N-acetylcysteine reduces disease activity by blocking mammalian target of rapamycin in T cells from systemic lupus erythematosus patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,” Arthritis Rheum 2012; 64:2937-46.

Lima, G., et al., “Vitamin D supplementation in adolescents and young adults with juvenile-onset systemic lupus erythematosus: improvement in disease activity and fatigue scores: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial,” Arthritis Care Res 2016; 68:91-8.

McAlindon, T., et al., “Indole-3-carbinol in women with SLE: effect on estrogen metabolism and disease activity,” Lupus 2001;10:779-83.

Muller, K., et al., “Vitamin D3 metabolism in patients with rheumatic disease: low serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus,” Clin Rheumatol 1995; 14:397-400.

Qiu, D., et al., “Immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory mechanisms of triptolide, the principal active diterpenoid from the Chinese medicinal herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook.f.,” Drugs RD 2003; 4:1-18.

Robinson, D., et al., “Suppression of autoimmune disease by dietary n-3 fatty acids,” Jour Lipd Res 1993; 34(8):1435–44.

Tao, X., et al., “The Chinese anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive herbal remedy Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F.,” Rheum Dis Clin North Amer2000; 26:29-50.

Tewthanom, K., et al., “The effect of high dose of N-acetylcysteine in lupus nephritis: a case report and literature review,” Jour Clin Pharm Ther 2010; 35:483-85.

Vien, C., et al., “Effect of vitamin A treatment on the immune reactivity of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus,” Jour Clin Lab Immunol 1988; 26:33-35, 42.

Walton, A., et al., “Dietary fish oil and the severity of symptoms in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus,” Ann Rheum Dis 1991; 50: 463-66.

 

Macular Degeneration

Anshel, J., What You Must Know About Food and Supplements for Optimal Vision Care. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers, 2015.

Chew, E., et al., “Long-term effects of vitamins C and E, B-carotene, and zinc on age-related macular degeneration: AREDS report No. 35,” Ophthalmology 2013; 120(8):1604-11.

Christen, W., et al., “Folic acid, pyridoxine, and cyanocobalamin combination treatment and age-related macular degeneration in women: The Women’s Antioxidant and Folic Acid Cardiovascular Study,” Arch Inter Med 2009; 169:335-41.

Crayhon, R, . “Aging well in the 21st century,” Seminar, 2002.

Delcourt, C., et al., “Age-related macular degeneration and antioxidant status in the POLA study: POLA study Group, pathologies Oculaires Liees a l’Age,” Arch Opth 1999; 117(10):384–89.

Feher, J., et al., “Improvement of visual functions and fundus alterations in early age-related macular degeneration treated with a combination of acetyl-L-carnitine, n-3 fatty acids, and coenzyme Q-10,” Ophthalmolgica 2005; 219:154-66.

Feskanich, D., et al., “Menopausal and reproductive factor and risk of age-related macular degeneration,” Arch Ophthalmol 2008; 126(4):519-24.

Freeman, E., et al., “Hormone replacement therapy, reproductive factors, and age-related macular degeneration: The Salisbury Eye Evaluation Project,” Ophthalmic Epidemol 2005; 12(1):37-45.

Gaby A., Nutritional Therapy in Medical Practice. 2nd Ed. Concord, NH Nutritional Seminars, 2018.

Gaby, A., et al., “Nutritional factors in degenerative eye disorders: cataract and macular degeneration,” Jour Advancement Med 1993; 6:27-40.

Gale, C., et al., “Lutein and zeaxanthin status and risk of age-related macular degeneration,” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2003; 44:2461-65.

Guarneri, P., et al., “Neurosteroids in the retina: neurodegenerative and neuroprotective agents in retinal degeneration.” Ann NY Acad Sci 2003; 1007:117-28.

Johnson, E., et al., “The influence of supplemental lutein and docosahexaenoic acid on serum, lipoproteins, and macular pigmentation,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2008; 87:1521-29.

Kouahan, K., et al., “The role of lutein in eye-related disease,” Nutrients 2013; 5(5):1823-39.

Landrum, J., et al., “A one-year study of the macular pigment: the effect of 140 days of lutein supplement,” Exp Eye Res 1997; 65:57-62.

Lebuisson, D., et al., “Treatment of senile macular degeneration with Ginkgo biloba extract. A preliminary double-blind, drug vs. placebo study,” Presse Med 1986; 15:1556-58.

Lundmark, P., et al., “Role of melatonin in the eye and ocular dysfunction,” Vis Neurosci 2006; 23(6):853-62.

Mares-Perlman, J., et al., “Association of zinc and antioxidants with age-related maculopathy,” Arch Ophth 1996; 114:991-97.

Murray, M., et al., Macular Degeneration. In Pizzorno, J., et al. (Eds.) Textbook of Natural Medicine. 3rd Ed., St Louis: Elsevier, 2012.

Newsome, D., et al., “Oral zinc in macular degeneration,” Arch Ophthal 1988; 106:192-98.

Newsome, D., et al., “Zinc content of human retinal pigment epithelium decreases with age and macular degeneration, but superoxide dismutase activity increases,” Jour Trace Elem Environ Med 1995; 193-99.

Richer, S., et al., “Double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of lutein and antioxidant supplementation in the intervention of atrophic age-related macular degeneration: The Veterans LAST study (Lutein Antioxidant Supplementation Trial),” Optometry 2004; 75:216-30.

SanGiovanni, J., et al., “Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid intake inversely associated with a 12-year progression to advanced age-related macular degeneration,” Arch Ophthalmol 2009; 127(1):110-12.

Schutt, F., et al., “Vitamins and trace elements in age-related macular degeneration: current recommendations, based on the results of the AREDS study,” Ophthalmolage 2002; 99(4):301-03.

Seddon, J., et al., “Dietary carotenoids, vitamins A, C, and E, and advanced age-related macular degeneration: eye disease case-control study group,” JAMA 1994; 272(18):1413-20.

Smith, W., et al., “Gender, oestrogen, hormone replacement and age-related macular degeneration: results from The Blue Mountains Eye Study,” Aust NZ Jour Ophthalmol 1997; 25 (Suppl 1) 1:S13-S15.

Tamer, C., et al., “Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate level in age-related macular degeneration,” Amer Jour Ophthalmol 2007 143(2):212-16.

Winkler, B., et al., “Oxidative damage and age-related macular degeneration,” Mol Vis 1999; 5:32.

Wright, J., “Improvement of vision in macular degeneration associated with intravenous zinc and selenium therapy: two cases,” Jour Nutr Med 1990; 1:133-38.

Wu, J., et al., “Intakes of lutein, zeaxanthin, and other carotenoids and age-related macular degeneration during 2 decades of prospective follow-up,” JAMA Ophthalmol 2015: 1-10.

Yi, C., et al., “Effects of melatonin in age-related macular degeneration,” Ann NY Acad Sci 2005; 1057:384-92.

 

Menstrual Cramps

Abraham, G., “Primary dysmenorrhea,” Clin Obstet Gynecol 1978; 21:139-45.

Baker, S., “Menstruation and Related Problems and Concerns.” In Youngkin, E., et al., (Eds.) Women’s Health: A Primary Care Clinical Guide. Stanford, CT: Appleton & Lange, 1998, p. 140-60.

Benassi, L., et al., “Effectiveness of magnesium pidolate in the prophylactic treatment of primary dysmenorrhea,” Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol 1992; 19:176-79.

Blumenthal, H., The Complete German Commission E Monographs: Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicine. Boston: American Botanical Council, 1998.

Bone, K., Clinical Applications of Ayurvedic and Chinese Herbs. Queensland, Australia, Phytotherapy Press, 2000.

Bone, K., A Clinical Guide to Blending Liquid Herbs: Herbal Formulations for the Individual Patient. St. Louis: Churchill Livingstone, 2003.

Brinker, F., “A comparative review of eclectic female regulators,” Jour Naturopath Med 1997; 7(1):21-26.

Bruneton, J., Pharmacognosy: Phytochemistry Medicinal Plants. Paris: Lavoisier, 1999.

Butler, E., et al., “Vitamin E in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea,” Lancet 1955; 1:844-47.

Deutch, B., et al., “Menstrual pain in Danish women correlated with low omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake,” Eur Jour Clin Nutr 1995; 49:508-16.

Gaby, A., “Dysmenorrhea.” In Nutritional Medicine. 2nd Ed., Concord, NH: Fritz Perlberg Publishing, 2017.

Gokhale, L., “Curative treatment of primary (spasmodic) dysmenorrhea,” Indian Jour Med Res 1996; 103:227-31.

Guerrera, M., et al., “Therapeutic uses of magnesium,” Amer Fam Physician 2009; 80(2):157-62.

Harel, Z., et al., “Supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the management of dysmenorrhea in adolescents,” Amer Jour Obstet Gynecol 1996; 174:1335-38.

Hoerhammer, L., “Flavone concentration of medicinal plants with regard to their spasmolytic action,” Chem Abstr 1988; 61(19):578-88.

Hudgins, A., et al., “Vitamins P.C. and niacin for dysmenorrhea therapy,” West Jour Surg Obstet Gynecol 1954; 62:610-11.

Imai, A., et al., “Possible evidence that the herbal medicine shakuyaku-kanzo-to decreases prostaglandin levels through suppressing arachidonate turnover in endometrium,” Jour Med 1995; 26(3-4):163-74.

Lasco, A., et al., “Improvement of primary dysmenorrhea caused by a single oral dose of vitamin D results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study,” Arch Inter Med 2012; 172:366-67.

Low Dog, T., “Dysmenorrhea. In Integrative Women’s Health. Albuquerque: Integrative Medicine Associates, 2000.

Moini, A., et al., “The effect of vitamin D on primary dysmenorrhea with vitamin D deficiency: a randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial,” Gynecol Endocrinol 2016; 32:502-05.

Mukherjee, G., et al., “Treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding with micronized flavonoids,” Int Jour Gynaecol Obstet 2005; 89:156-57.

Namavar, J., et al., “Comparison of fennel and mefenamic acid for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea,” Int Jour Gynaecol Obstet 2003; 80:153-57.

Ozgoli, G., et al., “Comparison of effects of ginger mefenamic acid, and ibuprofen on pain in women with primary dysmenorrhea,” Jour Altern Complement Med 2009; 15:129-32.

Rahnama, p., et al., “Effect of Zingiber officinale R. rhizomes (ginger) on pain relief in primary dysmenorrhea: a placebo randomized trial,” BMC Complement Altern Med 2012; 12:92.

Rasgon, N., et al., “Vitamin E for the treatment of dysmenorrhea,” BJOG 2005; 112:1164.

Romm, A., et al., “AHG Professional Member Botanical Therapeutics Survey: Vitex angus castus,” JAHG 2001; 2(2):27-31.

Shafer, N., “Iron in the treatment of dysmenorrhea: a preliminary report,” Curr Ther Res 1965; 7:365-66.

Smith, P., What You Must Know About Women’s Hormones. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers, 2010.

Stansbury, J., et al., “Dysmenorrhea.” In Romm, A., Botanical Medicine for Women’s Health. St. Louis: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier, 2010, p. 130-39.

Upton, R., American Herbal Pharmacopoeia and Therapeutic Compendium: Dong quai root Angelica sinensis (Oliv.). Santa Cruz, CA: American Herbal Pharmacopeia, 2003.

Upton, R., American Herbal Pharmacopoeia and Therapeutic Monographs: Cramp Bark. Santa Cruz, CA: American Herbal Pharmacopeia, 2000.

Weiss, B., et al., Herbal Medicine. 2nd Ed. Stuttgart, Germany: Thieme, 2000.

Wichtl, M., Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals: A Handbook for Practice on a Scientific Basis. 4th Ed. Stuttgart, Germany: Medpharm, 2004.

Zekavat, O., et al., “A randomised controlled trial of oral zinc sulphate for primary dysmenorrhea in adolescent females,” Aust NZ Jour Obstet Gynaecol 2015; 55:369-73.

Zhu, D., “Dong Quai,” Amer Jour Chinese Medicine 1987; 15(3-4):117-25.

Ziaei, S., et al., “A randomised controlled trial of vitamin E in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea,” Brit Jour Obstet Gynaecol 2005; 112:4766-69.

Ziaei, S., et al., “A randomised placebo-controlled trial to determine the effect of vitamin E in the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea,” Brit Jour Obstet Gynaecol 2001; 108:1181-83.

 

Migraine Headaches

Alstadhaug, K., et al., “Prophylaxis of migraine with melatonin: a randomized controlled trial,” Neurology 2010; 75(17):1527-32.

AMR (Alternative Medicine Review) Riboflavin. Monograph. Altern Med Rev 2008; 13(4):334-40.

Bono, G., “Serotonin precursors in migraine prophylaxis,” Adv Neurol 1982; 33:357-63.

Boska, M., et al., “Contrasts in cortiomagnesium, phospholipoid, and energy metabolism between migraine syndrome,” Neurology 2002. 58:1227-33.

Demirkaya, S., et al., “Efficacy of intravenous magnesium sulphate in the treatment of acute migraine attacks,” Headache 2001; 41:171-77.

Diener, H., “Efficacy of acupuncture for the prophylaxis of migraine: a multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial,” Lancet Neurol 2006; 5:310-16.

Diener, H., et al., “The first placebo-controlled trial of a special butterbur root extract for the prevention of migraine: reanalysis of efficacy criteria,” Eur Neurol 2004; 51(2):89-97.

Drummond, P., “Tryptophan depletion increases nausea, headache and photophobia in migraine sufferers,” Cephalalgia 2006; 26(10):1225-33.

Ernest, E., et al., “The efficacy and safety of feverfew (Tanacetumparthenium L.): an update of a systematic review,” Public Health Nutr 2000; 3(4A):509-14.

Fetrow, C., et al., “Efficacy of the dietary supplement S-adenosyl-L-methionine,” Ann Pharmacother 2001; 35(11):1414-25.

Gallai, V., et al., “Magnesium content of mononuclear blood cells in migraine patients,” Headache 1994; 34:160-65.

Gawel, M., et al., “The use of feverfew in the prophylaxis of migraine attacks,” Today’s Ther Trends 1995; 13(20):79–86.

Glueck, C., et al., “Amelioration of severe migraine with omega-2 fatty acids: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial,” Amer Jour Clin Nurt 1986; 42(4):710.

Goodyear-Smith F., “Feverfew. Bachelor's buttons, Featherfew (Tanacetumparthenium L. aka Chrysanthemum parthenium L. aka Pyrethrum parthenium L.),” Jour Prim Health Care 2010; 2(4):337.

Harel, H., et al., “Supplementation with omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids in the management of recurrent migraines in adolescents,” Jour Adolesc Health 2002; 31:154-61.

Johnson, E., et al. “Efficacy of feverfew as prophylactic treatment for migraine,” BMJ 1985; 291:569-73.

Kopjas, T., “The use of folic acid in vascular headache of the migraine type,” Headache 1969; 167-70.

Koseoglu, E., et al., “The effects of magnesium prophylaxis in migraine without aura,” Magnes Res 2008; 21(2):101-08.

Lipton, R., et al., “Petasites hybridus root (butterbur) is an effective preventive treatment for migraine,” Neurology 2004; 63:2240-44.

Mann, J., and Coeytaux, R., “Headache.” In Rakel, D., Integrative Medicine. 3rd Ed., Philadelphia: Elsevier, 2012.

McCaren, T., et al., “Amelioration of severe migraine by fish oil (n-3) fatty acids,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1985; 41:874.

Miller, L., “Herbalmedicinals: selected clinical considerations focusing on known or potential drug-herb interactions,” Arch Int Med 1998; 158(9):2200-11.

Murphy, J., et al., “Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of feverfew in migraine prevention,” Lancet 1988; 2(8604):189–92.

Mustafa,T., et al., “Ginger (Zingiberofficinale) in migraine headache,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 1990; 29(3):267-73.

Pareek, A., et al., “Feverfew (Tanacetumparthenium L.): A systematic review,” Pharmacogn Rev 2011; 5(9): 103–10.

Pothmann, R., et al., “Migraine prevention in children and adolescents: results of an open study with a special butterbur root extract,” Headache 2005; 45(3):196-203.

Ramadan, N., et al., “Low brain magnesium in migraine,” Headache 1989; 29:590-93.

Rozen, T., et al., “Open label trial of coenzyme Q10 as a migraine preventive,” Cephalalgia 2002; 22:137-41.

Sandor, P., et al., “Efficacy of coenzyme Q10 in migraine prophylaxis: A Randomized controlled trial,” Neurology 2005; 64:713-15.

Schoenen, J., et al., “Effectiveness of high-dose riboflavin in migraine prophylaxis. A randomized controlled trial,” Neurol 1998; 50(2):466–70.

Sicuteri, F., “The ingestion of serotonin precursors (L-5-hydroxytryptophan and L-tryptophan) improves migraine headache,” Headache 1973;13(1):19-22.

Slater, S., et al., “A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover, add-on study of CoEnzyme Q10 in the prevention of pediatric and adolescent migraine,” Cephalalgia 2011; 31(8):897-905.

Sudak, N., “Migraine Headaches.” In Pizzorno, J., Murray, M., (Eds.) Textbook of Natural Medicine. St. Louis: Elsevier, 2013. 

Sun-Edelstein C., et al., “Role of magnesium in the pathogenesis and treatment of migraine,” Expert Rev Neurother 2009; 9(3):369-79.

Swanson, D., “Migraine and magnesium: eleven neglected connections,” Perspect Biol Med 1988; 31:526-57.

Talebi, M., et al., “Relation between serum magnesium level and migraine attack,” Neurosciences 2011; 16(4):320-23.

Thomas, J., et al., “Serum and erythrocyte magnesium concentrations and migraine,” Magnes Res 1992; 5(2):127–30.

Thys-Jacobs, S., et al., “Alleviation of migraines with therapeutic vitamin D and calcium,” Headache 1994; 34(10):590–92.

Thys-Jacobs, S., et al., “Vitamin E and calcium in menstrual migraine,” Headache 1994; 34(9):544–46.

Titus, F., et al., “5-Hydroxytryptophan versus methysergide in the prophylaxis of migraine. Randomized clinical trial,” Eur Neurol 1986; 25(5):327-29.

Vogler, B., et al., “Feverfew as a preventive treatment for migraine: a systematic review,” Cephalalgia 1998; 18(10):704–08.

Welch, K., et al., “Mitochondria, magnesium and migraine,” Jour Neurol Sci 1995; 134:9-14.

 

Multiple Sclerosis

Amato, M., et al., “Cognitive dysfunction in early-onset multiple sclerosis: a reappraisal after 10 years,” Arch Neurol 2001; 58:1602-06.

Baker, R., et al., “Serum fatty acids in multiple sclerosis,” Jour Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1964; 27:408-14.

Bates, D., et al., “Polyunsaturated fatty acids in treatment of acute remitting multiple sclerosis,” Brit Med Jour 1978; 2:1390-91.

Cantorna, M., “Vitamin D and autoimmunity: is vitamin D status an environmental factor affecting autoimmune disease prevalence?” Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 2000; 223:230-33.

Delanty, N., et al., “Antioxidant therapy in neurologic disease,” Arch Neruol 2000; 57:1265–70.

Dworkin, R., et al., “Linoleic acid and multiple sclerosis: a reanalysis of three double-blind trials,” Neurology 1984; 34:1441–45.

Gaby, A., “Multiple Sclerosis.” In Nutritional Medicine. Concord, NH: Fritz Perlberg Publishing, 2011.

Gallai, V., et al., “Cytokine secretion and eicosanoid production in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of MS patients undergoing dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids,” Jour Neuroimmunol 1995; 56:143-53.

Ghadrian, P., et al., “Nutritional factors in the aetiology of MS: A case-control study in Montreal Canada,” Int Jour Epidmiol 1998; 27(5):845–52.

Harbige, L., et al., “The protective effects of omega-6 fatty acids in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in relation to transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta1) up-regulation and increased prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production,” Clin Exp Immunol 2000; 122:445-52.

Hauser, S., et al., “An antispasticity effect of threonine in multiple sclerosis,” Arch Neurol 1992; 49:923-26.

Hayes, C., et al., “Vitamin D and multiple sclerosis,” Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1997; 216:121–27.

Hiremath G., et al., “Vitamin D status and effect of low-dose cholecalciferol and high-dose ergocalciferol supplementation in multiple sclerosis,” Mult Scler 2009; 15:735-40.

Horrobin, D., “Multiple sclerosis: the rational basis for treatment with colchicine and evening primrose oil,” Med Hypotheses 1979; 5:365-78.

Isager, H., “Serum folate in patients with multiple sclerosis,” Acta Neurol Scand 1970; 46:238-42.

Laur, K., et al., “Diet and multiple sclerosis,” Neurology 1997; 49(Suppl 2):S55–S61.

Lebrun, C., et al., “Levocarnitine administration in multiple sclerosis patients with immunosuppressive therapy-induced fatigue,” Mult Scler 2006; 12:321–24.

Lovera, J., et al. “Ginkgo biloba for the improvement of cognitive performance in multiple sclerosis: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial,” Mult Scler 2007; 13:376-85.

Marracci, G., et al., “Alpha lipoic acid inhibits human T-cell migration: implications for multiple sclerosis,” Jour Neurosci Res 2004; 78:362-70.

Millar, J., et al., “Double-blind trial of linoleate supplementation of the diet in multiple sclerosis,” Brit Med Jour 1973; 1:765-68.

Moini, H., et al., “Antioxidant and pro-oxidant activities of alpha-lipoic acid and dihydrolipoic acid,” Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2002; 182:84-90.

Munger, K., et al., “Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and risk of multiple sclerosis,” JAMA 2006; 296:2832-38.

Munger, K., et al., “Vitamin D intake and incidence of multiple sclerosis,” Neurology 2004; 62:60-65.

Navarro, X., et al., “Plasma lipids and their fatty acid composition in multiple sclerosis,” Acta Neurol Scand 1988; 78:152-57.

Neu, I., “Essential fatty acids in the serum and cerebral spinal fluid of multiple sclerosis patients,” Acta Neurol Scand 1983; 67:151-63.

Nieves, J., et al., “High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and reduced bone mass in multiple sclerosis,” Neurol  1994; 44(9):1687–92.

Nordvik, I., et al., “Effect of dietary advice and n-3 supplementation in newly diagnosed multiple sclerosis patients,” Acta Neurol Scand 2000; 102:143–49.

Olsen, S., “A review of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) by people with multiple sclerosis,” Occup Ther Int 2009; 16:57-70.

Packer, L., et al., “Alpha-lipoic acid: a metabolic antioxidant and potential redox modulator of transcription,” Adv Pharmacol 1997; 38:79-101.

Packer, L., et al., “Alpha lipoic acid as a biological antioxidant,” Free Radic Biol Med 1995; 19:227-50.

Paty, D., et al., “Linoleic acid in multiple sclerosis: failure to show any therapeutic benefit,” Acta Neurol Scand 1978; 58:53-58.

Perlmutter, D., BrainRecovery.com. Naples, Florida: The Perlmutter Health Center, 2000.

Perlmutter, D., “Multiple Sclerosis functional approaches.” Townsend Letter Nov. 2003; 244.

Pierce, S., Ammon, P., “Multiple Sclerosis.” In Rakel, D., Integrative Medicine. 3rd Ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier, 2012.

Reynolds, E., et al., “Multiple sclerosis and vitamin B12 metabolism,” Jour Neuroimmun 1992; 40:225-30.

Reynolds, E., et al., “Vitamin B12 deficiency, demyelination, and multiple sclerosis,” Lancet 1987; 2:920.

Rudick, R., et al., “Management of multiple sclerosis,” NEJM 1997; 337(22):1604–67.

Sanoobar, M., et al., “Coenzyme Q-10 supplementation reduces oxidative stress and increases antioxidant enzyme activity in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis,” Int Jour Neurosci 2013; 123(11):776-82.

Schriebelt, G., et al., “Lipoic acid affects cellular migration into the central nervous system and stabilizes blood-brain barrier integrity,” Jour Immunol 2006; 177:2630-37.

Shinto, L., et al., “Multiple Sclerosis.” In Pizzorno, J., and Murray, M., Textbook of Natural Medicine. St. Louis: Elsevier, 2013, p. 1628-37.

Shinto, L, et al., “Omega-3-fatty acid supplementation decreases matrix metalloproteinase-9 production in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis,” Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2009; 80:131-36.

Smolders, J., et al., “Vitamin D status is positively correlated with regulatory T cell function in patients with multiple sclerosis,” PLoS One 2009; 4:e6635.

Swank, R., et al., “Effect of low saturated fat diet in early and late cases of MS,” Lancet 1990; 336:37–9.

Swank, R., et al., “MS in rural Norway: its geographic and occupational incidence in relation to nutrition,” NEJM 1952; 246:721–28.

Swank, R., et al., “MS: the lipid relationship,” Am Jour Clin Nutr 1988; 48(6):1387–39.

Swank, R., et al., “Multiple sclerosis: twenty years on a low fat diet,” Arch Neurol 1970; 23:460–74.

Tomassini, V., et al., “Comparison of the effects of acetyl L-carnitine and amantadine for the treatment of fatigue in multiple sclerosis: results of a pilot, randomised, double-blind, crossover trial,” Jour Neuro Sci 2004; 218:103-08.

Yadav, V., et al., “Lipoic acid in multiple sclerosis: a pilot study,” Mult Scler 2005; 11:159-65.

Wade, D., et al., “A randomised placebo controlled exploratory study of vitamin B12, lofepramine, and L-phenylalanine (the ‘Cari Loder regime’) in the treatment of multiple sclerosis,” Jour Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2002; 72; 246-49.

Wingerchuk, D., et al., “A pilot study of oral calcitriol (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis,” Jour Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2005; 6(9):1294-96.

 

Myasthenia Gravis

Cadegiani, F., “Remission of severe myasthenia gravis after massive-dose vitamin D treatment,” Amer Jour Case Rep 2016; 17:51-4.

Calder, P., et al., “N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cytokine production in health and disease,” Ann Nutr Metab 1997; 41(4):203234.

Crayhon, R., Designs for Health Institute’s Eating and Supplement Plans. Boulder, CO: Designs for Health Institute, 2000.

Fernandes, G., et al., “Dietary lipids and risk of autoimmune disease,” Clin Immunopathol 1994; 72(2):193–97.

Lee, K., et al., “The Antispastic Effect of L-Threonine.” In Lubec and Rosenthal (Eds.) Amino Acids: Chemistry, Biology and Medicine, 1990.

Lee, A., et al., “A double-blind study of L-threonine in patients with spinal spasticity,” Acta Neurol Scand 1993; 88:334-38.

Robinson, D., et al., “Suppression of autoimmune disease by dietary n-3 fatty acids.” Jour Lipd Res 1993; 34(8):1435–44.

 

Osteoarthritis

Baci, A., et al., “Bioavailability of oral chondroitin sulfate,” Rheumatology Int 1993; 13:41-3.

Crolle, G., et al., “Glucosamine sulfate for the management of arthrosis: a controlled clinical investigation,” Curr Med Res Opin 1980; 7:104-09.

Drovanti, A., et al., “Therapeutic activity of oral glucosamine sulfate in osteoarthritis: a placebo-controlled, double-blind investigation,” Clin Ther 1980; 3:260–72.

Felson, D., et al., “Weight loss reduces the risk for symptomatic knee osteoarthritis in women,” Ann Intern Med 1992; 116:535-39.

Flynn, D., et al., “Inhibition of human neutrophil-lipoxygenase activity by ginger dione shagaol, capsaicin, and related pungent compounds,” Prostaglandins Leukotr Med 1986; 24:195–98.

Gaby, A., “Osteoarthritis.” In Nutritional Medicine. 2nd Ed. Concord, NH: Fritz Perlberg Publishing, 2017.

Hartz, A., et al., “The association of obesity with joint pain and osteoarthritis in the Hanes data,” Jour Chronic Dis 1986; 30:311-19.

Hinton, R., et al., “Osteoarthritis: diagnosis and therapeutic considerations,” Amer Fam Physician 2002; 65:841-48.

Jones, W., et al., “The effect of niacinamide on osteoarthritis: a pilot study,” Inflamm Res 1996; 45:330-34.

Krystal, G., et al., “Stimulation of DNA synthesis by ascorbate in cultures of articular chondrocytes,” Arch Rhem 1982; 23:318-25.

Li, M., et al., “New hope for the treatment of osteoarthritis through selective inhabition of MMP-13,” Curr Med Chem 2011; 18(7):977-1001.

Machtey, I., et al., “Tocopherol in osteoarthritis: a controlled pilot study,” Jour Amer Ger Soc 1978; 26:328-30.

May, J., et al., “Transport and intracellular accumulation of vitamin C in endothelial cells relevance to collagen synthesis,” Arch  Biochem and Biophysics 2005; 434(1):178-86.

McAlindon, T., et al., “Do antioxidant micronutrients protect against the development and progression of knee osteoarthritis?” Arthritis Rheum 1996; 39:648-56.

McAlinton, T., et al., “Glucosamine and chondrotin for the treatment of osteoarthritis,” JAMA 2002; 283:1469–75.

McAlindon, T., et al., “Relation of dietary intake and serum levels of vitamin D to progression of osteoarthritis of the knees among participants in the Framingham Study,” Ann Inter Med 1996; 125:353-59.

McCarty, M., et al., “Niacinamide therapy for osteoarthritis does it inhibit nitric oxide synthase induction by interleukin 1 in chondrocytes?” Med Hypotheses 1999; 53(4):350-60.

Meisser, S., et al., “Exercise and dietary weight loss in overweight obese older adults with knee osteoarthritis: The Arthritis, Diet, and Activity Promotion Trial,” Arthritis Rheum 2004; 50:1501-10.

Mori, T., et al., “Omega-3-fatty acids and inflammation,” Curr Atheroscelrosis 2004; 6(6):461-67.

Morreale, P., et al., “Comparison of the anti-inflamatory efficacy of chondroitin sulfate and dicolfenac sodium in patients with knee osteoarthritis,” Jour Rheumatol 1996; 23:1385–91.

Muller-Fassbender, H., et al., “Glucosamine sulfate compared to ibuprofen in osteoarthritis of the knee,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 1994; 2:61-9.

Murray, M., et al., “Osteoarthritis.” In Textbook of Natural Medicine. 4th Ed., Pizzorno, J., and Murray, M., (Eds.). St Louis: Elsevier, 2013.

Neveb, Y., et al., “Zinc metabolism in rheumatoid arthritis: plasma and urinary zinc and relationship to disease activity,” Jour Rheum 1997; 24(4):643-47.

Noack, W., et al., “Glucosamine sulfate in osteoarthritis of the knee,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 1994; 2:51-9.

Patrella, R., “Hyaluronic acid for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis: long-term outcomes from a naturalistic primary care experience,” Amer Jour Phys Med Rahabil 2005; 84(4):278-83.

Pujalte, J., et al., “Double-blind clinical evaluation of oral glucosamine sulphate in the basic treatment of osteoarthrosis,” Curr Med Res Opin 1980; 7:110-14.

Reginster, J., et al., “Long-term effects of glucosamine sulfate on osteoarthritis progress, placebo-controlled trial,” Lancet 2001; 357:251–56.

Sato, M., et al., “Quercetin, a bioflavonoid, inhibits the induction of interleukin gamma and monocyte chemoattractant protein-expression by tumor necrosis factor-alpha in cultured human synovial cells,” Jour Rheumatol 1997; 24(9):1680–94.

Schwartz, E., “The modulation of osteoarthritic development by vitamins C and E,” Int Jour Vitamin Nutr Res Suppl 1984; 26:141-46.

Srivastava, L., et al., “Ginger (Zingiber officinale) in rheumatism and musculoskeletal disorders,” Med Hypothesis 1992; 39(4):342–48.

Travers, R., et al., “Boron and arthritis: the results of a double-blind pilot study,” Jour Nutr Med 1990; 1:127–32.

Uebelhart, D., et al., “Effects of oral chondrotin sulfate on the progression of knee osteoarthritis: a pilot study,” Osteoarthritis Cartilage 1998; 6(Suppl A): 39–46.

Vaz, A., et al., “Double-blind-clinical evaluation of the relative efficacy of ibuprofen and glucosamine sulfate in the management of the knee in out-patients,” Curr Med Resp Opin 1982; 8:145–49.

 

Osteoporosis

Adami, S., et al., “Impriflavone prevents radical bone loss in postmenopausal woman with low bone mass over 2 years,” Osteoporosis Int 1997; 7:119–26.

Agnusdei, D., et al., “Effects of ipriflavone on bone mass and calcium metabolism in postmenopausal osteoporosis,” Bone Mineral 1992; 19(Suppl):S43–S48.

Amin, S., “Male osteoporosis: epidemiology and pathophysiology,” Curr Osteoporosis Rep 2003; 1:71-7.

Armas, L., et al., “Vitamin D2 is much less effective than vitamin D3 in humans,” Jour Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004; 89:5387-391.

Bischoff-Ferrari, H., et al., “Fracture prevention with vitamin D supplementation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials,” JANA 2005; 293(18):2257-64.

Bonjour, J., et al., “Nutritional aspects of hip fractures,” Bone 1996; 18(3 Suppl):139S-44S.

Booth, S., et al., “Effects of a hydrogenated form of vitamin K on bone formation and resorption,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2001; 74(6):783-90.

Booth, S., et al., “Warfarin use and fracture risk,” Nutr Rev 2000; 5891):20-2.

Canderelli, R., et al., “Benefits of hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women,” Jour Amer Acad Nurse Pract 2007; 119(12):635-41.

Coats, C., et al., “Negative effects of high protein diet,” Fam Prac Recert 1990; 12(12):80–8.

Crayhon, R., Designs for Health Institute’s Eating and Supplement Plans. Boulder, CO: Designs for Health Institute, 2000.

Dawson-Hughes, B., et al., “Effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation in bone density in women and men 65 years of age or older,” NEJM 1997; 337:670–76.

Dimai, H., et al., “Daily oral magnesium supplementation suppresses bone turnover in young adult males,” Jour Clin Endocrin Metab 1998; 83(8):2742–48.

Emkey, R., et al., “Calcium metabolism and correcting calcium deficiencies,” Osteoporosis: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics 2012; 41(3):527-56.

Gaby, A., Preventing and Reversing Osteoporosis. Rocklin, CA: Prima Publishing, 1994.

Germano, R., The Osteoporosis Solution. New York, NY: Kensington Publishing Corp, 1999.

Gittleman, A., Super Nutrition for Menopause. New York, NY: Avery Publishing Group, 1998.

Glendenning, P., et al., “Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in vitamin D-insufficient hip fracture patients after supplementation with ergocalciferol and cholecalciferol,” Bone 2009; 45(5):870-75.

Hansen, L., et al., “Prevention and treatment of nonpostmenopausal osteoporosis,” Amer Jour Health Syst Pharm 2004; 61(24):2637-654.  

Harman, S., et al., “Longitudinal effects of aging on serum total and free testosterone levels in healthy men,” Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Jour Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001; 86:724-31.

Head, K., et al., “Ipriflavone: an important bone-building isoflavone,” Altern Med Rev 1999; 4(1):10–22.

Heaney R., et al., “Vitamin D(3): is more potent than vitamin D(2) in humans,” Jour Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001; 96(3):E447-52.

Kaneki, M., et al., “Vitamin K2 as a protector of bone health and beyond,” Clin Calcium 2005; 15(4):605-10.

Krall, E, et al. “Smoking increases bone loss and decreases intestinal calcium absorption.” Jour Bone Miner Res 1999; 14(2):215–20.

Kruger, M., et al., “Calcium, gamma-linolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid supplementation in senile osteoporosis,” Aging 1998; 10(5):385–94.

Lloyd, T., et al., “Dietary caffeine intake and bone status of postmenopausal women,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1997; 65(6):1826–30.

Melhus, H., et al., “Smoking, antioxidant vitamins, and the risk of hip fracture,” Jour Bone Miner Res 1999; 14(1):129–35.

Miggiano, G., et al., “Vitamin K and diet: problems and prospects,” Clin Ther 2005; 156(1-2):41-6.

Morley, J., “Androgens and aging,” Maturitas 2001; 38:61-71.

Niewoehner, C., et al., “Steroid-induced osteoporosis. Are your asthmatic patients at risk?” Postgrad Med 1999; 105(3):79–83, 87–88, 91.

O’Donnell, S., et al., Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006; 18(4):CD005326.

Okano, T., “Vitamin D, K and bone mineral density,” Clin Calcium 2005; 15(9):1489-494. 

Ooms, M., et al., “Prevention of bone loss by vitamin D supplementation in elderly women,” Jour Clin Endocrinol Metabol 1995; 80:1052–58.

Papadimitropoulos, E., et al., “Meta-analyses of therapies for postmenopausal osteoporosis, VIII: meta-analysis of the efficacy of vitamin D treatment in preventing osteoporosis in postmenopausal women,” Osteoporosis Methodology Group and The Osteoporosis Research Advisory Group. Endocr Rev 2002; 23(4):560-69.

Peris, P., et al., “Etiology and presenting symptoms in male osteoporosis,” Brit Jour Rheumatol 1995; 34(10):935–41.

Philip, W., et al., “Decreased axial and peripheral bone density in patients taking long-term warfarin,” QJM 1995; 88(9):635040.

Pizzorno, L., “Vitamin K: Beyond coagulation to uses in bone, vascular, and anti-cancer metabolism,” Integrative Med 2008; 7(2):24-30.

Reese, A., et al., “Low-dose vitamin K to augment anticoagulation control,” Pharmacotherapy 2005; 25(12):1746-751.

Reginster, Y., et al., “Ipriflavone: pharmacological properties and usefulness in postmenopausal osteoporosis,” Bone Mineral 1993; 23:223–32.

Romagnoli, E., et al., “Short and long-term variations in serum calciotropic hormones after a single very large dose of ergocalciferol (vitamin D2) or cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) in the elderly,” Jour Clin Endocrinol Metabol 2008; 93(8):3015-20.

Shiraki, M., et al., “Vitamin K2 (menatetrenone) effectively prevents fractures and sustains lumbar bone mineral density in osteoporosis,” Jour Bone Miner Res 2000; 15(3):515-21.

Snyder, P., et al., “Effect of testosterone treatment on bone mineral density in men over 65 years of age,” Jour Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999; 84:1966-72.

Sojka, J., et al., “Magnesium supplementation and osteoporosis,” Nutr Rev 1995; 53(3):71–4.

Stevenson, M., et al., “The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of strontium ranelate for the prevention of osteoporotic fragility fractures in postmenopausal women,” Health Technol Assess 2007 11(4):1-134

Suda, T., et al., “Modulation of osteoclast differentiation and function by the new members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor and ligand families,” Endocr Rev 1999; 20(3):345-57.

Tamatani, M., et al., “Decreased circulating levels of vitamin K and 25-OH vitamin D in osteopenic elderly men,” Metabolism 1999; 47(2):195–99.

Trang, H., et al., “Evidence that vitamin D3 increases serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D more efficiently than does vitamin D2. Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1998; 68:854-58.

Vasquez, A., et al., “The clinical importance of vitamin D (cholecalciferol): a paradigm shift with implications for all healthcare providers,” Altern Ther 2004; 10(5):28-36.

Vermeer, C., et al., “Effects of vitamin K on bone mass and bone metabolism,” Jour Nutr 1996; 126(Supl 14):1187S–1191S.

Weber, P., “The role of vitamins in the prevention of osteoporosis—a brief status report,” Int Jour Vitamin Nutr Res 1999; 69(3):194-97.

Yoshida, T., et al., “How Vitamin D Works on Bone,” Osteoporosis: Endocrinol Metabol Clin 2012; 41(3):557-69.

 

Parkinson’s Disease

Bains, J., et al., “Neurodegenerative disorders in humans: the role of glutathione in oxidative stress-mediated neuronal death,” Brain Res Brain Res Rev 1997; 25(3):335-58.

Beal, M., et al., “Coenzyme Q10 as a possible treatment for neurodegenerative diseases,” Free Rad Res 2002; 36(4):455–60.

Bieschke, J., et al., “EGCG remodels mature alpha-synuclein and amyloid-beta fibrils and reduces cellullar toxicity,” Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2010; 107:7710-15.

Birkmayer, W., et al., “Nicotinamidadenindinucleotide (NADH): the new approach in the therapy of Parkinson’s disease,” Ann Clin Lab Sci 1989; 19:38-43.

Birkmayer, J., et al., “Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)—A new therapeutic approach to Parkinson’s disease: Comparison of oral and parenteral application,” Acta Neurol Scand 1993; 87 (146):32-35. 

Clark, J., et al., “Oral N-acetyl-cysteine attenuates loss of dopaminergic terminals in alpha-synuclein overexpressing mice,” PLoS One 2010; 5:e12333.

DeRijk, M., et al., “Dietary antioxidants and Parkinson’s disease: The Rotterdam study,” Arch Neurol 1997; 54:762–65.

Evatt, M., et al., “Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in patients with Parkinson disease and Alzheimer disease,” Arch Neurol 2008; 65(10):1348-52.

Fahn, S., et al., “The endogenous toxin theory of the etiology of Parkinson’s disease and a pilot trial of high-dose antioxidants in an attempt to slow the progression of the illness,” Ann NY Acad Sci 1989; 570:186-96.

Fahn, S., et al., “A pilot trial of high-dose alpha-tocophero and ascorbate in early Parkinson’s disease,” Ann Neurol 1992; 32(Suppl):S128–S132.

Farmer, K., et al., “Major alterations of phosphatidylcholine and lysophosphotidylcholine lipids in the substantia nigra using an early stage model of Parkinson’s disease,” Int Jour Mol Sci 2015; 16(8):188865-77.

Funfgeld, E., et al., “Double-blind study with phosphatidyl serine (PS) in parkinsonian patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer’s type (SDST),” Prog Clin Biol Res 1989; 317:1235-46.

Gaby, A., “Parkinson’s Disease.” In Nutritional Medicine. Concord, NH: Fritz Perlberg Publishing, 2011, p. 543-49.

Hauser, R., et al., “Randomized, double-blind, pilot evaluation of intravenous glutathione in Parkinson’s disease,” Mov Discord 2009; 24(7):979-83.

Heller, B., et al., “Diminution of phenylethylamine in the urine of Parkinson patients,” Arzneimittelforschung 1973; 23:884-86.

Heller, B., et al., “Therapeutic action of D-phenylalanine in Parkinson’s disease,” Arzneimittelforschung 1976; 26:577-79.

Holdiness, M., “Clinical pharmacokinetics of N-acetyl cysteine,” Clin Pharmacokinet 1991; 20:123-34.

Huang, D., et al., “Treatment with a Ginkgo biloba extract, EGb 761, inhibits excitotoxicity in an animal model of spinocerebellar ataxia type 17,” Drug Des Devel Ther 2016; 10:723-31.

Katzenschlager, R., et al., “Mucuna pruriens in Parkinson’s disease: a double blind clinical and pharmacological study,” Jour Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2004; 75(12):1672-77.

Kidd, P. “Parkinson’s disease as multifactorial oxidative neurodegeneration: implications for integrative management,” Altern Med Rev 2000; 5:502-29.

Knekt, P., et al., “Serum vitamin D and the risk of Parkinson’s disease,” Arch Neurol 2010; 67:808-11.

Levites, Y., et al., “Green tea polyphenol (-) epigallocatechin-3-gallate prevents N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration,” Jour Neurochem 2001; 78:1073-82.

Mandel, S., et al., “Multifunctional activities of green tea catechins in neuroprotection: modulation of cell survival genes, iron-dependent oxidative stress and PKC signaling pathway,” Neuro Signals 2005; 14:46-60.

Manyam, B., “An alternative medicine treatment for Parkinson’s disease: results of a multicenter clinical trial. HP200 in Parkinson’s Disease Study Group,” Jour Altern Complet Med 1995; 1:249-55.

Manyam, B., et al., “Neuroprotective effects of the antiparkinson drug Mucuna puriens,” Phytother Res 2004; 18:706-12.

Martinet, M., et al., “Interaction of CDP-choline with synaptosomal transport of biogenic amines and their precursors in vitro and in vivo in the rat corpus striatum,” Experientia 1978; 34:197-99.

Mischley, L., et al., “Parkinson’s Disease.” In Pizzorno, J., and Murray, M., Textbook of Natural Medicine. St. Louis: Elsevier, 2013.

Muller, T., et al., “Coenzyme Q-10 supplementation provides mild symptomatic benefit in patients with Parkinson’s disease,” Neurosci Lett 2003; 341:201-04.

Olanow, C., et al., “Attempts to obtain neuroprotection in Parkinson’s disease,” Neurology 1997; 49(Suppl 1):S26-S33.

Pan, T., et al., “Potential therapeutic properties of green tea polyphenols in Parkinson’s disease,” Drugs Aging 2003; 20:711-21.

Perlmutter, D., BrainRecovery.com Naples, Florida: The Perlmutter Health Center, 2000.

Perry, T., et al., “Parkinson’s disease: a disorder due to nigral glutathione deficiency?” Neurosci Lett 1982; 33:305-310.

Przedborski, S., et al., “Chronic levodopa administration alters cerebral mitochondrial respiratory chain activity,” Ann Neurol 1993; 34(5):715-23.

Puca, F., et al., “Clinical pharmacodynamics of acetyl-L-carnitine in patients with Parkinson’s disease,” Int Jour Clin Pharmacol Res 1990; 19(1-2):139-43.

Rojas, P., et al., “Effect of a phytopharmaceutical medicine Ginkgo biloba extract 761, in an animal model of Parkinson’s disease,” Therapeutic Perspectives Nutrition 2012; 28(11-12):1081-88.

Sanchez, B., et al., “1,25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 administration to 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats increases glial cell line-derived neurotropic factor and partially restores tyrosine hydroxylase expression in substantia nigra and striatum,” Jour Neuro Sci Res 2009; 87:723-32.

Sato, Y., et al., “High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and reduced bone mass in Parkinson’s disease,” Neurol 1997; 49(5):1273–78.

Saver, J., “Citicoline: update on a promising and widely available agent for neuroprotection and neurorepair,” Rev Neurol Dis 2009; 5:167-77.

Secades, J., et al., “Citicoline: pharmacological and clinical review, 2006 update,” Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 2006; 28(Suppl B):1-56.

Sechi, G., et al., “Reduced glutathione in the treatment of early Parkinson’s disease,” Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychi 1996; 20(7):1159–70.

Schults, C., et al., “Absorption, tolerability and effects on mitochondrial activity of oral coenzyme Q-10 in parkinsonian patients,” Neurology 1998; 50:793-795. 

Schults, C., et al., “Coenzyme Q-10 levels correlate with the activities of complexes I and II/III in mitochondria from Parkinsonian and nonparkinsonian subjects,” Ann Neur 1997; 42:261-264.

Shults, C., et al., “Effects of coenzyme Q10 in early Parkinson’s disease: evidence of slowing of the functional decline,” Arch Neurol 2002; 59(10):1541–50.

Shults, C., et al., “Pilot trial of high dosages of coenzyme Q-10 in patients with Parkinson’s disease,” Exp Neurol 2004; 188:491-94.

Shults, C., et al., “A possible role of coenzyme Q10 in the etiology and treatment of Parkinson’s disease,” Biofactors 2000; 9(2-4):267–72.

Smith, M., et al., “Calcitriol protection against dopamine loss induced by intracerebralventricular administration of 6-hydroxydopamine,” Neuro Chem Res 2006; 31:533-39.

Swerdiow, R., “Is NADH effective in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease?” Drugs Aging 1998; 13:263-68.

Tai, K., et al., “(-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a green tea polyphenol reduces diclorodiphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT)-induced cell death in dopaminergic SHSY-5Y cells,” Neuro Sci Lett 2010; 482:183-87.

Yang, S., et al., “Protective effect and mechanism of Ginkgo biloba leaf extracts for Parkinson’s disease induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine,” Acta Pharmacol Sin 2001; 22:1089-93.

Ye, Q., et al., “Astaxanthin protects against MMP+induced oxidative stress in PC12 cells via the HO-1/NOX2 axis,” BMC Neurosci 2012; 13(1):156.

 

Periodontal Disease

Crayhon, R., Designs for Health Institute’s Level II Eating and Supplement Plans. Boulder CO: Designs for Health Institute, Inc, 1999.

Hansen, I., et al., “Gingival and leukocytic deficiencies of coenzyme Q10 in patients with periodontal disease,” Res Commun Chem Pathol Pharmacol 1976; 14(4):729–38.

Kulkami, V., et al., “The effect of nutrition on periodontal disease: A systematic review,” Calif Dent Assoc 2014; 42(5):302-11.

Schifferle, R., “Nutrition and periodontal disease,” Dent Clincs North Amer 2005; 49:595-610.

Sulijaya, B., et al., “Nutrition as adjunct therapy in periodontal disease management,” Curr Oral Health Reports 2019; 6(2):61-9.

Van der Velden, U., et al., “Micronutritional approaches to periodontal therapy,” Jour Clin Periodontaol 2011; 38(Suppl 11):142-58.

Varela-Lopez, A., et al., “Nutraceuticals in periodontal health: A systematic review on the role of vitamins in periodontal health maintenance,” Molecules 2018; May 20; 23(5).

 

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

Akbari, M., et al., “The effects of Vitamin D supplementation on biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress among women with polycystic ovary syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials,” Horm Metab Res 2018; 50(4):271-79.

Amanini, D., et al., “History of the endocrine effects of licorice,” Exp Clin Endo Diabetes 2002; 110(6):257-61.

Amanini, D., et al., “Licorice reduces serum testosterone in healthy women,” Steroids 2005; 69:763-66.

Anon. “Urtica dioica; Urtica urens (nettle),” Monograph Altern Med Rev 2007; 12(3):280.

Asemi, Z., et al., “Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation affects glucose metabolism and lipid concentrations in overweight and obese vitamin D deficient women with polycystic ovary syndrome,” Clin Nutr 2015; 34(4):586-92.

Badawy, A., et al., “N-acetyl cysteine and clomiphene citrate for induction of ovulation in polycystic ovary syndrome: a cross-over trial,” Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2007; 86:218-22.

Behboudi-Gandevani, S., el al., “The risk of metabolic syndrome in polycystic ovary syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis,” Clin Endocrinol (Oxf.) 2018; 88(2):169-84.

Book, C., et al., “Selective insulin resistance in the polycystic ovary syndrome,” Jour Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999; 84(9):3110-16.

Boulman, N., et al., “Increased C-reactive protein levels in the polycystic ovary syndrome: a marker of cardiovascular disease,” Jour Clin Endocrinol Metabol 2004; 89(5):2160-65.

Chan, C., et al., “Polycystic ovary syndrome—a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Effects of Chinese green tea on weight and hormonal and biochemical profiles in obese patients with PCOS,” Jour Soc Gynecol Investig 2006; 13(1):63-8.

Chen, J., et al., “Maitake mushroom (Grifola frondosa) extract induces ovulation in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: a possible monotherapy and a combination therapy after failure with first-line clomiphene citrate,” Jour Altern Complement Med 2010; 16(12):1295-99.

Chrubasik, J., et al., “A comprehensive review on the stinging nettle effect and efficacy profiles. Part II: urticae radix,” Phytomedicine 2007; 14(7-8):568-79.

De Leo, V., et al., “Polycystic ovary syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Minera Gynecol 2004; 56(1):53-62.

Danaif, A., et al., “Beta cell dysfunction independent of obesity and glucose intolerance in the polycystic ovary syndrome,” Jour Clin Endocrinol Metab 1996; 81:942-47.

Ehrmann, D., “Polycystic ovarian syndrome,” NEJM 2005; 353:1223-36.

Fazleen, N., et al., “Risk of metabolic syndrome in adolescents with polycystic ovarian syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis,” Diabetes Metab Syndr 2018; 12(6):1083-90.

Fenkev, I., et al., “Decreased total antioxidant status and increased oxidative stress in women with polycystic ovary syndrome may contribute to the risk of cardiovascular disease,” Fertil Steril 2003; 8091):123-27.

Futterweit, W., A Patient’s Guide to PCOS. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 2006.

Gaby, A., Nutritional Medicine. Concord, NH: Fritz Perlberg Publishing, 2011, pages 829-31.

Gambineri, A., et al., “Obesity and the polycystic ovary syndrome,” Int Jour Obes Relat Metab Disord 2002; 26(7):883-96.

Hadi, A., et al., “Effect of probiotics and synbiotics on selected anthropometric and biochemical measures in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Eur Jour Clin Nutr 2019; May 3, (Epub ahead of print).

Heshmati, J., et al., “The effects of supplementation with chromium on insulin resistance indices in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials,” Horm Metab Res 2018; 50(3):193-200.

Hopkinson, Z., et al., “Polycystic ovarian syndrome: the metabolic syndrome comes to gynecology,” BMJ 1998; 317:329-32.

Huber-Buchholz, M., et al., “Restoration of reproductive potential by lifestyle modification in obese polycystic ovary syndrome: role of insulin sensitivity and luteinizing hormone,” Jour Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999; 84(4):1470-74.

Jamillian, M., et al., “The effect of magnesium and vitamin E co-supplementation on glycemic control and markers of cardio-metabolic risk in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,” Horm Metab Res 2019; 51(2):100-05.

Jamillian, M., et al., “The influences of vitamin D and omega-3 co-supplementation on clinical, metabolic and genetic parameters in women with polycystic ovary syndrome,” Jour Affect Disord 2018; 238:32-8.

Jamillian, M., et al., “Metabolic response to selenium supplementation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,” Clin Endocrinol (Oxf.) 2015; 82(6):885-91.

Javed, Z., et al., “A randomized, controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation on cardiovascular risk factors, hormones, and liver markers in women with polycystic ovary syndrome,” Nutrients 2019; Jan 17; 11(1).

Kasim Karakas, M., et al., “Metabolic and endocrine effects of a polyunsaturated fatty acid-rich diet in polycystic ovary syndrome,” Jour Clin Endocrinol Metabol 2004; 89(2):615-20.

Legro, R., et al., “Prevalence and predictors of risk for Type 2 diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in polycystic ovary syndrome: a prospective, controlled study in 254 affected women,” Jour Clin Endocrinol Metabol 1999; 84(1):165-69.

Loverro, G., et al., “The plasma homocysteine levels are increased in polycystic ovary syndrome,” Gynecol Obstet Invest 2002; 53(3):157-62.

Low Dog, T., “The Endocrine System.” In Foundations in Herbal Medicine. Albuquerque: Foundations in Herbal Medicine, 2000.

Lucidi, R., et al., “Effect of chromium supplementation on insulin resistance and ovarian and menstrual cyclicity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome,” Fertil Steril 2005; 84:1755-57.

Lydic, L., et al., “Chromium picolinate improves insulin sensitivity in obese subjects with polycystic ovary syndrome,” Fertil Steril 2006; 86:243-46.

McKenna, D., et al., Botanical Medicines: The Desk Reference for Major Herbal Supplements. New York: Haworth Press, 2002.

Mills, S., et al., Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy. London: Churchill Livingstone, 2000.

Ming-Wei, L., “The role of vitamin D in polycystic syndrome,” Ind Jour Med Res 2015; 142(3):238-40.

Nestler, J., et al., “Ovulatory and metabolic effects of d-chiro-inositol in the polycystic ovary syndrome,” NEJM 1999; 340:1314-20.

Ostadmohammadi, V., et al., “Vitamin D and probiotic co-supplementation affects mental health, hormonal, inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters in women with polycystic ovary syndrome,” Jour Ovarian Res 2019; 12(1):5.

Pelusi, B., et al., “Type 2 diabetes and the polycystic ovary syndrome,” Minerva Ginecol 2004; 56(1):41-51.

Ring, M., “Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.” In Rakel, D., Integrative Medicine. 3rd Ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier, 2012., pp. 345–52.

Rizk, S., et al., “N-acetyl-cysteine is a novel adjuvant to clomiphene citrate in clomiphene citrate-resistant patients with polycystic ovary syndrome,” Fertil Steril 2005; 83:367-70.

Romm, A., Botanical Medicine for Women’s Health. St. Louis: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier, 2010.

Smith, P., What You Must Know About Women’s Hormones. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers, 2010.

Thys-Jacobs, S., et al., “Vitamin D and calcium dysregulation in the polycystic ovarian syndrome,” Steroids 1999; 64(6):430-5.

Westphal, L., et al., “A nutritional supplement for improving fertility in women: a pilot study,” Jour Reprod Med 2004; 49:289-93.

Wuttke, W., et al., “Chaste tree (Vitex agnus castus): pharmacology and clinical indications,” Phytomedicine 2003; 10:348-57.

 

Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)

Abraham, G., “Magnesium deficiency in premenstrual tension,” Magnesium Bull 1982; 4:68.

Abraham, G., “Nutritional factors in the etiology of the premenstrual tension syndromes,” Jour Reprod Med 1983; 28:446-64.

Aganoff, J., et al, “Aerobic exercise, mood states and menstrual cycle symptoms,” Jour Psychosom Res 1994; 38:183-92.

Agha-Hosseini, H., et al,., “Crocus sativus L. (saffron) in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome: a double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial,” BJOG 2008; 115:515-19.

Barr, W., Pyridoxine supplements in the premenstrual syndrome,” Practitioner 1984; 228:425-27.

Bennett, J., Lilies of the Hearth: The Historical Relationship Between Women and Plants. Willowdale, Ontario: Camden House, 1991.

Bertone-Johnson, E., et al., “Dietary vitamin D intake, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels and premenstrual syndrome in a college-aged population,” Jour Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2010;121(1–2):434–437.

Bertone-Johnson, E., et al., “Plasma 25-hydroxy-vitamin D and risk of premenstrual syndrome in a prospective cohort study,” BMD Women’s Health 2014; 14:56.

Blumental, M., et al., The Complete German Commission E Monographs: Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicine. Boston: Integrative Medicine Communications, 1998.

Bohnert, K., “Clinical study on chaste tree for menstrual disorders,” Q Rev Nat Med 1997; 19-21.

Brush, M., et al., “Abnormal essential fatty acid levels in plasma of women with premenstrual syndrome,” Amer Jour Obstet Gynecol 1984; 150:363-66.

Brush, M., et al., “Pyridoxine in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome: a retrospective survey in 630 patients,” Brit Jour Clin Pract 1988; 42:448-52.

Brzezinski, A., “Serotonin and premenstrual dysphoric disorder,” Lancet 1996; 347:470-71.

Budoff, P., “The use of prostaglandin inhibitors for the premenstrual syndrome,” Jour Repro Med 1983; 28:465-68.

Canning, S., et al., “The efficacy of Hypericum perforatum (St. John’s wort) for the treatment of premenstrual syndrome,” CNS Drugs 2010; 24(3):207-225.

Chuong, C., et al., “Zinc and copper levels in premenstrual syndrome,” Fertil Steril 1994; 62:313-20.

Cohen, M., et al., “Safety of pyridoxine: a review of human and animal studies,” Toxicol Lett 1986; 34:129-39.

Collins, A., et al., “Essential fatty acids in the treatment of premenstrual syndrome,” Obstet Gynecol 1993; 81:93-8.

Cross, G., et al., “Changes in nutrient intake during the menstrual cycle of overweight women with premenstrual syndrome,” Brit Jour Nutr 2001; 5(4):475-82.

De Souza, M., et al., “A synergistic effect of a daily supplement for 1 month of 200 mg magnesium plus 50 mg vitamin B6 for the relief of anxiety-related premenstrual symptoms: a randomized, double-blind, crossover study,” Jour Women’s Health Gend Based Med 2000; 9:131-39.

Dittmar, F., “Premenstrual syndrome: treatment with a phytopharmaceutical,” Ther Gynakol 1992; 5:60-68.

Doll, H., et al., “Pyridoxine (vitmain B6) and the premenstrual syndrome: a randomized crossover trial,” JR Coll Gen Pract 1989; 39:364-68.

Facchinetti, F., et al., “Oral magnesium successfully relieves premenstrual mood changes,” Obstet Gynecol 1991; 78:177-81.

Gaby, A., Nutritional Medicine. Concord, NH: Frtiz Perlberg Publishing, 2011.

Goei, G., et al., “Dietary patterns of patients with premenstrual tension,” Jour Appl Nutr 1982; 34:4-11.

Hagen, I., et al., “No effect of vitamin B6 therapy on premenstrual acne and tension,” Fed Proc 1983; 42:556.

Hudson, T., “Premenstrual Syndrome.” In Pizzorno, J., et al. (Eds.) Textbook of Natural Medicine. St. Louis: Elsevier, 2013.

Jing, Z., et al., “Chinese herbal medicine for premenstrual syndrome,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009; (1):CD006414.

Jones, D., “Influence of dietary fat on self-reported menstrual symptoms,” Physiol Behav 1987; 40:483-87.

Judd, A., et al., “Zinc acutely, selectively and reversibly inhibits pituitary prolactin secretion,” Brain Res 1984; 294:190-92.

Kerr, G., “The management of premenstrual syndrome,” Curr Med Res Opin 1977; 4(Suppl 4):29-34.

Khoo, S., et al., “Evening primrose oil and treatment of premenstrual syndrome,” Med Jour Aust 1990; 153:189-92.

Koshikawa, N., et al., “Prostaglandins and premenstrual syndrome,” Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1992; 45:33-6.

Lauritzen, C., et al., “Treatment of premenstrual tension syndrome with Vitex agnus castus: controlled, double-blind study versus pyridoxine,” Phytomedicine 1997; 4:183-89.

London, R., et al., “The effect of alpha-tocopherol on premenstrual symptomatology: a double-blind study,” Jour Amer Coll Nutr 1983; 2:115-22.

Low Dog, T., “Premenstrual Syndrome.” In Rakel, D., Integrative Medicine. 3rd Ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier, 2012.

Low Dog, T., Women’s Health in Complementary and Integrative Medicine: A Clinical Guide. St. Louis: Elsevier, 2004.

Majumdar, P., et al., “Alteration of tissue magnesium levels in rats by dietary vitamin b6 supplementation,” Int Jour Vitamin Nutr Res 1989; 59:300-03.

Mischoulon, D., et al., “Docosahexanoic acid and omega-3 fatty acids in depression,” Psychiatr Clin North Amer 2000; 23(4):785-94.

Murray, M., The Healing Power of Herbs. California: Prima Publications, 1995.

Ockerman, P., et al., “Evening primrose oil as a treatment of the premenstrual syndrome,” Rec Adv Clin Nutr 1986; 2:404-05.

Ozgoli, G., et al., “A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of Ginkgo biloba L. in treatment of premenstrual syndrome,” Jour Altern Complement Med 2009; 15(8):845-51.

Penland, J., et al., “Dietary calcium and manganese effects on menstrual cycle symptoms,” Amer Jour Obstet Gynecol 1993; 168:1417-23.

Puder, J., et al., “Menstrual cycle symptoms are associated with low-grade inflammation,” Eur Jour Clin Invest 2006; 36:58-64.

Puolakka, J., et al., “Biochemical and clinical effects of treating the premenstrual syndrome with prostaglandin synthesis precursors,” Jour Reprod Med 1985; 30:149-53.

Quaranta, S., et al., “Pilot study of the efficacy and safety of a modified-release magnesium 250 mg tablet (sincromag) for the treatment of premenstrual syndrome,” Clin Drug Investig 2007; 27:51-58.

Roca, C., et al., “Differential menstrual cycle regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in women with premenstrual syndrome and controls,” Jour Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003; 88(7):3057-63.

Romm, A., “Menstrual Wellness and Menstrual Problems.” In Romm, A., Botanical Medicine for Women’s Health. St. Louis: Churchill/Livingstone/Elsevier, 2010.

Rosenstein, D., et al., “Magnesium measures across the menstrual cycle in premenstrual syndrome,” Biol Psychiatry 1994; 35:557-61. 

Sayegh, R., et al., “The effect of a carbohydrate-rich beverage on mood, appetite, and cognitive function in women with premenstrual syndrome,” Obstet Gynecol 1995; 86(4 Pr. 1):520-28.

Schellenberg, R., “Treatment for the premenstrual syndrome with agnus castus fruit extract: prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study,” BMJ 2001; 322:134-37.

Sherwood, R, et al., “Magnesium and the premenstrual syndrome,” Ann Clin Biochem 1986; 23:667-70.

Smith, P., What You Must Know About Women’s Hormones. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishing, 2010.

Snider, B., et al., “Pyridoxine therapy for premenstrual acne flare,” Arch Dermatol 1974; 110:130-31.

Steinberg, S., et al., “A placebo-controlled clinical trial of L-tryptophan in premenstrual dysphoria,” Biol Psychiatry 1999; 45:313-20.

Steinberg, S., et al., “A placebo-controlled study of the effects of L-tryptophan in patients with premenstrual dysphoria,” Adv Exp Med Biol 1999; 467:85-88.

Steinberg, S., et al., “Tryptophan in the treatment of late luteal phase dysphoric disorder: a pilot study,” Jour Psychiatry Neurosci 1994; 19(2):114-19.

Stevinson, C., et al., “A pilot study of Hypericum perforatum for the treatment of premenstrual syndrome,” BJOG 2000; 107:870-76.

Symonds, C., et al., “Effects of the menstrual cycle on mood, neurocognitive, and neuroendocrine function in health premenopausal women,” Psychol Med 2004; 34(1):93-102.

Tamborini, T., et al., “Value of standardized Ginkgo biloba extract in the management of congestive symptoms of premenstrual syndrome,” Rev Fr Gynecol Obstet 1993; 8:447-57.

Taylor, R., et al., “The clinician’s view of patients with premenstrual syndrome,” Curr Med Res Opin 1979; 6(Suppl 5):46-51.

Thys-Jacobs, S., et al., “Calcium carbonate and the premenstrual syndrome: effects on premenstrual and menstrual symptoms,” Amer Jour Obstet Gynecol 1998; 179:444-52.

Thys-Jacobs, S., et al., “Calcium supplementation in premenstrual syndrome. A randomized trial,” Jour Gen Intern Med 1989; 4:183-89.

Van Die, M., et al., “Effects of a combination of Hypericum perforatum and Vitex agnus-castus on PMD-like symptoms in late-perimenopausal women: Findings from a subpopulation analysis,” Jour Altern Complement Med 2009; 15(9):1045-48.

Walker, A., et al., “Magnesium supplementation alleviates premenstrual symptoms of fluid retention,” Jour Women’s Health 1998; 7:1157-65.

Webster, D., et al., “Activation of the mu-opiate receptor by Vitex agnus-castus methanol extracts: implication for its use in PMS,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 2006; 106:216-221.

 

Psoriasis

Block, W., et al., “Modulation of inflammation and cytokine production by dietary (n-3) fatty acids,” Jour Nutr 1996; 126:1515–33.

Bodemer, A., “Psoriasis.” In Rakel, D., Integrative Medicine. 3rd Ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier, 2012, p. 645-56.

Crayhon, R., Designs for Health Institute’s Eating and Supplement Plans. Boulder, CO: Designs for Health Institute, 2000.

Gaby, A., “Psoriasis.” In Nutritional Medicine. Concord, NH: Frtiz Perlberg Publishing, 2011, p. 594-96.

Grattan, C., et al., “Essential-fatty-acid metabolites in plasma phospholipids in patients with ichthyosis vulgaris, acne vulgaris and psoriasis,” Clin Exp Dermatol 1990; 15(3):174–76.

Pagano, J., Healing Psoriasis. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons, 2009.

Wright, S., et al., “Oral evening primrose seed oil improves atopic eczema,” Lancet 1982; 2:1120.

 

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Adorini, l., et al., “Control of autoimmune diseases by the vitamin D endocrine system,” Nat Clin Pract Rheumatol 2008; 4(8):404-12.

Aggarwal, B., et al., “Potential therapeutic effects of curcumin, the anti-inflammatory agent, against neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, pulmonary, metabolic, autoimmune and neoplastic diseases,” Int Jour Biochem Cell Biol 2009; 41:40-59.

Al-Okbi, S., “Nutraceuticals of anti-inflammatory activity as complementary therapy for rheumatoid arthritis,” Toxicol Ind Health 2014; 30(8):738-49.

Barton-Wright, E., et al., “The pantothenic acid metabolism of rheumatoid arthritis,” Lancet 1963; 11:862-63.

Belch, J., et al., “Evening primrose oil and borage oil in rheumatologic conditions,” Amer Jour Clin Nutri 2000; 71(1 Suppl):352S-356S.

Bengmark, D., “Curcumin, a toxic antioxidant and natural NFkappa B, cyclooxygenase-2, lipoxygenase, and inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor: a shield against acute and chronic disease,” Jour Paenter Enteral Nutr 2006; 31(1):45-51.

Brzeski, M., et al., “Evening primrose oil in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and side-effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs,” Brit Jour Rheumatol 1991; 30:370–72.

Calder, P., et al., “N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cytokine production in health and disease,” Ann Nutr Metab 1997; 41(4):203–34.

Cameron, M., et al., “Evidence of effectiveness of herbal medicinal products in the treatment of arthritis. Part 2: rheumatoid arthritis,” Phytother Res 2009; 23(12):1647-62.

Chiang, E., et al., “Abnormal vitamin B6 status is associated with severity of symptoms in patients with rheumatoid arthritis,” Amer Jour Med 2003; 11494):283-87.

Chung, M., et al., “Degradation of articular cartilage by copper and hydrogen peroxide,” Agents Actions 1984; 15:328-35.

Cibere, J., et al., “A randomized double blind, placebo controlled trial of topical Tripterygium wilfordii in rheumatoid arthritis: reanalysis using logistic regression analysis,” Jour Rhematol 2003; 30(3):465-67.

Cohen, A., et al., “Bromelain therapy in rheumatoid arthritis,” Penn Med Jour 1964; 67:27-30.

de Rosa, G., et al., “Regulation of superoxide dismutase activity by dietary manganese,” Jour Nutri 1980; 110(4):795-804.

de Witte, T., et al., “Hypochlorhydria and hypergastinaemia in rheumatoid arthritis,” Ann Rheum Dis 1979; 38(1):14-7.

Deretz, A., et al., “Adjuvant treatment of recent onset of rheumatoid arthritis by selenium supplementation: preliminary observations,” Brit Jour Rheumatol 1992; 31:281–86.

Desser, L., et al., “Oral therapy with proteolytic enzymes decrease excessive TGF-beta levels in human blood,” Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2001; 47(Suppl):S10-Sq5.

Di Silvestro, R., et al., “Effects of copper supplementation on ceruloplasmin and copper-zinc superoxide dismutase in free-living rheumatoid arthritis patients,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1992; 11(2):177–80.

Du, X., et al., “Clinical study on Tripterygium wilfordii complex ester tablet in treating rheumatoid arthritis,” Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 1998; 18(2):88-91.

Ernst, E., et al., “Phyto-anti-inflammatories. A systematic review of randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials,” Rheum Dis Clin North Amer 2000; 26(1):13-27.

Fernandes, G., et al., “Dietary lipids and risk of autoimmune disease,” Clin Immunopathol 1994; 72(2):193–97.

Galarraga, B., et al., “Cod liver oil (n-3 fatty acids) as a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug sparing agent in rheumatoid arthritis,” Rheumatology (Oxf.) 2008; 47(5):665-69.

Galli, C., et al., “Effects of fat and fatty acid intake on inflammatory and immune responses: a critical review,” Ann Nutr Metab 2009; 55:123-39.

General Practitioner Research Group, “Calcium pantothenate in arthritic conditions,” Practitioner 1980; 224:208-11.

Goldbach-Mansky, R., et al., “Comparison of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F versus sulfasalazine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized trial,” Ann Inter Med 2009; 18:151(4):229-40, W49-W51.

Grennan, D., et al., “Serum copper and zinc in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis,” NZ Med Jour 1980; 91(652):47-50.

Henriksson, K., et al., “Gastrin gastric acid secretion and gastric microflora in patients with rheumatoid arthritis,” Ann Rheumatic Dis 1986; 45(6):475-83.

Henrikkson, K., et al., “Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in patients with rheumatoid arthritis,” Ann Rheum Dis 1993; 52(7):503-10.

Jantti, J., et al., “Evening primrose oil in rheumatoid arthritis: changes in serum lipids and fatty acids,” Ann Rheum Dis 1989; 48:124-27.

Jurenka, J., “Anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin, a major constituent of Curcima longa: A review of preclinical and clinical research,” Altern Med Rev 2009; 14:141-53.

Kast, R., “Borage oil reduction of rheumatoid arthritis activity may be mediated by increased cAMP that suppresses tumor necrosis factor-alpha,” Int Immunopharmacol 2001; 1(12):2197-99.

Kekkonen, R., et al., “Probiotic intervention has strain-specific antiinflammatory effects in healthy adults,” World Jour Gastroenterol 2008; 14(13):2029-36.

Kim, S., et al., “TGT-beta 1 polymorphism determines progression of joint damage in rheumatoid arthritis,” Scand Jour Rheumatol 2004; 33(6):389-94.

Kneckt, P., “Serum selenium, serum alpha-tocopherol, and the risk of rheumatoid arthriti,” Epidemiology 2000; 11(4):402-05.

Kremer, J., et al., “Effects of high-dose fish oil on rheumatoid arthritis after stopping NSAID. Clinical and immune correlates,” Arthritis Rheum 1995; 38:1107–14.

Kremer, J., et al., “Dietary fish oil and olive oil supplementation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis,” Clinical and immunologic effects,” Arthritis Rheum 1990; 33:810-20.

Kremer, J., et al., “Nutrient intake of patients with rheumatoid arthritis is deficient in pyridoxine, zinc, copper, and magnesium,” Jour Rheumatol 1996; 23(6):990-94.

Leventhal, L., et al., “Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with black currant seed oil,” Brit Jour Rheumatol 1994; 33:847–52.

Leventhal, L., et al., “Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with gammalinoleic acid,” Ann Inter Med 1993; 119:867-73.

Levine, M., “New concepts in the biology and biochemistry of ascorbic acid,” NEJM 1986; 314:892-902.

Little, C., et al., “Herbal therapy for treating rheumatoid arthritis,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001; (1):CD002948.

Mandel, D., et al., “Bacillus coagulans: a viable adjunct therapy for relieving symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis according to a randomized, controlled trial,” BMC Complement Altern Med 2010; 10:1.

Mattingly, P., et al., “Zinc sulfate in rheumatoid arthritis,” Ann Rheum Dis 1982; 41:456-57.

Mullen, A., et al., “The metabolism of ascorbic acid in rheumatoid arthritis,” Proc Nutr Sci 1976; 35:A8-A9.

Munthe, E., et al., “Trace elements and rheumatoid arthritis (RA): pathogenetic and therapeutic aspects,” Acta Pharmacol Toxicol 1986; 59(Suppl 7):365-73.

Mur, E., et al., “Randomized double blind trial of an extract from the pentacyclic alkaloid-chemotype of uncaria tomentosa for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis,” Jour Rheumatol 2002; 29(4):678-81.

Pan, M., et al., “6-Shogoal suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced up-expression of iNOS and COX-2 in murine macrophages,” Mol Nutr Food Res 2008; 52(12):1467-77.

Pandley, S., et al., “Zinc in rheumatoid arthritis,” Indian Jour Med Res 1985; 81:618-20.

Peretz, A., et al., “Effects of chronic and acute corticosteroid therapy on zinc and copper status in rheumatoid arthritis patients,” Jour Trace Elem Electrolytes Health Dis 1989; 3(2):103-08.

Petterson, T., et al., “Serum homocysteine and methylmalonic acid in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and cobalaminopenia,” Jour Rheumatol 1998; 25(5):859-63.

Proudman, S., et al., “Dietary omega-3 fats for treatment of inflammatory joint disease: efficacy and utility,” Rheum Dis Clin North Amer 2008; 34:469–79.

Rakel, D., Integrative Medicine. 3rd Ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier, 2012.

Rao, C., “Regulation of COX and LOX by curcumin,” Adv Exp Med Bio. 2007; 595:213-26.

Robinson, D., et al., “Suppression of autoimmune disease by dietary n-3 fatty acids,” Jour Lipid Res 1993; 34(8):1435–44.

Rosenbaum, C., et al., “Antioxidants and antiinflammatory dietary supplements for osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis,” Altern Ther Health Med 2010; 16(2):32-40.

Sahebkar, A., “Are curcuminoids effective C-reactive protein-lowering agents in clinical practice? Evidence from a meta-analysis,” Phytotherapy Res 2014; 28(5):633-42.

Sandoval, M., et al., “Cat's claw inhibits TNFalpha production and scavenges free radicals: role in cytoprotection,” Free Radic Biol Med 2000; 29(1):71-8.

Schumacher, H., et al., “Vitamin B6 levels in rheumatoid arthritis: effect of treatment,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1975; 28(11):1200-03.

Shehzad, A., et al., “Curcumin in inflammatory diseases,” Biofactors 2013; 39:69-77.

Simkin, P., “Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with oral zinc sulfate,” Agents Actions Suppl 1981; 8:587-95.

Subramanian, N., “Histamine degradative potential of ascorbic acid,” Agents Actions 1978; 8:484-87.

Tao, X., et al., “Benefit of an extract of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study,” Arthritis Rheum 2002; 46(7):1735-43.

Tarp, U., et al., “Low selenium level in severe rheumatoid arthritis,” Scan Jour Rheumatol 1985; 14:364-68.

Tarp, U., et al., “Selenium treatment in rheumatoid arthritis,” Scan Jour Rheumatol 1985; 14:364-68.

Tripathi, S., et al., “Effect of 6-gingerol on pro-inflammatory cytokine production and costimultory molecule expression in murine peritoneal macrophages,” Jour Surg Res 2007; 138(2):209-13.

van der Tempel, H., et al., “Effects of fish oil supplementation in rheumatoid arthritis,” Ann Rheum Dis 1990; 49:76-80.

Woolf, K., et al., “Elevated plasma homocysteine and low vitamin B6 status in nonsupplementing older women with rheumatoid arthritis,” Jour Amer Diet Assoc 2008; 108(3):443-53.

Wu, Y., et al., “Clinical observation on small doses Tripterygium wilfordii polyglycoside with methotrexate in treating rheumatoid arthritis,” Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 2001; 21(12):895-96.

Yasuda, G., et al., “Rheumatoid arthritis.” In Pizzorno, J., Murray, M., (Eds.) Textbook of Natural Medicine. St. Louis: Churchill Livingstone, 2013; p. 1769-84.

Zoli, A., et al.,”Serum zinc aand copper in active rheumatoid arthritis: correlation with interleukin 1 beta and tumour necrosis factor alpha,” Clin Rheumatol 1998; 17(5):378-82.

Zurier, R., et al., “Gamma-linolenic acid treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial,” Arthr Rheum 1996; 39:1808–17.

 

Scleroderma (Systemic Sclerosis)

Famularo, G., et al., “Carnitine deficiency in scleroderma,” (letter) Immunol Today 1999; 20(5):246.

Gaby, A., “Natural remedies for scleroderma,” Altern Med Rev 2006; 11(3):188-95.

Gaby A., and Wright, J., Nutritional Therapy in Medical Practice. Concord, NH Nutritional Seminars, 2011.

Herrick, A., et al., “Dietary intake of micronutrient antioxidants in relation to blood levels in patients with systemic sclerosis,” Jour Rheumatol 1996; 23(4):650–53.

Hulshof, M., et al., “Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of oral calcitriol for the treatment of localized and systemic scleroderma,” Jour Amer Acad Dermatol 2000; 43:1017-23.

Humbert, P., et al., “Oral calcitriol as a new therapeutic agent in localized and systemic scleroderma,” Arch Dermol 1995; 131:850-51.

Humbert, P., et al., “Treatment of scleroderma with oral 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3: evaluation of skin involvement using non-invasive techniques,” Acta Derm Venerol 1993; 73:449-51.

Pierce, H., “Pineapple proteases in the treatment of scleroderma,” JNMA 1964; 56:272-73.

 

Sjögren’s Syndrome

Baer, A., et al., “Sjogren syndrome.” In Hochberg, M., Silman, A., Smolen, J., Weinblatt, M., Weisman, M., (Eds.) Rheumatolgy. 6th Ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Mosby, 2015.

Brito-Zeron, P., “Primary Sjögren syndrome: an update on current pharmacotherapy options and future directions,” Expert Opin Pharmacother 2013; 14(3):279-89.

Calder, P., et al., “N-3 polyunsturated fatty acids and cytokine production in health and disease,” Ann Nutr Metab 1997; 41(4):203–34.

Crayhon, R., Designs for Health Institute’s Eating and Supplement Plans. Boulder, CO: Designs for Health Institute, Inc. 2000.

Fernandes, G., et al., “Dietary lipids and risk of autoimmune disease,” Clin Immunopathol 1994; 72(2):193–97.

Fox, R., “Sjogren’s syndrome,” Lancet 2005; 366(9482):321-31.

Kruszka, P., et al., “Diagnosis and management of Sjogren syndrome,” Amer Fam Physician 2009; 79(6):465-70.

Ramos-Casals, M., et al., “Topical and systemic medications for the treatment of primary Sjögren's syndrome,” Nat Rev Rheumatol 2012; 8(7):399-411.

Robinson, D., et al., “Suppression of autoimmune disease by dietary n-3 fatty acids.” Jour Lipid Res 1993; 34(8):1435-44.

 

Stroke

Ascherio, A., et al., “Intake of potassium, magnesium, calcium, and fiber and risk of stroke among US men,” Circulation 1998; 98:1198-1204.

Chen, G., et al., “Vitamin C intake, circulating vitamin C and risk of stroke: A meta-analysis of prospective studies,” Jour Amer Heart Assoc 2013; 2(6):e00329.

Nie, Z., et al., “Magnesium intake and incidence of stroke: meta-analysis of cohort studies,” Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2013; 23(3):169-76.

Park, J., et al., “Effect of B-vitamins on stroke risk among individuals with vascular disease who are not on antiplatelets: A meta-analysis,” Int Jour Stroke 2016;11:206–11.

Perlmutter, D., BrainRecovery.com. Naples, Florida: The Perlmutter Health Center, 2000.

Rabadi, M., et al., “Intensive nutritional supplements can improve outcomes in stroke rehabilitation,” Neurology 2008; 71(23).

Saver, J., et al., “Prehospital use of magnesium sulfate as neuroprotection in acute stroke,” NEJM 2015; 372:528-36.

Spence, J., “Metabolic vitamin B12 deficiency: a missed opportunity to prevent dementia and stroke,” Nutr Res 2016;36:109–16

Spence, J., et al., “Vitamin intervention for stroke prevention trial: an efficacy analysis,” Stroke 2005;36:2404–9.

Tian, T., et al., “Folic acid supplementation for stroke prevention in patients with cardiovascular disease.” Amer Jour Med Sci 2017;354:379–87.

Wang, X., et al., “Efficacy of folic acid supplementation in stroke prevention: a meta-analysis,” Lancet 2007; 369:1876-82.

Zhao, M., et al., “Meta-analysis of folic acid efficacy trials in stroke prevention: Insight into effect modifiers,” Neurology 2017;88:1830–8

 

Ulcerative Colitis

Camilo, M., et al., “Vitamin A and zinc in inflammatory bowel diseases,” Scand Jour Gastroenterol 1982; 78(Suppl):357.

Chapman, M., et al., “Butyrate metabolism in the terminal ileal mucosa of patients with ulcerative colitis,” Brit Jour Surg 1995; 82:36-8.

Dichi, I., et al., “Comparison of omega-3 fatty acids and sulfasalazine in ulcerative colitis,” Nutrition 2000; 16:87-90.

Dryden, G., et al., “Polyphenols and gastrointestinal diseases,” Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2006; 22:165–170.

Elsborg, L., “Folate deficiency in chronic inflammatory bowel disease,” Scand Jour Gastroenterol 1979; 14:1019-24.

Esposito, G., et al., “Cannabidiol in inflammatory bowel diseases: a brief overview,” Phytother Res 2013; 27(5):633-36.

Fei, K., et al., “Herbal medicine in the treatment of ulcerative colitis,” Saudi Jour Gastroenterol 2012; 18(1):3-10.

Fernández-Banares, F., et al., “Randomized clinical trial of Plantago ovata seeds (dietary fiber) as compared with mesalamine in maintaining remission in ulcerative colitis,” Spanish Group for the Study of Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis (GETECCU) Amer Jour Gastroenterol 1999; 94:427–33.

Fernandez-Banares, F., et al., “Serum zinc, copper, and selenium levels in inflammatory bowel disease: effect of total enteral nutrition on trace element status,” Amer Jour Gastroenterol 1990; 85:1584-89.

Gaby, A., “Ulcerative Colitis.” In Nutritional Medicine. 2nd Ed., Concord, NH: Fritz Perlberg Publishing, 2017.

Gionchetti, P., et al., “Oral bacteriotherapy as maintenance treatment in patients with chronic pouchitis: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,” Gastroenterology 2000; 119:305-09.

Gionchetti, P., et al., “Prophylaxis of pouchitis onset with probiotic therapy: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,” Gastroenterology 2003; 124:1202-09.

Goldin, B., et al., “Health benefits of probiotics,” Br Jour Nutr 1998; 80(4):S203–S207.

Gupta, I., et al., “Effects of Boswellia serrata gum resin in patients with ulcerative colitis,” Eur Jour Med Res 1997; 2(1):37-43.

Halstead, C., et al., “Sulfasalazine inhibits the absorption of folates in ulcerative colitis,” NEJM 1981; 305:1513-17.

Hanai, H., et al., “Curcumin maintenance therapy for ulcerative colitis: randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,” Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2006; 4:1502–06.

Holt, P., et al., “Curcumin therapy in inflammatory bowel disease: a pilot study,” Dig Dis Sci 2005; 50:2191–93.

Huber, R., et al., “Tormentil for active ulcerative colitis: an open-label, dose-escalating study,” Jour Clin Gastroenterol 2007; 41:834–38.

Kanauchi, O., et al., “Treatment of ulcerative colitis patients by long-term administration of germinated barley foodstuff: multi-center open trial,” Int Jour Mol Med 2003; 12:701-04.

Kane, S., et al., “Use of bromelain for mild ulcerative colitis,” Ann Intern Med 2000; 132:680.

Karner, M., et al., “First multicenter study of modified release phosphatidylcholine ‘LT-02’: in ulcerative colitis: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial in mesalazine-refractory courses,” Amer Jour Gastroenterol 2014; 109:1041-51.

Krasinski, S., et al., “The prevalence of vitamin K deficiency in chronic gastrointestinal disorders,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1985; 41:639-43.

Langmead, L., et al., “Anti-inflammatory effects of aloe vera gel in human colorectal mucosa in vitro,” Ailment Pharmacol Ther 2004; 19:521-27.

Langmead, L., et al., “Antioxidant effects of herbal therapies used by patients with inflammatory bowel disease: An in vitro study,” Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2002; 16:197–205.

Langmead, L., et al., “Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of oral aloe vera gel for active ulcerative colitis,” Ailment Pharmacol Ther 2004; 19:739-47.

LaSala, M., et al., “Magnesium metabolism studies in children with chronic inflammatory disease of the bowel,” Jour Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1985; 4:75-81.

Lashner, B., et al., “Effect of folate supplementation on the incidence of dysplasia and cancer in chronic ulcerative colitis; a case-control study,” Gastroenterology 1989; 97:255-59.

Lashner, B., et al., “The effect of folic acid supplementation on the risk for cancer or dysplasia in ulcerative colitis,” Gastroenterology 1997; 112:29-32.

Longstreth, G., et al., “Folate status in patients receiving maintenance doses of sulfasalazine,” Arch Int Med 1983; 143:902-04.

Lukaczer, D., “Gastroenterology, part II: gastrointestinal disorders: clinical applications using the functional medicine perspective,” Applying Functional Medicine in Clinical Practice. Gig Harbor WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 2002.

Mimura, T., et al., “Once daily high dose probiotic therapy (VSL#3) for maintaining remission in recurrent or refractory pouchitis,” Gut 2004; 53:108-114.

Patz, J., et al., “Treatment of refractory distal ulcerative colitis with short chain fatty acid enemas,” Amer Jour Gastroenterol 1996; 91:731-34.

Saibeni, S., et al., “Low vitamin B6 plasma levels, a risk factor for thrombosis, in inflammatory bowel disease: role of inflammation and correlation with acute phase reactants,” Amer Jour Gastroenterol 2003; 98:112-17.

Salomon, P., et al., “Treatment of ulcerative colitis with fish oil n-3-omega-fatty acid: an open trial,” Jour Clin Gastro 1990; 12(2):157–61.

Scheppach, W., et al., “Effect of butyrate enemas on the colonic mucosa in distal ulcerative colitis,” Gastroenterology 1992; 103:51-6.

Shen, J., et al., “Effect of probiotics on inducing remission and maintaining therapy in ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, and pouchitis: metanalysis of randomized controlled trials,” Inflamm Bowel Dis 2014; 20:21-35.

Silvennoinen, J., et al., “Relationships between vitamin D, parathyroid hormone and bone mineral density in inflammatory bowel disease,” Jour Inter Med 1996; 239:131-37.

Stenson, W., et al., “Dietary supplementation with fish oil in ulcerative colitis,” Ann Intern Med 1992; 116:609-14.

Stremmel, W., et al., “Delayed release phosphatidylcholine in chronic-active ulcerative colitis: a randomized, double-blinded, dose finding study,” Jour Clin Gastroenterol 2010; 44:e101-e107.

Stremmel, W., et al., “Lecithin as a therapeutic agent in ulcerative colitis,” Dig Dis 2013; 31;388-90.

Stremmel, W., et al., “Phosphatidylcholine for steroid-refractory chronic ulcerative colitis: a randomized trial,” Ann Intern Med 2007; 147:603-10.

Stremmel, W., et al., “Phosphatidylcholine (lecithin) and the mucus layer: evidence of therapeutic efficacy in ulcerative colitis?” Dig Dis 2010; 28:490-96.

Stremmel, W., et al., “Retarded release phosphatidylcholine benefits patients with chronic active ulcerative colitis,” Gut 2005; 54:966-71.

Souba, W., et al., “The role of glutamine in maintaining a healthy gut and supporting the metabolic response to injury and infection,” Jour Surgical Res 1990; 48:383–91.

Tursi, A., et al., “Treatment of relapsing mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis with the probiotic VSL#3 as adjunctive to a standard pharmaceutical treatment: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study,” Amer Jour Gastroenterol 2010; 105:2218-27.

Velazquez, O., et al., “Butyrate and the colonocyte. Implications for neoplasia,” Dig Dis Sci 1996; 41:727-39.

Yang, F., et al., “The green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate blocks nuclear factor-kappa B activation by inhibiting I kappa B kinase activity in the intestinal epithelial cell line IEC-6,” Mol Pharmacol 2001; 60:528–33.

Yuan, H., et al., “Anti-inflammatory effects of Diammonium Glycyrrhizinate in a rat model of ulcerative colitis,” World Jour Gastroenterol 2006; 12:4578–81.

 

Varicose Veins

Allergra, C., et al., “Centella asiatica extract in venous disorders of the lower limbs: comparative clinico-instrumental studies with a placebo,” Clin Ter 1981; 99:507-13.

Anonymous, “Aesculus hippocastanum (Horse chestnut): Monograph,” Altern Med Rev 2009; 14(3):278-83.

Braun, L., and Cohen, M., (Eds.) Herbs and Natural Supplements. 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

Brinkhaus, B., et al., “Chemical, pharmacological and clinical profile of the East Asian medical plant Centella asiatica,” Phytomedicine 2000; 7;424-48.

Cappelli, R., et al., “Use of extract of ruscus aculeatus in venous disease in the lower limbs,” Drugs Exp Clin Res 1988; 14:277-83.

Costantini, A., et al., “Clinical and capillaroscopic evaluation of chronic complicated venous insufficiency with procyanidins extracted from Vitis vinifera,” Minerva Cardioangiol 1999; 47:39-46.

Delacroix, P., “Double-blind trial of endotelon in chronic venous insufficiency,” Rev Med 1981; 27(8):1793-1802.

Diehmetal, C., et al., “Comparison of leg compression stocking and oral horse chestnut seed extract therapy in patients with chronic venous insufficiency,” Lancet 1996; 292–94.

Facino, R., et al., “Anti-elastase and anti-hyluronidase activities of saponins and sapogenins from Hedera helix, Aesculus hippocastanum, and Ruscus aculeatus: factors contributing to their efficacy in the treatment of venous insufficiency,” Arch Pharm 1995; 328(10):720–24.

Gabor, M., “Pharmacologic effects of flavonoids on blood vessels,” Angiologia 1972; 9:355-74.

Morales, P., et al., “Efficacy and safety on use of dried horse chestnut extract in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency of the limbs,” Revista Brasileira de Medicina 1993; 50(11):1563-65.

Murray, M., “Varicose Veins.” In Pizzorno, J., Murray, M., (Eds.) Textbook of Natural Medicine. St. Louise: Churchill Livingstone, 2013, p. 1832-35.

Pittler, M., et al., “Horse chestnut seed extract for chronic venous insufficiency,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004; 4:CD003230.

Pittler, M., et al., “Horse chestnut seed extract for chronic venous insufficiency. A criteria-based systemic review,” Arch Dermatol 1998; 134:1356–60.

Pointel, J., et al., “Titrated extract of Centella asiatica (TECA) in the treatment of venous insufficiency of thelwoer limbs,” Angiology 1987; 38:46-50.

Pourrat, H., “Anthocyanidin drugs in vascular disease,” Plant Med Phytother 1977; 11:143-51.

Siebert, U., et al., “Efficacy, routine effectiveness, and safety of horse chestnut seed extract in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and large observational studies,” Ant Angiol 2002; 21(4):305–15.

Simini, B., “Horse-chestnut seed extract for chronic venous insufficiency,” Lancet 1996; 337(9009):1182-83.

Tiffany, N., et al., “Horse chestnut: a multidisciplinary clinical review,” Jour Herbal Pharmacotherapy 2002; 2(1):71-85.

 

Weight Gain and Obesity

Abedimanesh, N., et al., “Saffron and crocin improved appetite, dietary intakes and body composition in patients with coronary artery disease,” Jour Cardiovasc Thorac Res 2017; 9(4):200-08.

Arora, T., et al., “The gut microbiota and metabolic disease: current understanding and future perspectives,” Jour Inter Med 2016; 280:339-49.

Beaumont, M., et al., “Heritable components of the human fecal microbiome are associated with visceral fat,” Genome Biol 2016; 17:189.

Chakraborti, C., “New link between microbiota and obesity,” World Jour Gastrointest Pathophysiol 2015; 6:110-19.

Cichosz, S., et al., “Prediction of excessive weight gain in insulin treated patients with type 2 diabetes,” Jour Diabetes 2017; 9:325.

Everson, J., “Unexpected benefits of olive leaf extract,” Life Extension June 2013, p. 28-35.

Fandriks, L., “Roles of the gut in the metabolic syndrome: an overview,” Jour Inter Med 2017; 281:319-36.

Flegal, K., et al., “Trends in obesity among adults in the United States, 2005 to 2014,” JAMA 2016; 315:2284-91.

Gaby, A., Nutritional Medicine. 2nd Ed., Concord, NH: Fritz Perlberg Publishing, 2017.

Grover, J., et al., “Pharmacological actions and potential uses of Momordica charantia: a review,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 2004; 93:123-32.

Hardy, O., et al., “What causes the insulin resistance underlying obesity? Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2012; 19(2): 81–7.

Huerta, A., et al., “Effects of alpha-lipoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in overweight and obese women during weight loss,” Obesity 2015; 23:313-21.

Imanshahidi, M., et al., “Pharmacological and therapeutic effects of Berberis vulgaris and its active constituent, berberine,” Phytother Res 2008; 22:999-1012.

Kalliomaki, M., et al., “Early differences in fecal microbiota composition may predict overweight,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2008; 87:534-38.

Keshavarz, S., et al., “Omega-3 supplementation effects on body weight and depression among dieter women with co-morbidity of depression and obesity compared with placebo: A randomized clinical trial,” Clin Nutr ESPEN 2018; 25:37-43.

Koh, E., et al., “Effects of alpha-lipoic acid on body weight in obese subjects,” Amer Jour Med 2011; 124:85.e1-85.e8.

Lambert, J., et al., “Potential interaction between warfarin and boldo-fenugreek,” Pharmacotherapy 2001; 21:509-512.

Liu, K., et al., “Effect of green tea on glucose control and insulin sensitivity: a meta-analysis of 17 randomized controlled trials,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2013; 98:240-48.

Million, M., et al., “Comparative meta-analysis of the effect of Lactobacillus species on weight gain in humans and animals,” Micro Pathol 2012; 53:100-08.

Million, M., et al., “Gut bacterial microbiota and obesity,” Clin Microbiol Infect 2013; 19:305-13.

Moher, M., “Type 2 Diabetes.” In Rakel, D., Integrative Medicine. 4th Ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier, 2018.

Mozaffari-Khosravi, H., et al., “The effect of ginger powder supplementation on insulin resistance and glycemic indices in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,” Complement Ther Med 2014; 22(1):9-16.

Naylor, G., et al., “A double-blind placebo controlled trial of ascorbic acid in obesity,” Nutr Health 1985; 4:25-8.

Ogden, C., et al., “Trends in obesity prevalence among children and adolescents in the United States, 1988-1994 through 2013-2014,” JAMA 2016; 315:2292-99.

Onakpoya, I., et al., “Chromium supplementation in overweight and obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials,” Obesity Rev 2013; 14:496-507.

Patil, S., et al., “Allergy to fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum),” Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 1997; 78:297-300. 

Pooyandjoo, M., et al., “The effect of (L‐)carnitine on weight loss in adults: a systematic review and meta‐analysis of randomized controlled trials,” Obesity Rev 2016;17(10):970-79.

Poudyal, H., et al., “Olive leaf extract attenuates cardiac, hepatic, and metabolic changes in high carbohydrate-high fat-fed rats,” Jour Nutr 2010; 140(5):946-53.

Schwartz, M., et al., “The effects of insulin on the central nervous system—focus on appetite regulation,” Horm Metabol Res 2006; 38(7):442-46.

Shanmugasundaram, E., et al., “Use of Gymnema sylevestre leaf extract in the control of blood glucose in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, “Jour Ethnopharmacol 1990; 30:281-94.

Sharma, R., “Effect of fenugreek seeds and leaves on blood glucose and serum insulin responses in human subjects,” Nutr Res 1986; 6:1353-64.

Sharma, R., et al., “Toxicological evaluation of fenugreek seeds: a long term feeding experiment in diabetic patients,” Phytother Res 1996; 10:519-520.

Simon, D., et al., “Diabetes mellitus, hyperglycaemia and cancer,” Diabetes Metab 2010; 36(3):182-91.

Smith, P., What Can’t You Lose Weight. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers, 2011.

Srivatava, Y., et al., “Antidiabetic and adaptogenic properties of Momordica charantia extract: an experimental and clinical evaluation,” Phytotherapy Res 1993; 7:285-89.

Stenman, L., et al., “Potential probiotic Bifidobacterium animals ssp. Lactis 420 prevents weight gain and glucose intolerance in diet-induced obese mice,” Biomed Microbes 2014; 5:437-45.

Thom, E. “The effect of chlorogenic acid enriched coffee on glucose absorption in healthy volunteers and its effect on body mass when used long-term in overweight and obese people,” Jour International Med Res 2007; 35(6):900-08.

Vuskan, V., et al., “Konjac-Mannan and American ginseng emerging alternatives therapies for type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Jour Amer Coll Nutr 2001; 20(5 Supp):370S-380S; discussion 381S-383S.

Wainstein J., et al., “Olive leaf extract as a hypoglycemic agent in both human diabetic subjects and in rats,” Jour Med Food 2012; 15(7):605-10.

Walters, W., et al., “Meta-analysis of human gut microbes associated with obesity and IBD,” FEBS Letters 2014; 588:4223-33.

Yeh, G., et al., “Systematic review of herbs and dietary supplements for glycemic control in diabetes,” Diabetes Care 2003; 26(4):1277-94.

Yan, W., et al., “Effect of ALA supplementation on oxidative stress and insulin sensitivity among overweight/obese adults. A double-blinded randomized, controlled cross over intervention trial,” Int Jour Cardiology 2013; 167:602-03.

Zhang, Y., et al., “Treatment of type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia with natural plant alkaloid berberine,” Jour Clin Endocrinol Metabol 2008; 93:2559-65.

 

Wound Healing

Collins, N., “Adding vitamin C to the wound management mix,” Adv Skin Wound Care 2004; 17(3):109-12.

Meyers, B., Wound Management: Principles and Practice. 2nd Ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ, Pearson Prentice Hall, 2008.

Moores, J., “Vitamin C: A wound healing perspective,” Brit Jour Community Nurs 2013; Supplement: S6, S8-11.

Quinn, P., et al., “Carnosine: its properties, functions and potential therapeutic application,” Mol Aspects Med 1992; 13:379–444.

Roberts, P., et al., “Dietary peptides improve wound healing following surgery,” Nutrition 1998; 14:266–69.

Vaxman, F, et al., “Can the wound healing process be improved by vitamin supplementation? Experimental study on humans,” Eur Surg Res 1996; 28:306–14.

Vaxman, F., et al., “Effect of pantothenic acid and ascorbic acid supplementation on human skin wound healing process; A double-blind, prospective and randomized trial,” Eur Surg Res 1995; 27:158–66.