Max Your Immunity

How to Maximize Your Immune System When You Need It Most

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Max Your Immunity
Square One Publishers


6.0 X 9.0 in
280 pg

HEALTH & FITNESS / Diet & Nutrition / Nutrition

$16.95 Paperback (Trade paperback (US))
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By:  Pamela Wartian Smith


The word immunity has unfortunately become an all-too-common term in our vocabulary, and for good reason. When the pandemic hit, many of the major drug companies created vaccines that offered us “immunity” against this specific virus. Yet, few of us understand that almost all these vaccines work based upon their activating our own built-in systems of defense. It is our very own immunity to these viruses that can make the difference between illness and health. To help clarify what each of us can do to protect ourselves and our loved ones, Pamela Wartian Smith, MD has written Max Your Immunity. Here is a complete guide to understanding and maximizing your natural defenses against various infectious diseases.

Max Your Immunity is divided into three parts. Part One explains how our innate and adaptive immunity systems work. Our innate immunity system is based on our built-in barriers designed to fight or separate us from infectious agents. Our adaptive immunity, also called acquired immunity, is composed of lymphocyte cells that are triggered when a specific pathogen enters the body. These cells learn to identify the invading pathogens and hunt them down. In this section, each component in both systems are clearly identified and explained. Part Two provides ten important things that you can do to increase and strengthen all of these components. And Part Three provides specific nutritional plans to increase your body’s immunity to help defend against the most common health disorders.

By simply having a clear understanding of how our internal defenses work and what we can do to increase our immunity, we can play an important role in maintaining good health. Max Your Immunity can help show you what you need to know to protect yourself and your family.


"A guide, written for lay readers, to good lifestyle habits anyone can adopt to better support their own immune system, especially amid threats such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic . . . it should be emphasized that Max Your Immunity is absolutely not an anti-vaccination or anti-mask book - it simply focuses on good health habits that work well in addition to vaccination and wearing masks . . . an excellent supplementary resource for personal health and wellness collections, highly recommended."Midwest Book Review

Author Biography

Pamela Wartian Smith, MD, MPH, MS, is a diplomate of the American Academy of Anti-Aging Physicians and past co-director of the Master's Program in Medical Sciences, with a concentration in Metabolic and Nutritional Medicine, at the Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida. An authority on the subjects of wellness and functional medicine, she is also the founder of the Fellowship in Anti-Aging, Regenerative, and Functional Medicine. Dr. Smith is the best-selling author of ten books, including What You Must Know About Vitamins, Minerals, Herbs & So Much MoreWhat You Must Know About Women's Hormones; and What You Must Know About Memory Loss.

Table of contents


Acknowledgments, vii

Introduction, 1

How Your Immune System Works

1. What Makes Up Your Immune System?, 5

2. What Is an Autoimmune Disease?, 17

3. How Is Your Immune System Measured?, 23

4. Does Your Immune System Change With Age?, 27

Lifestyle Changes to Strengthen Your Immunity

5. Alcohol: Moderation Is the Key to Health, 33

6. Exercise: Whether You Like It or Not, 38

7. Your Gut: A Healthy Gut Equals a Healthy Immune System, 54

8. Inflammation: Its Effect on the Immune System, 86

9. Sleep: Get a Good Night’s Sleep, 110

10. Smoking: How It Affects the Immune System, 123

11. Stress: Manage Your Stress, 129

12. Sugar: Minimize Your Intake for Healthy Eating, 138

13. Thyroid: Optimize Its Function, 146

14. Water: Stay Hydrated, 164

Herbal and Nutritional Therapies for Immune Building


Astragalus, 172

Cordyceps, 173

Echinacea, 175

Elderberry, 176

Garlic, 177

Ginseng, 179

Goldenseal, 183

Glycyrrhizin, 185

Olive Leaf Extract, 189

Oregano, 190


Arginine, 193

Carnitine, 196

Chromium, 199

Cysteine, 199

Glutamine, 201

Manganese, 203

Selenium, 206

Vitamin A, 208

Vitamin D, 210

Zinc, 212


Beta Glucans, 217

Carnosine, 219

Colostrum, 220

Glutathione, 222

Sulforaphane, 224


Aloe Vera, 226

American Skullcap, 227

Boswellia, 228

Cayenne Pepper, 229

Chinese Skullcap, 232

Curcumin, 233

Feverfew, 235

Fish Oil, 236

Ginger, 237

Green Tea, 238

N-Acetyl Cysteine, 240

Pomegranate, 244

Pycnogenol, 246

Resveratrol, 247

Rosemary, 249

Thyme, 251

White Willow Bark Extract, 252

Conclusion, 255

Resources, 259

References, 263

About the Author, 264

Index, 265






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Chapter 1: What Makes Up Your Immune System?


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van den Broek, T., “The full spectrum of human naive T cells,” Nat Rev Immunol 2018;  18(6): 363–73.


Vignali, D., et al., “How regulatory T cells work,” Nat Rev Immunol 2008; 8:523-32.


Vivier, E., et al., “Functions of natural killer cells,” Nat Immunol 2008; 9(5):503-10.


Vivier, E., et al., “Natural killer cell signaling pathways,” Science 2004; 306(5701):1517-19.


Wong, J., et al., "Current and future developments in the treatment of virus-induced hypercytokinemia," Future Medicinal Chem 2017; 9(2):169–78. 


Chapter 2: What Is An Autoimmune Disease?


Cooper, G., et al., “The epidemiology of autoimmune diseases,” Autoimmune Rev 2003; 2(3):119-25.


Fasano, A., “Leaky gut and autoimmune diseases,” Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 2012; 42(1):71-8.


Rosenblum, M., et al., “Treating human autoimmunity: Current practice and future prospects,” Sci Transl Med 2012; 4(125):125.


Smith, D., et al., “Introduction to immunology and autoimmunity,” Environ Health Perspect 1999; 107(Suppl 5):661-65.


Walsh, S., et al., “Autoimmune diseases: A leading cause of death among young and middle-aged women in the United States,” Amer Jour Public Health 2000; 90:1463–66.


Wang, L., et al., “Human autoimmune diseases a comprehensive update,” Jour Inter Med 2015; 278(4):369-95.


Chapter 3: How Is Your Immune System Measured?


Bieber, K., et al., “Insights how monocytes and dendritic cells contribute and regulate immune defense against microbial pathogens,” Immunobiology 2015; 220(2):215-26.


Brodin, P., “New approaches to the study of immune responses in humans,” Human Genet 2020; 139(6-7):795-99.


Brodin, P., et al., “Human immune system,” Nat Rev Immunol 2017; 17(1):21-9.


Chaussabel, D., et al., “Assessing the human immune system through blood transcriptomics,” BMC Biol 2010; 8(84).


Gregersen, P., et al., “Recent advances in the genetics of autoimmune disease,” Annu Rev Immunol 2009; 27:363-91.


Orange, J., “Natural killer cell deficiency,” Jour Allergy Clin Immunol 2013; 132(3):515-25.


Pearce, E., et al., “Dendritic cell metabolism,” Nat Rev Immunol 2015; 15(1):18-29.


Schroeder, H., et al., “Structure and function of immunoglobulins,” Jour Aller Clin Immunol 2010; 125(2 Suppl 2):S41-S52.


Vivier, E., et al., “Functions of natural killer cells,” Nat Immunol 2008; 9(5):503-10.


Vivier, E., et al., “Natural killer cell signaling pathways,” Science 2004; 306(5701):1517-19.


Zhernakova, A., et al., “Detecting shared pathogenesis from the shared genetics of immune-related diseases,” Nat Rev Genet 2009; 10:43-55.


Chapter 4: Does Your Immune System Change With Age?


Bruunsgaard, H., "Decreased natural killer cell activity is associated with atherosclerosis in elderly humans,” Exp Gerontol 2001; 37(1):127–36.


Gibson, K., et al., "B cell diversity decreases in old age and is correlated with poor health status," Aging Cell 2009; 8(1):18–25.


Ginaldi, L. et al., "Immunosenescence and infectious diseases,”Microbes Infection 2001; 3(10):851–57.


Ginaldi, L., et al., “The immune system in the elderly: III Innate immunity,” Immunol Res 1999; 20(2):117-26.


Hakim, F., et al., "Immunosenescence: deficits in adaptive immunity in elderly,” Tissue Antigens 2007; 70(3):179–89.


Hazeldine, J., et al., “The impact of ageing on natural killer cell function and potential consequences for health in older adults,” Ageing Res Rev 2013; 12(4):1069-78.



Kale, A., et al., “Role of immune cells in the removal of deleterious senescent cells,” Immun Ageing 2020; 17:16.


Lord, J., et al., "Neutrophil ageing and immunesenescence,” Mech Ageing Dev 2001; 122(14):1521–35.


Pangrazzi, L., et al., “T cells, aging and senescence,” Exp Gerontol 2020; 134:110887.


Solana, R., et al., “Innate immunosenescence: effect of aging on cells and receptors of the innate immune system in humans,” Semin Immunol 2012; 24(5):331-41.


Strout, R., et al., "Immunosenescence and macrophage functional plasticity: dysregulation of macrophage function by age-associated microenvironmental changes," Immunol Rev 2005; 205:60–71.


Uyemura, K., et al., "The frail elderly: role of dendritic cells in the susceptibility of infection,” Mech Ageing Dev 2002; 123(8):955–62.


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Chapter 5: Alcohol


American Cancer Society 2020.


Barr, T., et al., “Opposing effects of alcohol on the immune system,” Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2016; 65:242-51.


Bhatty, M., et al., “Alcohol abuse and streptococcus pneumoniae infections: Consideration of virulence factors and impaired immune responses,” Alcohol 2011; 45(6):523-39.


Bykov, I., et al., “Effect of chronic ethanol consumption on the expression of complement components and acute-phase proteins in liver,” Clin Immunol 2007; 124(2):213–20.


Choudhry, M., et al., “Impaired intestinal immunity and barrier function: A cause for enhanced bacterial translocation in alcohol intoxication and burn injury,” Alcohol 2004; 33(3):199–208.


Cook, R., “Alcohol abuse, alcoholism, and damage to the immune system: A Review,” Alcohol Clin Exp Res 1998; 22(9):1927-42.


Cook, R., et al., “Ethanol and natural killer cells. I. Activity and immunophenotype in alcoholic humans,” Alcoholism: Clin Experiment Res 1997; 21(6):974–80.


Cook, R., et al., “Loss of the CD5+ and CD45RAhi B cell subsets in alcoholics,” Clin Experiment Immunol 1996; 103(2):304–10.


Coronado, G., et al., “Alcohol consumption and the risk of breast cancer,” Salud Publica Mex 2011; 53(5):440-47.

Curtis, B., et al., “Epigenetic targets for reversing immune defects caused by alcohol exposure,” Alcohol Res 2013; 35(1):97-113.


Deandrea, S., et al., “Alcohol and breast cancer risk defined by estrogen and progesterone receptor status: a case-control study,” Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2008; 17(8):2025–28.


Domínguez-Santalla, M., et al., “Increased serum IgE in alcoholics: Relationship with Th1/Th2 cytokine production by stimulated blood mononuclear cells,” Alcoholism: Clin Experiment Res 2001; 25(8):1198–1205.


Dorgan, J., et al., “Serum hormones and the alcohol-breast cancer association in postmenopausal women,” Jour Natl Cancer Inst 2001; 93(9):710–15.


Dumitrescu, R., et al., “The etiology of alcohol-induced breast cancer,” Alcohol 2005;35(3):213-25.

Fan, S., et al., “Alcohol stimulates estrogen receptor signaling in human breast cancer cell lines,” Cancer Res 2000; 60(20):5635–39.

Frydenberg, H., et al., “Alcohol consumption, endogenous estrogen and mammographic density among premenopausal women,” Breast Cancer Res 2015; 17:103.

Gao, B., et al., “Liver natural killer and natural killer T cells: Immunobiology and emerging roles in liver diseases,” Jour Leukocyte Biol 2009; 86(3):513–28.


Ginsburg, E., et al., “Effects of alcohol ingestion on estrogens in postmenopausal women,” JAMA 1996; 276(21):1747–51.

Hankinson, S., et al., “Alcohol, height, and adiposity in relation to estrogen and prolactin levels in postmenopausal women,” Jour Natl Cancer Inst 1995; 87(17):1297–1302.

Happel, K., et al., “Acute alcohol intoxication suppresses the interleukin 23 response to Klebsiella pneumoniae infection,” Alcoholism: Clin Experiment Res 2006; 30(7):1200–07.


Holguin, F., et al., “Chronic ethanol ingestion impairs alveolar type II cell glutathione homeostasis and function and predisposes to endotoxin-mediated acute edematous lung injury in rats,” Jour Clin Invest 1998;101(4):761–68.


Jaruga, B., et al., “Chronic alcohol consumption accelerates liver injury in T cell-mediated hepatitis: Alcohol dysregulation of NF-kappaB and STAT3 signaling pathways,” Amer Jour Physiology Gastrointestinal Liver Physiol 2004;287(2):G471–G479.


Jerrells, T., et al., “Role of activated CD8+ T cells in the initiation and continuation of hepatic damage,” Alcohol 2002; 27(1):47–52.


Joshi, P., et al., “The alcoholic lung: Epidemiology, pathophysiology, and potential therapies,” Amer Jour Physiology Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2007;292(4):L813–L823.


Keshavarzian, A., et al., “Leaky gut in alcoholic cirrhosis: A possible mechanism for alcohol-induced liver damage,” Amer Jour Gastroenterol 1999; 94(1):200–07.


Kwan, M., et al., “Alcohol consumption and breast cancer recurrence and survival among women with early-stage breast cancer: the life after cancer epidemiology study,” Jour Clin Oncol 2010; 28(29):4410–16.

Laso, F., “Chronic alcohol consumption is associated with changes in the distribution, immunophenotype, and the inflammatory cytokine secretion profile of circulating dendritic cells,” Alcoholism: Clin Experiment Res 2007;31(5):846–54.


Lau, A., et al., “Antigen-presenting cells under the influence of alcohol,” Trends Immunol 2009; 30(1):13–22.


Lew, J., et al., “Alcohol and risk of breast cancer by histologic type and hormone receptor status in postmenopausal women: the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study,” Amer Jour Epidemiol 2009; 170(3):308–17.

Li, C., et al., “Alcohol consumption and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer by subtype: the women's health initiative observational study,” Jour Natl Cancer Inst 2010; 102(18):1422–31.


Lopez, M., et al., “Modification of lymphocyte subsets in the intestinal-associated immune system and thymus by chronic ethanol consumption,” Alcoholism: Clin Experiment Res 1994; 18(1):8–11.


MacGregor, R., et al., “Effect of ethanol on functions required for the delivery of neutrophils to sites of inflammation,” Jour Infect Dis 1988; 157(4):682–89.


Mandrekar, P., et al., “Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-mediated NFkappaB activation by ethanol in human monocytes,” International Immunol 1999; 11:1781–90.


Mandrekar, P., et al., “Inhibition of myeloid dendritic cell accessory cell function and induction of T cell anergy by alcohol correlates with decreased IL-12 production,” Jour Immunol 2004; 173(5):3398–3407.


Meyerholz, D., et al., “Chronic alcohol consumption increases the severity of murine influenza virus infections,” Jour Immunol 2008; 181(1):641–48.


Minagawa, M., et al., “Activated natural killer T cells induce liver injury by Fas and tumor necrosis factor-alpha during alcohol consumption,” Gastroenterology 2004; 126(5):1387–99.


Molina, P., et al., “Focus on: Alcohol and the immune system,” Alcohol Res Health 2010; 33(1-2):97-108.           


Moss, M., et al., “The role of chronic alcohol abuse in the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome in adults,” JAMA 1996; 275(1):50–4.


Muti, P., et al., “Alcohol consumption and total estradiol in premenopausal women,” Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1998; 7(3):189–93.

Nagy, L., et al., “Stabilization of tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNA in macrophages in response to chronic ethanol exposure,” Alcohol 2004; 33(3):229–33.


Nelson, S., et al., “Alcohol, host defense and society,” Nat Rev Immunol 2002; 2(3):97-113.


Nelson, S., et al., “The effects of acute and chronic alcoholism on tumor necrosis factor and the inflammatory response,” Jour Infect Dis 1989; 160(3):422–29.


Pan, H., et al., “Chronic ethanol consumption inhibits hepatic natural killer cell activity and accelerates murine cytomegalovirus-induced hepatitis,” Alcoholism: Clin Experiment Res 2006; 30(9):1615–23.


Perlino, C., et al., “Alcoholism, leukopenia, and pneumococcal sepsis,” Amer Rev Resp Dis 1985; 132(4):757–60.


Prakash, O., et al., “Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections in alcoholics,” Front Biosci 2002; 7:e286–e300.


Pritchard, M., et al., “Role of complement in ethanol-induced liver injury,” Adv Experimental Med Biol 2008; 632:175–86.


Quinton, L., et al., “Effects of systemic and local CXC chemokine administration on the ethanol-induced suppression of pulmonary neutrophil recruitment,” Alcoholism: Clin Experiment Res 2005; 29(7):1198–1205.


Rao, R., “Endotoxemia and gut barrier dysfunction in alcoholic liver disease,” Hepatology 2009; 50(2):638–44.


Rao, R., et al., “Recent advances in alcoholic liver disease. Role of intestinal permeability and endotoxemia in alcoholic liver disease,” Amer Jour Physiol Gastrointestinal Liver Physiology 2004; 286(6):G881–G884.



Reichman, M., et al., “Effects of alcohol consumption on plasma and urinary hormone concentrations in premenopausal women,” Jour Natl Cancer Inst 1993; 85(9):722–27.

Rohan, T., et al., “Alcohol consumption and risk of breast cancer: a cohort study,” Cancer Causes Control 2000; 11(3):239-47.

Romeo, J., et al., “Moderate alcohol consumption and the immune system: A review,” Brit Jour Nutr 2007; 98(Suppl 1):S111–S115.


Sander, M., et al., “Suppression of interleukin-6 to interleukin-10 ratio in chronic alcoholics: Association with postoperative infections,” Intensive Care Med 2002; 28(3):285–92.


Seitz, H., et al., “The relationship between alcohol metabolism, estrogen levels, and breast cancer risk,” Alcohol Res Health 2007; 30(1):42–3.

Shuper, P., et al., “Causal considerations on alcohol and HIV/AIDS: A systematic review,” Alcohol & Alcoholism 2010; 45(2):159–66.


Singal, A., et al., “Mechanisms of synergy between alcohol and hepatitis C virus,” Jour Clin Gastroenterol 2007; 41(8):761–72.


Singletary, K., et al., “Effect of ethanol on proliferation and estrogen receptor-alpha expression in human breast cancer cells,” Cancer Lett 2001; 165(2):131–37.


Siu, L., et al., “Hepatitis C virus and alcohol,” Seminars Liver Dis 2009; 29(2):188–99.


Spies, C., et al., “Effects of ethanol on cytokine production after surgery in a murine model of gram-negative pneumonia,” Alcoholism: Clin Experiment Res 2008;32(2):331–38.


Starkenburg, S., et al., “Early alteration in leukocyte populations and Th1/Th2 function in ethanol-consuming mice,” Alcoholism: Clin Experiment Res 2001; 25(8):1221–30.


Suzuki, R., et al., “Alcohol intake and risk of breast cancer defined by estrogen and progesterone receptor status–a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies,” Int Jour Cancer 2008;122(8):1832–41.

Szabo, G., et al., “A recent perspective on alcohol, immunity, and host defense,” Alcohol Slin Exp Res 2009; 33(2):220-32.


Szabo, G., et al., “Acute alcohol consumption inhibits accessory cell function of monocytes and dendritic cells,” Alcoholism: Clin Experiment Res 2004; 28(5):824–48.


Szabo, G., et al., “Focus on: Alcohol and the immune system,” Alcohol Res Health 2010; 33(1-2):97-108.

Szabo, G., et al., “Reduced alloreactive T-cell activation after alcohol intake is due to impaired monocyte accessory cell function and correlates with elevated IL-10, IL-13, and decreased IFN gamma levels,” Alcoholism: Clin Experiment Res 2001; 25(12):1766–72.


Tang, Y., et al., “Effect of alcohol on miR-212 expression in intestinal epithelial cells and its potential role in alcoholic liver disease,” Alcoholism: Clin Experiment Res 2008; 32(2):355–64.


Wagner, F., et al., “Ethanol inhibits interferon-gamma secretion by human peripheral lymphocytes,” Jour Stud Alcohol 1992; 53(3):277–80.


Watson, R., t al., “Alcohol, immunomodulation, and disease,” Alcohol Alcohol 1994; 29(2):131-39.


Zhang, P., et al., “Alcohol abuse, immunosuppression, and pulmonary infection,” Current Drug Abuse Rev 2008; 1(1):56–67.


Zhao, X., et al., “Acute alcohol inhibits TNF-alpha processing in human monocytes by inhibiting TNF/TNFalpha-converting enzyme interactions in the cell membrane,” Jour Immunol 2003; 170(6):2923–31.


Zisman, D., et al., “Ethanol feeding impairs innate immunity and alters the expression of Th1- and Th2-phenotype cytokines in murine Klebsiella pneumonia,” Alcoholism: Clin Experiment Res 1998; 22(3):621–27.


Chapter 6: Exercise


Abbasi, A., et al., “Changes in spontaneous and LPS-induced ex vivo cytokine production and mRNA expression in male and female athletes following prolong exhaustive exercise,” Exerc Immunol Rev 2013; 19:8-28.


Abbasi, A., et al., “Exhaustive exercise modifies different gene expression profiles and pathways in LPS-stimulated and un-stimulated whole blood cultures,” Brain Behav Immun 2014; 39:130-41.


Agha, N., et al., “Exercise and the regulation of immune functions,” Prog Molecul Biol Translational Sci 2015; 135:355–80.


Allen, J., et al., “Exercise alters gut microbiota composition and function in lean and obese humans,” Med Sci Sports Exerc 2018; 50(4):747-57.



Baek, K., et al., “Exercise training reduces the risk of opportunistic infections after acute exercise and improves cytokine antigen recognition,” Pflugers Arch 2020; 472(2):235-44.


Booth, F., “Lack of exercise is a major cause of chronic disease,” Compr Physiol 2012; 2(2):1143-211.


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Brolinson, P., et al., “Exercise and the immune system,” Clin Sports Med 2007; 26(3):311-19.


Cass, S., “Alzheimer’s disease and exercise: A literature review,” Curr Sports Med Rep 2017; 16(1):19-22.


Clark, A., et al., “Exercise-induced stress behavior, gut-microbiota-brain axis and diet: a systematic review for athletes,” Jour Int Soc Sports Nutr 2016; 13:43.


Duggal, N., et al., “Can physical activity ameliorate immunosenescence and thereby reduce age-related multi-morbidity?” Nat Rev Immunol 2019; 19:563–72.


Gleeson, M., “The anti-inflammatory effects of exercise: mechanisms and implications for the prevention and treatment of disease,” Nat Rev Immunol 2011; 11:607-15.


Gleeson, M., Exercise, Nutrition and Immunity. In Calder, P, Yaqoob, P., (Eds.), Diet, Immunity and Inflammation. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing, 2013; pp. 652-685.


Hackney, A., “Hypogonadism in exercising males: Dysfunction or adaptive-regulatory adjustment?” Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2020; 11:11.


Janssen, J., “Impact of physical exercise on endocrine aging,” Front Horm Res 2016; 47:68-81.


Lavie, C., et al., “Sedentary behavior, exercise, and cardiovascular health,” Cir Res 2019; 124(5):799-815.


Mackinnon, L., “Chronic exercise training effects on immune function,” Med Sci Sports Exerc 2000; 32(7 Suppl):S369-76.


Mackinnon, L., “Special feature of the Olympics: effects of exercise on the immune system: overtraining effects on immunity and performance in athletes,” Immunol Cell Biol 2000; 78(5):502-09.


Martin, S., et al., “Exercise and respiratory tract viral infections,” Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2009; 37:157–64.


Matthews, C., et al., “Moderate to vigorous physical activity and the risk of upper-respiratory tract infection,” Med Sci Sports Exerc 2002; 34:1242-48.


Mehta, N., et al., “Exercise as a countermeasure for latent viral reactivation during long duration space flight,” FASEB Jour 2020; 34:2869–81.


Narula, N., et al., “Exercise and inflammatory bowel disease,” Can Jour Gastroenterol 2008; 22(5):497-504.


Neiman, D., et al., “The compelling link between physical activity and the body’s defense system,” Jour Sport Health Sci 2019; 8(3):201-17.


Nieman, D., “Current perspective on exercise immunology,” Curr Sports Med Rep 2003; 2(5):239-42.


Nieman, D., “Exercise, upper respiratory tract infection, and the immune system,” Med Sci Sports Exerc 1994; 26(2):128-39.


O’Gorman, D., et al., “Exercise and the treatment of diabetes and obesity,” in Obesity: Brain-Gut and Inflammation Connection: Part II, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America, 2008; 37(4):887-903.


O’Gorman, D., et al., “Exercise and the treatment of diabetes and obesity,” in Obesity: Brain-Gut and Inflammation Connection: Part II, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America, 2008; 37(4):887-903.


Pedersen, B., et al., “Exercise and the immune system: Regulation, integration, and adaptation,” Physiol Rev 2000; 80(3):1055-81.


Piercy, K., et al., “The Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans,” JAMA 2018; 320:2020–28.


Sander, R., “Exercise boosts immune response,” Nurs Older People 2012; 24(6):11.


Simpson, K., et al., “Exercise and the aging immune system,” Aging Res Rev 2012; 11(3):404-20.


Simpson, R., et al., “Can exercise affect immune function to increase susceptibility to infection,” Exerc Immunol Rev 2020; 26:8-22.


Simpson, R., et al., “The immunological case for staying active during the COVID-10 pandemic,” Brain Behav Immun 2020; April 18.


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Suzuki, K., et al., “Systemic inflammatory response to exhaustive exercise. Cytokine kinetics,” Exerc Immunol Rev 2002; 8:6-48.


Ticinesi, A., et al., “Exercise and immune system as modulators of intestinal microbiome: Implications for the gut-muscle axis hypothesis,” Exerc Immunol Rev 2019; 25:84-95.


Turner, J., “Is immunosenescence influenced by our lifetime “dose” of exercise?” Biogerontology 2016; 17(3):581-602.


Walsh, N., “Recommendations to maintain immune health in athletes,” Eur Jour Sports Sci 2018; 18(6):829-31.


Walsh, N., et al., “Exercise, immune function and respiratory infection: An update of the influence of training and environmental stress,” Immunol Cell Biol 2016; 94(2):132-39.


Walsh, N., et al., “Position statement. Part one: Immune function and exercise,” Exercise Immunol Rev 2011; 17:6–63.


Chapter 7: Gut


Adamska, A., et al., “Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in adult patients with type 1 diabetes: its prevalence and relationship with metabolic control and the presence of chronic complications of the disease,” Pol Arch Med Wewn 2016; 126(9):628-34.


Adike, A., et al., “Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: nutritional implications, diagnosis, and management,” Gastroenterol Clin North Amer 2018; 47(1):193-208.


Agnoletti, A., et al., “Etiopathogenesis of rosacea: a prospective study with a three-year follow-up,” G Ital Dermatol Venereol 2017; 152(5):418-23.


Akobeng, A., et al., “Glutamine for induction of remission in Crohn’s disease,” Cochrane Database Systematic Rev 2016; 2:CD007348.


Azpiroz, F., et al., “Mechanisms of hypersensitivity in IBS and functional disorders,” Neurogastroenterol Motil 2007; 19(1 Suppl):62–88.


Berkson, D. L., Healthy Digestion the Natural Way. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2000.

Bischoff, S., “Gut health: a new objective in medicine?” BMC Med 2011; 9:24.


Bischoff, S., et al., “Intestinal permeability—a new target for disease prevention and therapy,” BMC Gastroenterology (Review) 2014; 14:189.


Blaut, M., et al., “Metabolic diversity of the intestinal microbiota: implications for health and disease,” Jour Nutr 2007; 137:751S–755S.


Boirivant, M., et al., “The mechanism of action of probiotics,” Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2007; 23:679–92.


Brenner, D., et al., “The utility of probiotics in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: a systematic review,” Amer Jour Gastroenterol 2009; 104:1033–49.


Bull, M., et al., “The human gut microbiome in health and disease,” Integr Med (Encinitas) 2014; 13:17-22.


Bures, J., et al., “Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth syndrome,” World Jour Gastroenterol 2010; 16(24):2978-90.


Carding, S., et al., “Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota in disease,” Microb Ecol Health Dis 2015; PMID: 25651997.


Cario, E., “Bacterial interactions with cells of the intestinal mucosa: Toll-like receptors and NOD2,” Gut 2005;54:1182–93.


Cerutti, A., et al., “The biology of intestinal immunoglobulin A responses,” Immunity 2008; 28:740–50.


Chafen, J., et al., “Diagnosing and managing common food allergies: a systematic review,” JAMA 2010; 303:1848–56.


 Chen, M., et al., “Oral phosphatidylcholine improves intestinal barrier function in drug-induced liver injury in rats,” Gastroenterol Res Pract 2019; 2019:8723460.


Choct, M., “Managing gut health through nutrition,” Brit Poult Sci 2009; 50:9–15.


Chung, H., et al., “Microbiota-stimulated immune mechanisms to maintain gut homeostasis,” Curr Opin Immunol 2010; 22:455–60.


Codling, C., et al., “A Molecular analysis of fecal and mucosal bacterial communities in irritable bowel syndrome,” Dig Dis Sci 2010; 55:392–97.


Collado, M., et al., “The impact of probiotic on gut health,” Curr Drug Metab 2009; 10:68–78.


Collins, S., et al., “The relationship between intestinal microbiota and the central nervous system in normal gastrointestinal function and disease,” Gastroenterology 2009; 136:2003–14.


Comalada, M., et al., “In vivo quercitrin anti-inflammatory effect involves release of quercetin, which inhibits inflammation through down-regulation of the NF-kappaB pathway,” Eur Jour Immunol 2005; 35(2):584-92.


Damaskos, D., et al., “Probiotics and prebiotics in inflammatory bowel disease: Microflora ‘on the scope,’” Brit Jour Clin Pharmcol 2008; 66(2):339.


Dave, M., et al., “The human gut microbiome: Current knowledge, challenges, and future directions,” Transl Res Jour Lab Clin Med 2012; 60:246–57. 


De Preter, V., et al., “Effects of Lactobacillus casei Shirota, Bifidobacterium breve, and oligofructose-enriched inulin on colonic nitrogen-protein metabolism in healthy humans,” Amer Jour Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2007; 292:G358–G368.


De-Souza, D., et al., “Intestinal permeability and systemic infections in critically ill patients: effect of glutamine,” Crit Care Med 2005; 33:1125–35.


Dinan, T., et al., “IBS: an epigenetic perspective,” Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2010; 7:465–71.


Duda-Chodak, A., et al., “Interaction of dietary compounds, especially polyphenols, with the intestinal microbiota: A review,” Eur Jour Nutr 2015; 54(3):325-41.


Duerkop, B., et al., “Immune responses to the microbiota at the intestinal mucosal surface,” Immunity 2009; 31:368–76.


Enko, D., et al., “Functional (13)C-urea and glucose hydrogen/methane breath tests reveal significant association of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in individuals with active Helicobacter pylori infection,” Clin Biochem 2017; 50(1-2):46-9.


Erdogan, A., et al., “Small intestinal fungal overgrowth,” Curr Gastroenterol Rep 2015; 17(4):16.


Fasano, A., “Intestinal permeability and its regulation by zonulin: diagnostic and therapeutic implications,” Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol (Review) 2012; 10(10):1096-100.


Fasano, A., “Leaky gut and autoimmune diseases,” Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 2012; 42(1):71-8.


Fasano, A., “Zonulin and its regulation of intestinal barrier function: the biological door to inflammation, autoimmunity, and cancer,” Physiological Rev 2011; 91(1):151.


Fasano, A., et al., “Mechanisms of disease: the role of intestinal barrier function in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal autoimmune diseases,” Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol 2005; 2:416–22.


Ferguson, L., et al., “Nutrigenomics New Zealand. Nutrigenomics and gut health,” Mutat Res 2007; 622:1–6.


Festi, D., et al., “Gut microbiota and metabolic syndrome,” World Jour Gastroenterol 2014; 20(43):16079-094.


Fortune, P., et al., “Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and the small intestine,” Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2005; 21(2):169-75.


Galdeano, C., et al., “Beneficial effects of probiotic consumption on the immune system,” Ann Nutr Met 2019; 74(2):115-24.


Gershon, M., et al., “The serotonin signaling system: from basic understanding to drug development for functional GI disorders,” Gastroenterology 2007; 132:397–414.


Graham, D., et al., “Why do apparently healthy people use antacid tablets?” Am Jour Gastroenterol 1983, 78(5):257-60.


Groschwitz, K., et al., “Intestinal barrier function: molecular regulation and disease pathogenesis,” Jour Allergy Clin Immunol 2009; 124:3–20.


Guarner, F., et al., “Gut flora in health and disease,” Lancet 2003; 361(9356):512-19.


Heyman, M., et al., “Intestinal permeability in coeliac disease: insight into mechanisms and relevance to pathogenesis,” Gut (Review) 2012; 61(9):1355-64.


Hiscock, N., et al., “Glutamine supplementation further enhances exercise-induced plasma IL-6,” Jour Appl Physiol 2003; 95:145-48.


Hoveyda, N., et al., “A systematic review and meta-analysis: probiotics in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome,” BMC Gastroenterol 2009; 9:15.


Hsiao, W., et al., “The microbes of the intestine: an introduction to their metabolic and signaling capabilities,” Endocrinol Metab Clin North Amer 2008; 37:857–71.


Hwang, B., et al., “Antimicrobial constituents from Goldenseal (the Rhizomes of Hydrastis canadensis) against selected oral pathogens,” Planta Medica 2003; 69(7):623-27.


Ianiro, G., et al., “Digestive enzyme supplementation in gastrointestinal diseases,” Curr Drug Metabol 2016; 17(2):187-93.


Jacobs, C., et al., “Dysmotility and proton pump inhibitor use are independent risk factors for small intestinal bacterial and/or fungal overgrowth,” Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2013; 37(11):1103-11.


Jacobs, D., et al., “Non-digestible food ingredients, colonic microbiota and the impact on gut health and immunity: a role for metabolomics,” Curr Drug Metab 2009; 10:41–54.


Jeong, S., et al., “Risk assessment of ciprofloxacin, flavomycin, olaquindox and colistin sulfate based on microbiological impact on human gut biota,” Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2009; 53:209–16.


Kamhi, E., Arthritis. 2nd Ed. Berkeley, CA: Celestial Arts Press, 2006.


Kassinen, A., et al., “The fecal microbiota of irritable bowel syndrome patients differs significantly from that of healthy subjects,” Gastroenterology 2007; 133:24–33.


Kawabata, K., et al., “Role of intestinal microbiota in the bioavailability and physiological functions of dietary polyphenols,” Molecules 2019; 24(2):370.


Kinross, J., et al., “The gut microbiota as a target for improved surgical outcome and improved patient care,” Curr Pharm Des 2009; 15:1537–45.


Kinross, J., et al., “The human gut microbiome: implications for future health care,” Curr Gastroenterol Rep 2008; 10:396–403.


Klimberg, V., et al., “Oral glutamine accelerates healing of the small intestine and improves outcome after whole abdominal radiation,” Arch Surg 1990; 125:1040-45.


Krajicek, E., et al., “Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth: a primary care review,” Mayo Clin Proc 2016; 91(12):1828-33. 


Kramer, S., et al., “Selective activation of human intestinal mast cells by Escherichia coli hemolysin,” Jour Immunol 2008; 181:1438–45.


Lamkisch, P., “Exocrine pancreatic function tests,” Gut 1982; 23(9):777-98.


Le, K., et al., “Fructose overconsumption causes dyslipidemia and ectopic lipid deposition in healthy subjects with and without a family history of type 2 diabetes,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2009; 89:1760–65.


Leventogiannis, K., et al., “Effect of a preparation of four probiotics on symptoms of patients with irritable bowel syndrome: association with intestinal bacterial overgrowth,” Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins 2019; 11(2):627-34.


Levy, M., et al., “Dysbiosis and the immune system,” Nat Rev Immunol 2017; 17(4):219-32.        


Lopetuso, L., et al., “The therapeutic management of gut barrier leaking: the emerging role of mucosal barrier protectors,” Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2015; 19(6):1068-76.


Lutgendorff, F., et al., “The role of microbiota and probiotics in stress-induced gastro-intestinal damage,” Curr Mol Med 2008; 8:282–98.


Macfarlane, G., et al., “Human colonic microbiota: ecology, physiology and metabolic potential of intestinal bacteria,” Scand Jour Gastroenterol Suppl 1997; 222:3–9.


Mai, V., et al., “Colonic bacterial flora: changing understandings in the molecular age,” Jour Nutr 2004; 134:459–64.


Mai, V., et al., “Recent advances and remaining gaps in our knowledge of associations between gut microbiota and human health,” World Jour Gastroenterol 2009; 15:81–5.


Mankertz, J., et al., “Altered permeability in inflammatory bowel disease: pathophysiology and clinical implications,” Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2007; 23:379–83.


Marteau, P., et al., “Probiotics and intestinal health effects: a clinical perspective,” Brit Jour Nutr 2002; 88(Suppl 1):S51–S57.


McCarthy, C., “Nutritional defects in patients with malabsorption,” Pro Nutr Soc 1976; 35:37-40.


Meddings, J., “The significance of the gut barrier in disease,” Gut 2008; 57:438–40.


Mondel, M., et al., “Probiotic E. coli treatment mediates antimicrobial human β-defensin synthesis and fecal excretion in humans,” Mucosal Immunol 2009; 2:166–72.


Morley, J., “The aging gut: physiology,” Clin Geriatr Med 2007; 23(4):757-67.


Myers, S., et al., “The causes of intestinal dysbiosis: A review,” Altern Med Rev 2004; 9(2):180-97.


Nava, P., et al., “The rotavirus surface protein Vp8 modulates the gate and fence function of tight junctions in epithelial cells,” Jour Cell Sci 2004; 117(23):5509-19.


Nieuwenhuis, E., et al., “The role of the epithelial barrier in inflammatory bowel disease,” Adv Exp Med Biol 2006; 579:108–16.


Ohman, L., et al., “Pathogenesis of IBS: role of inflammation, immunity and neuroimmune interactions,” Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2010; 7:163–73.


Otamiri, T., et al., “Ginkgo biloba extract prevents mucosal damage associated with small-intestinal ischaemia,” Scandinavian Jour Gastroenterol 1989; 24(6):666-70.


Ott, S., et al., “Reduction in diversity of the colonic mucosa associated bacterial microflora in patients with active inflammatory bowel disease,” Gut 2004; 53:685–93


Pimentel, M., et al., “ACG clinical guideline: small intestinal bacterial overgrowth,” Amer Jour Gastroenterol 2020; 115(2):165-78. 


Possemiers, S., et al., “The intestinal environment in health and disease: recent insights on the potential of intestinal bacteria to influence human health,” Curr Pharm Des 2009; 15:2051–65.


Preidis, G., et al., “Targeting the human microbiome with antibiotics, probiotics, and prebiotics: gastroenterology enters the metagenomics era,” Gastroenterology 2009; 136:2015–31.


Qin, H., et al., “L. plantarum prevents enteroinvasive Escherichia coli-induced tight junction proteins changes in intestinal epithelial cells,” BMC Microbiol 2009; 9:63.


Rao, R., et al., “Recent advances in alcoholic liver disease I. Role of intestinal permeability and endotoxemia in alcoholic liver disease,” Amer Jour Physiology, Gastrointestinal Liver Physiology 2004:286(6):G881-G884.


Rath, C., et al., “The bacterial chemical repertoire mediates metabolic exchange within gut microbiomes,” Curr Opin Microbiol 2012; 15:147-54.


Resnick, C., “Microbial Enzyme Therapy,” in Natural Medicine (3rd Ed.) Pizzorno, J., St. Louis, Elsivier, 2006, p. 1075-76.


Rey, E., et al., “Irritable bowel syndrome: novel views on the epidemiology and potential risk factors,” Dig Liver Dis 2009; 41:772–80.


Rhee, S., et al., “Principles and clinical implications of the brain-gut-enteric microbiota axis,” Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2009; 6:306–14.


Roberfroid, M., et al., “Prebiotic effects: Metabolic and health benefits,” Brit Jour Nutr 2010; 104(Suppl 2):S1-S63.


Round, J., et al., “The gut microbiota shapes intestinal immune responses during health and disease,” Nat Rev Immunol 2009; 9:313–23.


Roxas, M., “The role of enzyme supplementation in digestive disorders,” Altern Med Rev 2008; 13(4):307-14.


Sanders, M., “Impact of probiotics on colonizing microbiota of the gut,” Jour Clin Gasteroenterol 2011; 45(Suppl):S115-S119.


Sauter, N., et al., “The anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 receptor antagonist protects from high-fat diet-induced hyperglycemia,” Endocrinology 2008; 149:2208–18.


Schneider, M., et al., “Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy: comparative effects of conventional and enteric-coated microspheric pancreatin and acid-stable fungal enzyme preparations on steatorrhea in chronic pancreatitis,” Hepatogastroenterology 1985; 32:97-102.


Sender, R., et al., “Revised estimates for the number of human and bacteria cells in the body,” PLoS Biol 2016; 14:e1002533.


Sharma, R., et al., “Molecular modulation of intestinal epithelial barrier: contribution of microbiota,” Jour Biomed Biotechnol 2010; 2010:305879.


Sies, H., et al., “Nutritional, dietary and postprandial oxidative stress,” Jour Nutr 2005; 135(5):969-72.


Sonnenburg, E., et al., “Specificity of polysaccharide use in intestinal Bacteroides species determines diet-induced microbiota alterations,” Cell 2010; 141:1241–52.


Stevens, Y., et al., “The intestinal fate of citrus flavanones and their effects on gastrointestinal health,” Nutrients 2019; 11(7):1464.


Strober, W., “The multifaceted influence of the mucosal microflora on mucosal dendritic cell responses,” Immunity 2009; 31:377–88.


Su, T., et al., “Meta-analysis: proton pump inhibitors moderately increase the risk of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth,” Jour Gastroenterol 2018; 53(1):27-36.


Suez, J., et al., “Non-caloric artificial sweeteners and the microbiome: Findings and challenges,” Gut Microbes 2015; 6(2):149-55.


Sun, J., “Artificial sweeteners are not sweet to the gut microbiome,” Genes Dis 2014; 1(2):130-31.


Swidsinski, A., et al., “Mucosal flora in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis: an overview,” Jour Physiol Pharmacol 2009; 60(Suppl 6):61–71.


Swidsinski, A., et al., “Mucosal flora in inflammatory bowel disease,” Gastroenterology 2002; 122:44–54.


Tack, G., et al., “The spectrum of celiac disease: epidemiology, clinical aspects and treatment,” Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2010; 7:204–13.


Tana, C., et al., “Altered profiles of intestinal microbiota and organic acids may be the origin of symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome,” Neurogastroenterol Motil 2010; 22:512–19.


Teixeira, T., et al., “Potential mechanisms for the emerging link between obesity and increased intestinal permeability,” Nutr Res (Review) 2012; 32(9):637-47.


Tennyson, C., et al., “Microecology, obesity, and probiotics,” Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2008; 15:422–27.


Tsurugizawa, T., et al., “Mechanisms of neural response to gastrointestinal nutritive stimuli: the gut-brain axis,” Gastroenterology 2009; 137:262–73.


Tuohy, K., et al., “Studying the human gut microbiota in the trans-omics era: focus on metagenomics and metabonomics,” Curr Pharm Des 2009; 15:1415–27.


Tuohy, K., et al., “Using probiotics and prebiotics to improve gut health,” Drug Discov Today 2003; 8:692–700.


Turnbaugh, P., et al., “The core gut microbiome, energy balance and obesity,” Jour Physiol 2009; 587:4153–58.


Ukena, S., et al., “Probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 inhibits leaky gut by enhancing mucosal integrity,” PLoS One 2007; 2:e1308.


Vaahtovuo, J., “Fecal microbiota in early rheumatoid arthritis,” Jour Rheumatol 2008; 35:1500–005.


Valdes, A., et al., “Role of the gut microbiota in nutrition and health,” BMJ 2018; 361:k2179.


Verdu, E., “Probiotics effects on gastrointestinal function: beyond the gut?” Neurogastroenterol Motil 2009; 21:477–80.


Virili, C., et al., “Gut microbiota and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis,” Rev Endocr Metab 2018; 19(4):293-300.


Vrieze, A., et al., “The environment within: how gut microbiota may influence metabolism and body composition,” Diabetologia 2010; 53:606–13.


Wegener, T., et al., "The active components and the pharmacological multi-target principle of STW 5 (Iberogast),” Phytomedicine 2006; 13(Suppl 5):20-35.


Wehkamp, J., et al., “Mechanisms of disease: defensins in gastrointestinal diseases,” Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol 2005; 2:406–15.


Welbourne, T., et al., “An oral glutamine load enhances renal acid secretion and function,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1998; 67:660-63.


Yousefi, B., et al., “Probiotics importance and their immunomodulatory properties,” Jour Cell Physiol 2019; 234(6):8008-018.


Chapter 8: Inflammation


Appleton, N., Stopping Inflammation: Relieving the Cause of Degenerative Diseases. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers, 2005.


Bhargava, P., et al., “Role and function of macrophages in the metabolic syndrome,” Biochem Jour 2012; 442(2):253-62.


Bigliardi, P., et al., “Treatment of pruritus with topically applied opiate receptor antagonist,” Jour Amer Acad Derm 2007; 56(6):979-88.


Black, P., “The inflammatory consequences of psychologic stress: Relationship to insulin resistance, obesity, atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus, type II,” Med hypotheses 2006; 67(4):879-91.


Bonaventura, P., et al., “Zinc and its role in immunity and inflammation,” Autoimmun Rev 2015; 14(4):277-85.


Bordoni, A., et al., “Dairy products and inflammation: A review of clinical evidence,” Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2017; 57(12):2497-525.


Brown, N., et al., “Low-dose naltrexone for disease prevention and quality of life,” Medical hypotheses 2009; 72:333-37.


Brown, N., et al., “Low-dose naltrexone for disease prevention and quality of life,” Med Hypotheses 2009;72:333–37.


Calder, P., et al., “Inflammatory disease processes and interactions with nutrition,” Brit Jour Nutr 2009; 101(Suppl 1):S1-S45.


Chen, L., et al., “Inflammatory responses and inflammation-associated diseases in organs,” Oncotarget 2017; 9(6):7204-18.


Dantzer, R., et al., “From inflammation to sickness and depression: When the immune system subjugates the brain,” Nat Rev Neurosci 2008; 9(1):46-56.


Fernandes, J., et al., “The role of the mediators of inflammation in cancer development,” Pathol Oncol Res 2015; 21(3):527-34.


Freire, M., et al., “Natural resolution of inflammation,” Periodontol 2000 2013; 63(1):149-64.


Ghasemian, M., et al., “Review of anti-inflammatory herbal medicines,” Adv Pharmacol Sci 2016; 2016:9130979.


Giugliano, D., et al., “The effects of diet on inflammation: Emphasis on the metabolic syndrome,” Jour Amer Coll Cardiol 2006; 48(4):677-85.


Grivennikov, S., et al., “Immunity, inflammation, and cancer,” Cell 2010; 140(6):883-99.


Hosseini, B., et al., “Effects of fruit and vegetable consumption on inflammatory biomarkers and immune cell populations: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2018; 108(1):136-155.


Jaros, J., et al., “Lose dose naltrexone in dermatology,” Jour Drugs Dermatol 2019; 18(3):235-38.


Jenny, N., “Inflammation in aging: Cause, effect, or both?” Discov Med 2012; 13(73):451-60.


Legein, B., et al., “Inflammation and immune system interactions in atherosclerosis,” Cell Mol Life Sci 2013; 70(20):3847-69.


Li, Z., et al., “Low-dose naltrexone (LDN): A promising treatment in immune-related diseases and cancer therapy,” Int Immunopharmacol 2018 61:178-84.


Lie, M., et al., “P418 Low dose naltrexone in therapy resistant IBD, a case series,” Jour Crohn’s Colitis 2014; 8:S240.


Maares, M., et al., “Zinc and immunity: An essential interrelation,” Arch Biochem Biophys 2016; 611:58-65.


Macchia, D., et al., “Guidelines for the use and interpretation of diagnostic methods in adult food allergy,” Clin Mol Allergy 2015; 13:27.


Malekzad, F., et al., “Efficacy of oral naltrexone on pruritus in atopic eczema: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study,” Jour Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2009; 23(8):948-50.


McCusker, R., et al., “Immune-neural connections: How the immune system’s response to infectious agents influences behavior,” Jour Exp Biol 2013; 216(Pt. 1):84-98.


McLaren, J., et al., “Cytokines, macrophage lipid metabolism and foam cells: Implications for cardiovascular disease therapy,” Prog Lipid Res 2011; 50(4):331-47.


Mindell, E., Smith, P., What You Must know About Allergy Relief. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers, 2016.


Parker, C., et al., “Low dose naltrexone for induction of remission in Crohn's disease,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018; 4(4):CD010410.


Patten, D., et al., “The safety and efficacy of low-dose naltrexone in the management of chronic pain and inflammation in multiple sclerosis, fibromyalgia, Crohn's disease, and other chronic pain disorders,” Pharmacotherapy 2018; 38(3):382-89.


Pullen, A., et al., “Re-evaluating the causes and consequences of non-resolving inflammation in chronic cardiovascular disease,” Heart Fail Rev 2020; 2592):381-91.


Raknes, G., et al., “A sudden and unprecedented increase in low dose naltrexone (LDN) prescribing in Norway. Patient and prescriber characteristics and dispense patterns. A drug utilization cohort study,” Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2017; 26:136–42.


Raknes, G., et al., “The effect of low-dose naltrexone on medication in inflammatory bowel disease: A quasi experimental before-and-after prescription database study,” Jour Crohns Colitis 2018; 1296):677-86.


Riley, J., et al., “Mitochondrial DNA in inflammation and immunity,” EMBO Rep 2020 21(4):e49799.


Roh, J., et al., “Damage-associated molecular patterns in inflammatory diseases,” Immune Netw 2018; 18(4):e27.


Sears, B., “Anti-inflammatory diets,” Jour Amer Coll Nutr 2015; 34(Suppl 1):14-21.


Smith, J., et al., “Low-dose naltrexone therapy improves active Crohn's disease,” Amer Jour Gastroenterol 2007; 102(4):820-28.


Smith, J., et al., “Safety and tolerability of low-dose naltrexone therapy in children with moderate to severe Crohn's disease: a pilot study,” Jour Clin Gastroenterol 2013; 47(4):339-45. 


Tay, M., et al., “The trinity of COVID-19: Immunity, inflammation, and intervention,” Nat Rev Immunol 2020; 20(6):363-74.


Tufan, A., et al., “COVID-19, immune system response, hyperinflammation and repurposing antirheumatic drugs,” Turk Jour Med Sci 2020 50(S1-1):620-32.


Weinstock, I., “Naltrexone therapy for Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis,” Jour Clin Gastroentrol 2014; 48(8):742.


Weinstock, L., “Naltrexone therapy for Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis,” Jour Clin Gastroenterol 2014; 48(8):742. Letter to the Editor.


Wellen, K., et al., “Inflammation, stress, and diabetes,” Jour Clin Invest 2005; 115(5):1111-19.


Yatto, M., et al., “Anti-inflammatory drugs and herbs with special emphasis on herbal medicines for countering inflammatory diseases and disorders: A review,” Recent Pat Inflamm Allergy Drug Discov 2018; 12(1):39-58.


Zagon, I., et al., “Targeting opioid signaling in Crohn’s disease: new therapeutic pathways,” Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2011; 5:555–58.

Zhang, W., et al., “The use of anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment of people with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): The perspectives of clinical immunologists from China,” Clin Immunol 2020; 214:108393.


Chapter 9: Sleep


Abbasi, B., et al., “The effect of magnesium supplementation on primary insomnia in elderly: A double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial,” Jour Res Med Sci 2012; 17:1161-69.


Adam, K., et al., “One gram of L-tryptophan fails to alter the time taken to fall asleep,” Neuropharmacology 1979; 18:1025-27.


Andersen, L., et al., “Sleep problems and computer use during work and leisure: Cross-sectional study among 7,800 adults,” Chronobiol Int 2015; 32(10):1367-72.


Arangino, S., et al., “Effects of melatonin a vascular reactivity, catecholamine levels, and blood pressure in healthy men,” Amer Jour Cardiol 1999;83:1417.


Arjona, A., et al., “Evidence supporting a circadian control of natural killer cell function,” Brain Behav Immun 2006; 20:469–76.


Atanassova, P., et al., “Impaired nocturnal melatonin in acute phase of ischaemic stroke: cross-sectional matched case-control analysis,” Jour Neuroendocrinol 2009; 21(7):657-63.


Atkin, T., et al., “Drugs for insomnia beyond benzodiazepines: pharmacology, clinical applications and discovery,” Pharmacol Rev 2019; 70(2):197-245.


Attarian, H., et al., “Treatment of chronic insomnia disorder in menopause: evaluation of literature,” Menopause 2015; 22:674-84.


Auld, F., et al., “Evidence for the efficacy of melatonin in the treatment of primary adult sleep disorders,” Sleep Med Rev 2017; 34:10-22.


Axelsson, J., et al., “Sleepiness and performance in response to repeated sleep restriction and subsequent recovery during semi-laboratory conditions,” Chronobiol Intl 2008; 25(2,3):297-308.


Belenky, G., et al., “Patterns of performance degradation and restoration during sleep restriction and subsequent recovery: a sleep dose-response study,” Sleep Res 2003; 12(1):1-12.


Bent, S., et al., “Valerian for sleep: A systematic review and meta-analysis,” Amer Jour Med 2006; 119(12):1005-12.


Besedovsky, L., et al., “Sleep and Immune function,” Eur Jour Physiol 2012; 463:121–37.


Blafoss, R., et al., “Are insomnia type sleep problems associated with a less physically active lifestyle? A cross-sectional study among 7,700 adults from the general working population,” Front Public Health 2019; 7:117.


Born, J., et al., “Effects of sleep and circadian rhythm on human circulating immune cells,” Jour Immunol 1997; 158:4454–64.


Brainard, G., et al., “Action spectrum for melatonin regulation in humans: evidence for a novel circadian photoreceptor,” Jour Neurosci 2001; 21(16):6405-12.


Brattstrom, A., “Scientific evidence for a fixed extract combination (Ze 91019) from valerian and hops traditionally used as a sleep-inducing aid,” Wien Med Wochenschr 2007; 157(13-14):367-70.


Brown, D., et al., “Rotating night shift work and the risk of ischemic stroke,” Amer Jour Epidemiol 2009; 169:1370–77.


Brown, S., et al., “Occult caffeine as a source of sleep problems in an older population,” Jour Amer Geriatr Soc 1995; 43:860-64.


Bubenik, G., et al., “Melatonin and aging: prospects for human treatment,” Jour Physiol Pharmacol 2011; 62(1):13-9.


Budhiraja, R., et al., “Prevalence and polysomnographic correlates of insomnia comorbid with medical disorders,” Sleep 2011; 34:859–67.


Buxton, O., et al., “Sleep restriction for 1 week reduces insulin sensitivity in healthy men,” Diabetes 2010; 59(9):2126-33.


Cardinali, D., et al., “Clinical aspects of melatonin intervention in Alzheimer’s disease progression,” Curr Neuropharmacol 2010; 8(3):218-27.


Cardinali, D., et al., “The use of melatonin in Alzheimer’s disease,” Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2002; 23(Suppl 1):20-3.


Cardinali, D., et al., “Therapeutic application of melatonin in mild cognitive impairment,” Amer Jour Neurodegener Dis 2012; 1(3):280-91.


Caretto, M., et al., “An integrated approach to diagnosing and managing sleep disorders in menopausal women,” Maturitas 2019; Oct 128:1-3.


Carter, J., et al., “Sympathetic neural responses to 24-hour sleep deprivation in humans: sex differences,” Amer Jour Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2012; 302:H1991-H1997.


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Leproult, R., et al., “Effect of 1 week of sleep restriction on testosterone levels in young healthy men,” JAMA 2011; 305(21):2173-74.


Levy, M., et al., “Caffeine metabolism and coffee-attributed sleep disturbances,” Clin Pharmacol Ther 1983; 33:770-75.


Liu, Y., et al., “Sleep duration and chronic diseases among US adults age 45 years and older: evidence from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System,” Sleep 2013; 36(10):1421-27.


Luckhaupt, S., et al., “The prevalence of short sleep duration by industry and occupation in the National Health Interview Survey,” Sleep 2010; 33:149-59.


Luyster, F., et al., “Sleep: a health imperative,” Sleep 2012; 35:727-34.


Lyon, M., et al., “The effects of L-theanine (Suntheaninne) on objective sleep quality in boys with attention deficit disorder (ADHD): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,” Altern Med Rev 2011; 16(4):348-54.


Macedo, P., et al., “Insomnia in people with epilepsy: A review of insomnia prevalence, risk factors and associations with epilepsy-related factors,” Epilepsy Res 2017; 135:158-67.


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McEwen, B., “Sleep deprivation as a neurobiologic and physiologic stressor: allostasis and allostatic load,” Metabolism 2006; 55:S20–S23.


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Opp, M., et al., “Sleep and immunity: a growing field with clinical impact,” Brain Behav Immun 2015; 47:1–3.


Pandi-Perumal, S., et al., “Melatonin antioxidative defense: therapeutical implications for aging and neurodegenerative processes,” Neurotox Res 2013; 23(3):267-300.


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Prather, A., et al., “Sleep and antibody response to hepatitis B vaccination,” Sleep 2012; 35(8):1063–69.


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Werbach, M., “Melatonin for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease,” Altern Ther Health Med 2008, 14(4):54–8.


Wesensten, N., et al., “Modafinil vs. caffeine: effects on fatigue during sleep deprivation,” Aviat Space Environ Med 2004; 75(6):520-25.


Wilder-Smith, A., “Impact of partial sleep deprivation on immune markers,” Sleep Med 2013; 14:1031–34.


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Wu, Y., et al., “The human pineal gland and melatonin in aging and Alzheimer’s disease,” Jour Pineal Res 2005; 38(3):145-52.


Wu, Y., et al., “The human pineal gland and melatonin in aging and Alzheimer’s disease,” Jour Pineal Res 2005; 38(3):145-52.


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Zanoli, P., et al., “Pharmacognostic and pharmacological profile of Humulus lupulus L.,”  Jour Ethnopharmacol 2008; 116(3):383-96.


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Zee, P., et al., “Insomnia and circadian rhythm sleep disorders,” Psych Ann 2008; 38:583-59.


Zee, P., et al., “Sleep and health: everywhere and in both directions,” Arch Intern Med 2006; 166:1686-88.


Zhdanova, I., et al., “Melatonin: a sleep-promoting hormone,” Sleep 1997; 20:899-907.


Zhu, L, et al., “Effect of inhibiting melatonin biosynthesis on spatial memory retention and tau phosphorylation in rat,” Jour Pineal Res 2004; 37(2):71-7.


Chapter 10: Smoking


Alzahrani, T., et al., “Association between electronic cigarette use and myocardial infarction,” Amer Jour Prev Med 2018; 55:455.


Anderson, G., et al., “Pharmacokinetic drug interactions with tobacco, cannabinoids and smoking cessation products,” Clin Pharmacokinet 2016; 55:1353.


Anthenelli R., et al., “Effects of varenicline on smoking cessation in adults with stably treated current or past major depression: a randomized trial,” Ann Intern Med 2013; 159:390.


Anthenelli, R., et al., “Neuropsychiatric safety and efficacy of varenicline, bupropion, and nicotine patch in smokers with and without psychiatric disorders (EAGLES): a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial,” Lancet 2016; 387:2507.


Arancini, L., et al., “N-acetylcysteine for cessation of tobacco smoking: Rationale and study protocol for a randomised controlled trial,” Trials 2019; 20(1):555.


Aveyard, P., et al., “Strategic directions and emerging issues in tobacco control improving smoking cessation approaches at the individual level,” BMJ 2011; 21(2):252-57.


Baker, T., et al., “Effects of nicotine patch vs varenicline vs combination nicotine replacement therapy on smoking cessation at 26 weeks: a randomized clinical trial,” JAMA 2016; 315:371.


Barnes, J., et al., “Hypnotherapy for smoking cessation,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010; (CD001008).


Barua, R., et al., “2018 ACC expert consensus decision pathway on tobacco cessation treatment: a report of the American College of Cardiology task force on clinical expert consensus documents,” Jour Amer Coll Cardiol 2018; 72:3332.


Bullen, C.,  et al., “Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation: a randomised controlled trial,” Lancet 2013; 382:1629.


Cahill, K., et al., “Pharmacological interventions for smoking cessation: an overview and network meta-analysis,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013; 5:CD009329.


Cooper, G., Never Smoke Again. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers, 2007.


Cunningham, J., et al., “Effect of mailing nicotine patches on tobacco cessation among adult smokers: a randomized clinical trial,” JAMA Intern Med 2016; 176:184.


Domagala-Kulawik, J., “Effects of cigarette smoke on the lung and systemic immunity,” Jour Physiol Pharmacol 2008; 59(Suppl 6):19-34.


Donny, E., et al., “Randomized trial of reduced-nicotine standards for cigarettes,” NEJM 2015; 373:1340.


Ebbert, J., et al., “Combination varenicline and bupropion SR for tobacco-dependence treatment in cigarette smokers: a randomized trial,” JAMA 2014; 311:155.


Evins, A., et al., “Maintenance treatment with varenicline for smoking cessation in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: a randomized clinical trial,” JAMA 2014; 311:145.


Farley, A., et al., “Interventions for preventing weight gain after smoking cessation,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012; 1:CD006219.


Gershon, A., et al., “Cardiovascular and neuropsychiatric events after varenicline use for smoking cessation,” Amer Jour Respir Crit Care Med 2018; 197:913.


Ghosh, A., et al., “Chronic e-cigarette exposure alters the human bronchial epithelial proteome,” Amer Jour Respir Crit Care Med 2018; 198:67.


Glantz, S., et al., “E-Cigarettes: use, effects on smoking, risks, and policy implications,” Ann Rev Public Health 2018; 39:215.



Goel, R., et al., “Highly reactive free radicals in electronic cigarette aerosols,” Chem Res Toxicol 2015; 28:1675.


Gomez-Coronado, N., et al., “Current and emerging pharmacotherapies for cessation of tobacco smoking,” Pharmacotherapy 2018; 38(2):235-58.


Goniewicz, M., et al., “Levels of selected carcinogens and toxicants in vapour from electronic cigarettes,” Tob Control 2014; 23:133.


Hajek, P., et al., “A randomized trial of e-cigarettes versus nicotine-replacement therapy,” NEJM 2019; 380:629.


Halpern, S., et al., “A pragmatic trial of e-cigarettes, incentives, and drugs for smoking cessation,” NEJM 2018; 378:2302.


Halpern, S., et al., “Randomized trial of four financial-incentive programs for smoking cessation,” NEJM 2015; 372:2108.


Hartmann, J., et al., “Nicotine replacement therapy versus control for smoking cessation,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018; 5:CD000146.


Hartmann-Boyce, J., et al., “Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2016; 9:CD010216.


Hays, J., et al., “Bupropion for the treatment of tobacco dependence: guidelines for balancing risks and benefits,” CNS Drugs 2003; 17:71.


Hersey, P., et al., “Effects of cigarette smoking on the immune system. Follow-up studies in normal subjects after cessation of smoking,” Med Jour Aust 1983; 2(9):425-29.


Hughes, J., “Varenicline as a cause of suicidal outcomes,” Nicotine Tob Res 2016; 18:2.


Hughes, J., et al., “Antidepressants for smoking cessation,” Antidepressants for smoking cessation,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014; 1:CD000031.


Kalkhoran, S., et al., “E-cigarettes and smoking cessation in real-world and clinical settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Lancet Respir Med 2016; 4:116.


Kerr, C., et al., “Low level laser for the stimulation of acupoints for smoking cessation: a double blind, placebo controlled randomised trial and semi structured interviews,” Jour Chin Med 2008; 86:46-51.


Koegelenberg, C., et al., “Efficacy of varenicline combined with nicotine replacement therapy vs varenicline alone for smoking cessation: a randomized clinical trial,” JAMA 2014; 312:155.


Kosmider, L., et al., “Carbonyl compounds in electronic cigarette vapors: effects of nicotine solvent and battery output voltage,” Nicotine Tob Res 2014; 16:1319.


Kotz, D., et al., “Cardiovascular and neuropsychiatric risks of varenicline: a retrospective cohort study,” Lancet Respir Med 2015; 3:761.


Kroon, L., “Drug interactions with smoking,” Amer Jour Health Syst Pharm 2007; 64:1917.

Lee, J., et al., “Cigarette smoking and inflammation,” Jour Dent Res 2012; 91(2):142-49.


Lee, W., et al., “Modeling cardiovascular risks of e-cigarettes with human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived endothelial cells,” Jour Amer Coll Cardiol 2019; 73:2722.


Lindson, N., et al., “Different doses, durations, and modes of delivery of nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2019; 4:CD013308.


Lindson-Hawley, N., et al., “Gradual reduction vs abrupt cessation as a smoking cessation strategy in smokers who want to quit,” JAMA 2013; 310:91.


Lindson-Hawley, N., et al., “Gradual versus abrupt smoking cessation: a randomized, controlled noninferiority trial,” Ann Intern Med 2016; 164:585.


Lindson-Hawley, N., et al., “Reduction versus abrupt cessation in smokers who want to quit,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012; 11:CD008033.


McCauley, L., et al., “An unexpected consequence of electronic cigarette use,” Chest 2012; 141:1110.


McClure, E., et al., “Potential role of n-acetylcysteine in the management of substance use disorders,” CNS Drugs 2014; 28(2):95-106.


Mian, M., et al., “Exposure to cigarette smoke suppresses IL-15 generation and its regulatory NK cell functions in poly 1:C-augmented human PBMCs,” Mol Immunol 2009; 46(15):3108-16.


Mills, E., et al., “Comparisons of high-dose and combination nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline, and bupropion for smoking cessation: a systematic review and multiple treatment meta-analysis,” Ann Med 2012; 44:588.


Patel, D., et al, “Pharmacologic agents for smoking cessation: A clinical review,” Clin Pharmacol 2010; 2:17-29.


Pirie, K., et al., “The 21st century hazards of smoking and benefits of stopping: a prospective study of one million women in the UK,” Lancet 2013; 381(9861):133–41.


Prado, E., et al., “N-acetylcysteine for therapy-resistant tobacco use disorder: A pilot study,” Redox Rep 2015; 20(5):215-22.


Reidel, B., et al., “E-cigarette use causes a unique innate immune response in the lung, involving increased neutrophilic activation and altered mucin secretion,” Amer Jour Respir Crit Care Med 2018; 197:492.


Rose, J., et al., “Combination varenicline/bupropion treatment benefits highly dependent smokers in an adaptive smoking cessation paradigm,” Nicotine Tob Res 2017; 19:999.


Schnoll, R., et al., “Long-term nicotine replacement therapy: a randomized clinical trial,” JAMA Intern Med 2015; 175:504.


Siahpush, M., et al., “Association between duration of use of pharmacotherapy and smoking cessation: findings from a national survey,” BMJ Open 2015; 5:e006229.


Siu, A., et al., “Behavioral and pharmacotherapy interventions for tobacco smoking cessation in adults, including pregnant women: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement,” Ann Intern Med 2015; 163:622.


Sleiman, M., et al., “Emissions from electronic cigarettes: key parameters affecting the release of harmful chemicals,” Environ Sci Technol 2016; 50:9644.


Sopori, M., “Effects of cigarette smoke on the immune system,” Nat Rev Immunol 2002; 2(5):372-77.


Steinberg, M., et al., “Triple-combination pharmacotherapy for medically ill smokers: a randomized trial,” Ann Intern Med 2009; 150:447.


Tahiri, M., et al., “Alternative smoking cessation aids: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials,” Amer Jour Med 2012; 125:576-84.


“The Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics,” Drugs for Smoking Cessation. July 15,2019; Issue: 1576.  


Varenicline (Chantix) for tobacco dependence. Med Lett Drugs Ther 2006; 48:66.


White, A., et al., “Acupuncture and related interventions for smoking cessation,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011; (CD000009).


Yanbaeva, D., et al., “Systemic effects of smoking,” Chest 2007; 131(5):1557-66.


Chapter 11: Stress


Aisen, P., “Anti-inflammatory therapy for Alzheimer’s disease: implications of the prednisone trial,” Acta Neurol Scand 2000; Suppl 176:85-9.


Anisman, H., et al., “Posttraumatic stress symptoms and salivary cortisol levels,” Amer Jour Psychiatry 2001; 158:1509-11.


Baker, J., et al., “The naturopathic approach to adrenal dysfunction,” Townsend Letter 2005; Feb/March, p. 59-62.


Barak, Y., “The immune system and happiness,” Autoimmune Rev 2006; 5(8):523-27.


Bassil, N., et al.., “Endocrine aspects of healthy brain aging,” in Desai, A., (Ed.) Healthy Brain Aging: Evidence Based Methods to Preserve Brain Function and Prevent Dementia, 2010; 26(1):57-74.


Bauer, M., et al., “Glucocorticoids and ageing of the immune system,” Stress 2005; 8(1):69-83.


Beer, J., et al., “Burnout and stress depression and self-esteem of teachers,” Psychol Rep 1992; 71(3 Pt 2):1331-36.


Black, P., “The inflammatory response is an integral part of the stress response: Implications for atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, type II diabetes and metabolic syndrome X,” Brain Behav Immun 2003; 17(5):350-64.


Black, P., et al., “Stress, inflammation and cardiovascular disease,” Jour Psychosom Res 2002; 52(1):1-23.


Brody, S., et al., “A randomized controlled trial of high dose ascorbic acid for reduction of blood pressure, cortisol, and subjective responses to psychological stress,” Psychopharmacol (Berl) 2022; 159(3):319-24.


Buford, T., et al., “Impact of DHEA(S) and cortisol on immune function in aging: a brief review,” Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2008; 33(3):429-33.


Bulijevac, D., et al., “Self-reported stressful life events and exacerbations in multiple sclerosis” prospective study,” BJM 2003; 327(7416):646.


Carlson, L., et al., “Relationships among cortisol (CRT), dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS), and memory in a longitudinal study of healthy elderly men and women,” Neurobiol Aging 1999; 20(3):315-24.


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Chiang, J., et al., “Negative and competitive social interactions are related to heightened

proinflammatory cytokine activity,” Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2012; 109:1878–82.


Chrousos, G., et al., “A healthy body in healthy mind—and vice versa—the damaging power of ‘uncontrolled’ stress,” Jour Clin Endocrinol Metabol 1998; 83(6):1842-45.


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Cohen, S., “Psychological stress and susceptibility to upper respiratory infections,” Amer Jour Respir Crit Care Med 1995; 152(4 Pt. 2):53-58.


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Dedert, E., et al., “Religiosity may help preserve the cortisol rhythm in women with stress-related illness,” Int Jour Psych Med 2004; 34(1):61-77.


Delarue, J., et al., “Fish oil prevents the adrenal activation elicited by mental stress in healthy men,” Diabetes Metabol 2003; 29(3):289-95.


Dhabhar, F., “Effects of stress on immune function: the good, the bad, and the beautiful,” Immunol Res 2014; 58:193–210.


Dhabhar, F., et al., “Stress-induced redistribution of immune cells—From barracks to boulevards to battlefields: a tale of three hormones–Curt Richter Award Winner,” Psychoneuroendocrinology 2012; 37:1345–68.


Elenkov, I., et al., “Stress, corticotropin-releasing hormone, glucocorticoids, and the immune/inflammatory response: acute and chronic effects,” Ann NY Acad Sci 1999; 876:1-13.


Elenkov, I., et al., “Stress, corticotropin-releasing hormone; glucocorticoids, and the

immune/inflammatory response: acute and chronic effects,” Ann NY Acad Sci 1999; 876:1-13.


Elenkov, I., et al., “Systemic stress-induced Th2 shift and its clinical implications,” Int Rev Neurobiol 2002; 163-86.


Epel, E., et al., “Accelerated telomere shortening in response to life stress,” PNASA 2004; 101:17312-315.


Everly, G., “The development of a stress scale to assess behavioral health factors,” The Everly Stress and Symptom Inventory,” Adv Health Ed 1989; 2:71-86.


Fancourt, D., et al., “Singing modulates mood, stress, cortisol, cytokine and neuropeptide activity in cancer patients and carers,” Ecancermedicalscience 2016; 10:631.


Ferrari, E., et al., “Age-related changes of the adrenal secretory pattern: possible role of pathological brain aging,” Brain Res Brain Res Rev 2001; 37(1-3):294-300.


Fineberg, A., et al., “Inflammatory cytokines and neurological and neurocognitive alterations in the course of schizophrenia,” Biol Psychiatry 2013; 73:951–66.


Gouin, J., et al., “Chronic stress, daily stressors, and circulating inflammatory markers,” Health Psychol 2012; 31:264–68.


Gozansky, W., et al., “Salivary cortisol determined by enzyme immunoassay is preferable to serum total cortisol for assessment of dynamic hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity,” Clinical Endocrinology 2005; 63:336-4.


Griffin, M., et al., “Enhanced cortisol suppression following dexamethasone administration in domestic violence survivors,” Amer Jour Psychiatry 2005; 162:192-99.


Head, K., et al., “Nutrients and botanicals for treatment of stress: adrenal fatigue, neurotransmitter imbalance, anxiety, and restless sleep,” Altern Med Rev 2009; 14(2):114-40.


Heim, C. et al., “Abuse-related posttraumatic stress disorder and alterations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in women with chronic pelvic pain,” Psychosom Med 1998; 60:309-18.


Heim, C., et al., “The role of early adverse experience and adulthood stress in the production of neuroendocrine stress reactivity in women: a multiple regression analysis,” Depression Anxiety 2002; 15:117-25.


Jaremka, L., et al., “Synergistic relationships among stress, depression, and troubled relationships: insights from psychoneuroimmunology,” Depress Anxiety 2013; 30:288–96.


Jeffries, W., “Cortisol and immunity,” Med Hypotheses 1991; 34(3):198-208.


Jezova, D., et al., “Reduction of rise in blood pressure and cortisol release during stress by Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) in healthy volunteers,” Jour Physiol Pharmacol 2002; 53(3):337-48.


Karagkouni, A., et al., “Effect of stress on brain inflammation and multiple sclerosis,” Autoimmun Rev 2013; 12:947–953.


Karlamangla, A., et al., “Increase in epinephrine excretion is associated with cognitive decline in elderly men: MacArthur studies of successful aging,” Psychoneuroendocrinology 2005; 30(5):453-60.


Kelly, G., “Nutritional and botanical interventions to assist with the adaptation to stress,” Alern Med Rev 1999; 4(4):249-65.


Kelly, G., “Rhodioila rosea: a possible plant adaptogen,” Altern Med Rev 2001; 6(3):293-65.


Kennedy, P., et al., “A sustained hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to acute psychosocial stress in irritable bowel syndrome,” Psychol Med 2014; 44:3123–34.


Krahenbuhl, S., et al., “Kinetics and dynamics of orally administered 18 beta-glycyrrhetinic acid in humans,” Jour Clin Endocrinol Metabol 1994; 78:581-85.


Krause, N., et al., “A descriptive epidemiology of lifetime trauma and the physical health status of older adults,” Psychol Ageing 2004; 19(4):637-48.


Kudielka B., et al., “Psychological and endocrine responses to psychological stress and dexamethasone/corticotrophin-releasing hormone in healthy postmenopausal women and young controls: the impact of age and a two-week estradiol treatment,” Neuroendocrinol 1999; 70:422-30.


Kunz-Ebrecht, S., et al., “Cortisol responses to mild psychological stress are inversely associated with proinflammatory cytokines,” Brain Behav Immun 2003; 17(5):373-83.


Lee, A., et al., “Psychological influences on the irritable bowel syndrome,” Minerva Med 2004; 95(5):443-50.


Lee, B., et al., “Association of salivary cortisol with cognitive function in the Baltimore memory study,” Arch Gen Psychiatry 2007; 64:810-18.


Lerner, J., et al., “Facial expressions of emotion reveal neuroendocrine and cardiovascular stress responses,” Biol Psychiatr 2005; 58:743-50.


Lovallo, W., et al., “Psychophysiological reactivity: mechanisms and pathways to cardiovascular disease,” Psychosom Med 2003; 65(1):36-45.


Lupien, S., et al., “Cortisol levels during human aging predict hippocampal atrophy and memory deficits,” Nature Neuroscience 1998; 1(12):69-73.


Lupien, S., et al., “The modulatory effects of corticosteroids on cognition: studies in young human populations,” Psychoneuroendocrinology 2002; 27:401-16.


MacLean, C., et al., “Effects of Transcendental Meditation program on adaptive mechanisms: changes in hormone levels and responses to stress after 4 months of practice,” Psychoneuroendocrinol 1997; 22(4):277-95.


McEwen B., “Physiology and neurobiology of stress and adaptation: central role of the brain,” Physiol Rev 2007; 87:873-904.


McEwen, B., “Brain on stress: how the social environment gets under the skin,” Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2012; 109:17180–185.


McLean, S., “Momentary relationship between cortisol secretion and symptoms in patients with fibromyalgia,” Arthritis Rheum 2005; 52(11):3660-69.


Miller, G., et al., “If it goes up, must it come down? Chronic stress and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis in humans,” Psychological Bulletin 2007; 133:25-45.


Monteleone, P., et al., “Blunting by chronic phosphatidylserine administration of the stress-induced activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in healthy men,” Eur Jour Clin Pharmacol 1992; 42(4):385-88.


Moret, Y., et al., “Survival for immunity: the price of immune system activation for bumblebee workers,” Science 2000; 290:1166–68.


Morey, J., et al., “Current directions in stress and human immune function,” Curr Opin Psychol 2015; 5:13-17.


Nasman, B., et al., “Abnormalities in adrenal androgens, but not of glucocorticoids, in early Alzheimer’s disease,” Psychoneuroendocrinology 1995; 20(1):83-94.


Newcomer, J., et al., “Decreased memory performance in healthy humans induced by stress-level cortisol treatment,” Arch Gen Psychiatry 1999; 56:527-33.


Nielsen, N., et al., “Perceived stress and cause-specific mortality among men and women: results from a prospective cohort study,” Amer Jour Epidemiol 2008; 168(5):481-91.


Ohlin, B., et al., “Chronic psychosocial stress predicts long-term cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in middle-aged men,” Eur Heart Jour 2004; 25(1):867-73.


Padgett, D., et al., “How stress influences the immune response,” Trends Immunol 2003; 24:444-48.


Pawelec, G., et al., “Human immunosenescence: is it infectious?” Immunol Rev 2005; 205:257–68.


Pedersen, A., et al., “Psychological stress and antibody response to influenza vaccination: a meta-analysis,” Brain Behav Immun 2009; 23:427–33.


Peskind, E., et al., “Increased CSF cortisol in AD is a function of APOE genotype,:” Neurology 2001; 56(8):1094-98.


Peters, E., et al., “Vitamin C supplementation attenuates the increase in circulating cortisol, adrenaline and anti-inflammatory polypeptides following ultramarathon running,” Int Jour Sports Med 2001; 22(7):537-43.


Pruessner, J., et al., “Burnout, perceived stress and cortisol response to awakening,” Psychosom Med 1999; 61:197-204.


Raber, J., “Detrimental effects of chronic hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation. From obesity to memory deficits,” Mol Neurobiol 1998; 18(1):1-22.


Reiche, E., et al., “Stress, depression, the immune system, and cancer,” Lancet Oncol 2004; 5(10):617-25.


Riad-Fahmy, D., et al., “Salivary steroid assays for assessing variation in endocrine activity,” Jour Steroid Biochem 1983; 19:265-72.


Rohleder, N., “Acute and chronic stress induced changes in sensitivity of peripheral inflammatory pathways to the signals of multiple stress systems–2011 Curt Richter Award Winner,” Psychoneuroendocrinology 2012; 37:307–16.


Rosick, E., “Cortisol, stress, and health,” Life Extension 2005; Dec., p. 40-48.


Scott, L., et al., “Differences in adrenal steroid profile in chronic fatigue syndrome: in depression, and in health,” Jour Affect Disord 1999; 34:129-37.


Segerstrom, S., “Resources, stress, and immunity: an ecological perspective on human psychoneuroimmunology,” Ann Behav Med 2010; 40:114–25.


Segerstrom, S., et al., “Caregiving, repetitive thought, and immune response to vaccination in older adults,” Brain Behav Immun 2008; 22:744–52.


Segerstrom, S., et al., “Psychological stress and the human immune system: a meta-analytic study of 30 years of inquiry,” Psychol Bull 2004;130:601–30.


Segerstrom, S., et al., “Psychological stress and the human immune system: A meta-analytic study of 30 years of inquiry,” Psych Bull 2004; 130(4):601-30.


Selhub, E., “Stress and distress in clinical practice: a mind-body approach,” Nutr Clin Care 2002; 5:182-90.


Sephton, S., “Circadian disruption in cancer: A neuroendocrine-immune pathway from stress to disease?” Brain Behav Immun 2003; 17(5):321-28.


Smith, P., What You Must Know About Vitamins, Minerals, Herbs, and So Much More. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers, 2020.


Smith, P., What You Must Know About Women’s Hormones. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers, 2010.


Steptoe, A., et al., “The effects of acute psychological stress on circulating inflammatory factors in humans: a review and meta-analysis,” Brain Behav Immun 2007; 21:901–12.


Stones, A., et al., “The effect of stress on salivary cortisol in panic disorder patients,” Jour Affect Disorders 1999; 52:197-201.


Straub, R., “Systemic disease sequelae in chronic inflammatory diseases and chronic psychological stress: comparison and pathophysiological model,” Ann NY Acad Sci 2014; 1318:7–17.


Swanwick, G., et al., “Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction in Alzheimer’s disease: lack of association between cortisol and memory longitudinal and cross-sectional findings,” Amer Jour Psychiatry 1998; 155(2):286-89.


Tomiyama, A., et al., “Does cellular aging relate to patterns of allostasis?: an examination of basal and stress reactive HPA axis activity and telomere length,” Physiol Behav 2012; 106:40–5.


Tsolaki, M., et al., “Severe psychological stress in elderly individuals: a proposed model of neurodegeneration and its implications,” Amer Jour Alzheimers Dis Other Demen 2009; 24:85-94.


Van der Kolk, B., “The psychobiology of post-traumatic stress disorder,” Jour Clin Psychiatry 1997; 58(9):16-24.


Vedhara, K., et al., “Acute stress, memory, attention, and cortisol,” Psychoneuroendocrinol 2000; 25:535-49.


Vining, R., et al., “Salivary cortisol: a better measurement of adrenal cortical function than serum cortisol,” Amer Clin Biochem 1983; 20:329-35.


Vitlic, A., et al., “Stress, ageing and their influence on functional, cellular and molecular aspects of the immune system,” Age 2014; 36:1169–85.


Vrijkotte, T., et al., “Work stress and metabolic and hemostatic risk factors,” Psychosom Med 1999; 61:796-805.


Whipple, M., et al., “Hopelessness, depressive symptoms, and carotid atherosclerosis in women: The Study of Women’s health Across the Nation (SWAN) heart study,” Stroke 2009; 40:3166-72.


Wichmann, S., et al., “Cortisol stress response in post-traumatic stress disorder, panic disorder, and major depressive disorder patients,” Psychoneuroendocrinology 2017; 83:135-41.


Wikgren, M., et al., “Short telomeres in depression and the general population are associated with a hypocortisolemic state,” Biol Psychiatry 2012; 71(4):294-300.


Wilson, J., Adrenal Fatigue. Petaluma, CA: Smart Publications, 2001.


Wilson, R., et al., “Chronic distress, age-related neuropathology, and late-life dementia,” Psychosom Med 2007; 69:47-53.


Wilson, R., et al., “Proneness to psychological distress is associated with risk of Alzheimer’s disease,” Neurology 2003; 61(11):1479-85.


Wong, S., et al., “Chronic psychosocial stress: does it modulate immunity to the influenza vaccine in Hong Kong Chinese elderly caregivers?” Age 2012; 35:1479–93.


Yehuda, R., et al., “Circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol in holocaust survivors with and without PTSD,” Amer Jour Psychiatry 2005; 162:998-1000.


Chapter 12: Sugar


Appleton, N., Lick The Sugar Habit. Garden City Park, NY: Avery Publishing Group, 1995.

Appleton, N., Suicide by Sugar. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers, 2009.


Blacklock, N., et al., “Sucrose and idopathic renal stone,” Nutr and Health, 1987; 5:9-17.


Bunn, F., et al., “Reaction of monosaccharides with protein possible evolutionary significance,” Science 1981; 213:222-24.


Cerami, A., et., al., “Glucose and aging,” Sci Amer 1987; May, p. 90.


Choundhary, A., et al., “The debate over neurotransmitter interaction in aspartame usage,” Jour Clin Neurosci 2018; 56:7-15.


Christensen, L., et al., “The role of caffeine and sugar in depression,” The Nutr Report 1991; 9(3):17-24.


Couizy, F., et al., “Nutritional implications of the interaction between minerals,” Progressive Food and Nutr Sci 1933; 17:65-87.


Di Nicolantonio, J., et al., “Sugar addiction: Is It Real? A Narrative Review,” Brit Jour Sports Med 2018; 52(14):910-13.


Fields, M., et al., “Effect of copper deficiency on metabolism and mortality in rats fed sucrose or starch diets,” Jour of Clin Nutr 1983; 113:1335-45.


Fitch, C., et al., “Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Use of nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners,” Jour Acad Nutr Diet 2012; 112(5):739-58.


Fong, D., et al., “Diabetic retinopathy,” Diabetes Care 2003; 1:226-29.


Gardner, L.., et al., “Effects of dietary carbohydrate on fasting levels of human growth hormone and cortisol,” Proceedings of the Soc for Exper Biol and Med 1982; 36-40.


Goldman, J., et al., “Behavioral effects of sucrose on preschool children,” Jour of Abnor Child Psychol 1986: 14:565-77.


Hodges, R., et al., “Carbohydrates and blood pressure,” Ann of Int Med 1983; 98:838-41.


Keaton, K., et al., “The sweet road to gallstones,” Brit Med Jour 1984; 288:1103-04.


Knuppel, A., et al., “Sugar intake from sweet food and beverages, common mental disorder and depression: prospective findings from the Whitehall II study,” Sci Rep 2017; 7:6287.


Kozlovsky, A., et al., “Effects of diets high in simple sugars on urinary chromium loses,” Metabolism 1986; 35:515-18.


Krohn, J., et al., “Aspartame and attention deficit disorder,” Pediatrics 1994; October, p. 576.


Kruis, W., et al., “Effects of diets low and high in refined sugars on gut transit, bile acid metabolism and bacterial fermentation,” Gut 1991; 32:367-70.


Kulczychyi, A., et al., “Aspartame-Induced Hives,” Journ of Allergy and Clin Immun 1995; 2:639-40.


Lee, A., et al., “Modifications of proteins and nucleic acids by reducing sugars: possible role in aging,” Handbook of the Biology of Aging. New York: Academic Press, 1990.


Lemann, J., et al., “Evidence that glucose ingestion inhibits net renal tubular reabsorption of calcium and magnesium,” Jour of Clin Nutr 1967; 70:236-45. 


Lenoir, M., et al., “Intense sweetness surpasses cocaine reward,” PLoS One 2007; 2(8):e698.


Makinen, K., et al., “Xylitol chewing gums and caries rates: a 40-month cohort study,” Jour Dent Res 1995; 74(12):1904-13.


Marinovich, M., et al., “Aspartame, low-calorie sweeteners and disease: regulatory safety and epidemiological issues,” Food Chem Toxicol 2013; 60:109-15.


Mindell, E., and Smith, P., What You Must Know About Allergy Relief. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers, 2016.


Moser, R., et al., “Aspartame and memory loss,” JAMA 1994; 272(19):1543.


Myers, A., “Sugar free, cancer free?” Nutrition 2012; 28(10):1036.


Natah, S., et al., “Metabolic response to lactitol and xylitol in healthy men,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1997; 65(4):947-50.


Olszewski, P., et al., “Excessive consumption of sugar: An insatiable drive for reward,” Curr Nutr rep 2019; 8(2):120-28.


Pamplona, R., et al., “Mechanisms of glycation in atherogenesis,” Med Hypotheses 1990; 40:174-81.


Quillin, P., Beating Cancer With Nutrition. Tulsa, Oklahoma: Nutrition Times Press, 2001, p. 103-12. 


Reiser, S., et al., “Effects of dietary sugars on metabolic risk factors associated with heart disease,” Nutr Health 1985; 3:203-16.


Reiser, S., et al., “Effects of sugars on indices on glucose tolerance in humans,” Amer Jour of Clin Nutr 1986; 43:151-159.


Ringsdorf, W., et al., “Sucrose neutrophilic phagocytosis and resistance to disease,” Dental Survey 1976; 52:46-48.


Sanchez., A., et al., “Role of sugars in human neutrophilic phagocytosis,” Amer Jour of Clin Nutr 1973; 1180-84. 


Scanto, S., et al., “The effect of dietary sucrose on blood lipids, serum insulin, platelet adhesiveness and body weight in human volunteers,”: Postgrad Med Jour 1969; 45:602-07.


Shafer, R., et al., “Effects of xylitol on gastric emptying and food intake,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1987; 45(4):744-47.


Sharma, A., et al., “artificial sweeteners as a sugar substitute: Are they really safe,” Indian Jour Pharmacol 2016; 48(3):237-40.


Shaywitz, B., et al., “Aspartame and seizures,” Neurology 1993; 143:630-31.


Sheridan, F., et al., “Are you sugar smart?” Amer Fitness 1991; March-April, p.34-8.


Simmons, J., et al., “Is the sand of time sugar?” Longevity 1990; June 10, p.49-53.


United States Sugar Policy: An Analysis. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Printing Office, 1989.


Voreacos, D., “Experts tell panel of continued concern over use of aspartame,” Los Angeles Times, November 4, 1987, p. 19.


Yudkin, J., et al., “Dietary fat and dietary sugar,” Lancet, 1964; August 29, p. 478-79.


Yudkin, J., et al., “Effects of high dietary sugar,” Brit Jour of Med 1980; 281:1396.


Yudkin, J., et al., “Metabolic changes induced by sugar in relation to coronary heart disease and diabetes,” Nutrit and Health 1987; 5(1-2):5-8. 


Chapter 13: Thyroid


Abraham, G., et al., “The safe and effective implementation of orthoiodosupplementation in medical practice,” The Original Internist April 2004.


Adlin, V., et al., “Subclinical hypothyroidism: deciding when to treat,” Amer Fam Physician 1998; 57(4):776-80.


Al-Abed, Y., et al., “Thyroxine is a potential endogenous antagonist of macrophage migration inhibitory factor. (MIF) activity,” Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2011; 108:8224–27.


Alamino, V., et al., “Dendritic cells exposed to triiodothyronine deliver pro-inflammatory signals and amplify IL-17-driven immune responses,” Cell Physiol Biochem 2019; 52:354–67.


Anker, G. et al., “Thyroid function in  post-menopausal breast cancer patients treated with Tamoxifen,” Scand Jour Clin Labor Invest 1998; 58:103-07.


Anyetei-Anum, C., et al., “Thyroid hormone receptor localization in target tissues,” Jour Endocrinol 2018; 237:R19–R34.


Arnold, L., “Alternative treatments for adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD),” Ann NY Acad Sci 2001; 931:310-41.


Artyomov, M., et al., “Integrating immunometabolism and macrophage diversity,” Semin Immunol 2016; 28:417–24.


Astapova, I., et al., “Role of co-regulators in metabolic and transcriptional actions of thyroid hormone,” Jour Mol Endocrinol 2016; 56:73–97.


Berger, N., et al., “Influence of selenium supplementation on the post-traumatic alterations of the thyroid axis: a placebo-controlled trial,” Intensive Care Med 2001; 27(1):91-100.


Bernal, J., et al., “Thyroid hormone transporters-functions and clinical implications,” Nat Rev Endocrinol 2015; 11:690.


Berry, M., et al., “The role of selenium in thyroid hormone action,” Endocrine Rev 1992; 13:207-20.


Biondi, B., et al., “Combination treatment with T4 and T3: toward personalized replacement therapy in hypothyroidism,” Jour Clin Endocrinol Metab 2012; 97(7):2256-71.


Brownstein, D., Iodine: Why You Need It, Why You Can’t Live Without It. Medical Alternatives Press, 2004.


Brucker-David, F., “Effects of environmental synthetic chemicals on thyroid function,” Thyroid 1998; 8(9):827-56.


Bunevicious, R., et al., “Effect of thyroxine as compared with thyroxine plus triiodothyronine in patients with hypothyroidism,” NEJM 1994; 340(6):424-29.


Campbell, N., et al., “Ferrous sulfate reduces thyroxine efficacy in patients with hypothyroidism,” Ann Intern Med 1992; 117(12):1010-13.


Cappola, A., et al., “Hypothyroidism and atherosclerosis,” Jour Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003; 88:2438-44.


Chen, Y., “Thyroid hormone enhances nitric oxide-mediated bacterial clearance and promotes survival after meningococcal infection,” PLoS ONE 2012; 7:e41445.


Christianson, A., and Murray, M., Hypothyroidism. In Pizzorno, J., and Murray, M., Textbook of Natural Medicine. St. Louis: Elsevier/Churchill Livingstone, 2013.


Contreras-Jurado, C., et al., “The thyroid hormone receptors inhibit hepatic interleukin-6 signaling during endotoxemia,” Sci Rep 2016; 6:30990.


Coria, M., et al., “Hypothyroidism modifies lipid composition of polymorphonuclear leukocytes,” Cell Physiol Biochem 2012; 29:713–24.


Curi, R., et al., “A past and present overview of macrophage metabolism and functional outcomes,” Clin Sci 2017; 131:1329–42.


Davis, P., et al., “Nongenomic actions of thyroid hormone,” Nat Rev Endocrinol 2016; 12:111–21.


De Vito, P., et al., “Thyroid hormones as modulators of immune activities at the cellular level,” Thyroid 2011; 21(8):879-90.


Dedecjus, M., et al., “Thyroid hormones influence human dendritic cells' phenotype, function, and subsets distribution,” Thyroid 2011; 21:533–40.


DeGroot, L., Endocrinology. 5th Ed., Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders, 2006.


del Mar Montesinos, M., et al., “Thyroid hormone action on innate immunity,” Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2019; 10:350.


Dominguez-Andres, J., et al., “The itaconate pathway is a central regulatory node linking innate immune tolerance and trained immunity,” Cell Metab 2019; 29:211–20.


Ebbo, M., et al., “Innate lymphoid cells: major players in inflammatory diseases,” Nat Rev Immunol 2017; 17:665–78.


Esposito, S., et al., “The thyroid axis and mood disorders: overview and future prospects,” Psychopharmacol Bull 1997; 33:205-17.


Evans, T., “Thyroid disease,” Prim Care 2003; 30:625-40.


Feidt-Rasmussen, U., et al., “Effect of clomifene on thyroid function in normal men,” Acta Endocrinol 1979; 90(1):43-51.


Gigena, N., et al., “Dissecting thyroid hormone transport and metabolism in dendritic cells,” Jour Endocrinol 2017; 232:337–50.


Gold, M., et al., “Hypothyroidism and depression, evidence from complete thyroid function evaluation,” JAMA 1981; 245:1919-22.


He, X., et al., “Functional magnetic resource imaging assessment of altered brain function in hypothyroidism during working memory processing,” Eur Jour Endocrinol 2011; 164(6):951-59.


Hertoghe, J., et al., “Thyroid insufficiency. Is thyroxine the only valuable drug?” Jour Nutr Environ Med 2001; 11:159-66.


Hoeksema, M., et al., “Nature and nurture of tissue-specific macrophage phenotypes,” Atherosclerosis 2019; 281:159–67.


Kirkegaard, C., et al., “Studies on the influence of biogenic amines and psychoactive drugs on the prognostic value of TRH stimulation test in endogenous depression,” Psychoneuroendocrinology 1977; 2(2):131-36.


Kmiec, Z., et al., “Natural killer activity and thyroid hormone levels in young and elderly persons,” Gerontology 2001; 47:282–88.


Kohrle, J., “The deiodinase family, selenoenzymes regulating thyroid hormone availability and action,” Cell Mol Life Sci 2000; 57:1853-63.


Kowalik, M., et al., “Thyroid hormones, thyromimetics and their metabolites in the treatment of liver disease,” Front Endocrinol 2018; 9:382.


Krupsky, M., et al., “Musculoskeletal symptoms as a presenting sign of long-standing hypothyroidism,” Isr Jour Med Sci 1987; 23:1110-13.


Kwakkel, J., et al., “A novel role for the thyroid hormone-activating enzyme type 2 deiodinase in the inflammatory response of macrophages,” Endocrinology 2014; 155:2725–34.


Lange, U., et al., Thyroid disorders in female patients with ankylosing spondylitis,” Eur Jour Med Res 1999; 4(11):468-74.


Lazarus, J., et al., “Lithium therapy and thyroid function: A long-term study,” Psychol Med 1981; 11(1):85-92.


Leung, A., et al., “Iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction,” Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes Obes 2012; 19(5):414-19.


Leznoff, A., et, al., “Syndrome of idiopathic chronic urticaria and angioedema with thyroid autoimmuity: a study of 90 patients,” Jour of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 1989; 84(1):66-71.


Lima, F., et al., “Regulation of microglial development: a novel role for thyroid hormone,” Jour Neurosci 2001; 21:2028–38.


Little, J., “Effect of thyroid hormone supplementation on survival after bacterial infection,” Endocrinology 1985; 117:1431–35.


Louzada, R., et al., “Similarities and differences in the peripheral actions of thyroid hormones and their metabolites,” Front Endocrinol 2018; 9:394.


Magsino, C., et al., “Effect of triiodothyronine on reactive oxygen species generation by leukocytes, indices of oxidative damage, and antioxidant reserve,” Metabolism 2000; 49:799–803.


Marino, F., et al., “Thyroid hormone regulation of cell migration and oxidative metabolism in polymorphonuclear leukocytes: clinical evidence in thyroidectomized subjects on thyroxine replacement therapy,” Life Sci 2006; 78:1071–77.


Mascanfroni, I., et al., “Control of dendritic cell maturation and function by triiodothyronine,” FASEB Jour 2008; 22:1032–42.


Mascanfroni, I., et al., “Nuclear factor. (NF)-kappaB-dependent thyroid hormone receptor beta1 expression controls dendritic cell function via Akt signaling,” Jour Biol Chem 2010; 285:9569–82.


Meinhold, H., et al., “Effects of selenium and iodine deficiency on iodothyronine deiodinases in brain, thyroid and peripheral tissue,” JAMA 1992; 19:8-12.


Mezosi, E., et al., “Nongenomic effect of thyroid hormone on free-radical production in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes,” Jour Endocrinol 2005; 185:121–29.


Mndoza, A., et al., “New insights into thyroid hormone action,” Pharmacol Ther 2017; 173:135–45.


Mooij, P., et al., “Effect of thyroid hormones and other iodinated compounds on the transition of monocytes into veiled/dendritic cells: role of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, tumour-necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6,” Jour Endocrinol 1994; 140:503–12.


Mori, Y., et al., “Effects of 3,3',5-triiodothyronine on microglial functions,” Glia 2015; 63:906–20.


Mortaz, E., et al., “Update on neutrophil function in severe inflammation,” Front Immunol 2018; 9:2171.


Neeck, G., et al., “Neuroendocrine perturbations in fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome,” Rheum Dis Clin North Amer 2000; 26(4):989-1002. 


Nelis, G., et al., “The effect of oral cimetidine on the basal and stimulated values of prolactin, thyroid stimulating hormone, follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone,” Postgrad Med Jour 1980; 56(651):26-9.


Netea, M., et al., “Innate immune memory: a paradigm shift in understanding host defense,” Nat Immunol 2015; 16:675–79.


Newman, C., et al., “Amiodarone and the thyroid: A practical guide to the management of thyroid dysfunction induced by amiodarone therapy,” Heart 1998; 79:121-27.


Nishiyama, S. et al., “Zinc supplementation alters thyroid hormone metabolism in disabled patients with zinc deficiency,” Jour Amer Coll Nutr 1994; 13:62-7.


Nishiyama, S., et al., “Zinc supplementation alters thyroid hormone metabolism in disabled patients with zinc deficiency,” Jour Amer Coll Nutr 1994; 13(1):62-7.


Northcutt, R., et al., “The influence of cholestyramine on thyroxine absorption,” JAMA 1969; 208(10):1857-61.


Ortiga-Carvalho, T., et al., “Hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis,” Compr Physiol 2016; 6:1387–428.


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Penkov, S., et al., “Immunometabolic crosstalk: an ancestral principle of trained immunity?” Trends Immunol 2019; 40:1–11.


Perrotta, C., et al., “The thyroid hormone triiodothyronine controls macrophage maturation and functions: protective role during inflammation,” Amer Jour Pathol 2014; 184:230–47.


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Rivas, M., et al., “Thyroid hormones, learning and memory,” Genes, Brain Behavior 2007; 6(Suppl 1): 40-44.


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Ruytinx, P., et al., “Chemokine-induced macrophage polarization in inflammatory conditions,” Front Immunol 2018; 9:1930.


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Singh N., et al., “Effect of calcium carbonate on the absorption of levothyroxine,” JAMA 2000; 283(21):2822-25.


Smith, J., et al., “Thyroid hormones, brain function and cognition: a brief review,” Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2002; 26:45-60.


Smith, P., What You Must Know About Thyroid Disorders, Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers, 2016.


Sperber, A., et al., “Evidence for interference with the intestinal absorption of levothyroxine sodium by aluminum hydroxide,” Arch Intern Med 1992; 152(1):183-84.


Stocks, C., et al., “For when bacterial infections persist: toll-like receptor-inducible direct antimicrobial pathways in macrophage,” Jour Leukoc Biol 2018; 103:35–51.


Szabo, J., et al., “Parameters of respiratory burst and arachidonic acid metabolism in polymorphonuclear granulocytes from patients with various thyroid diseases,” Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 1996; 104:172–76.


Takasu, N., et al., “Rifampin-induced hypothyroidism in patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis,” NEJM 2005; 352(5):518-19.


Tariq, A., et al., “Effects of long-term combination LT4 and LT3 therapy for improving hypothyroidism and overall quality of life,” South Med Jour 2018; 111(6):363-69.


Tseng, A., et al., “Interaction between ritonavir and levothyroxine,” AIDS 1998; 12(16):2235-6.


van der Spek, A., et al., “Regulation of intracellular triiodothyronine is essential for optimal macrophage function,” Endocrinology 2018; 159:2241–52.


van der Spek, A., et al., “The thyroid hormone inactivating type 3 deiodinase is essential for optimal neutrophil function: observations from three species,” Endocrinology 2018; 159:826–35.


van der Spek, A., et al., “Thyroid hormone metabolism in innate immune cells,” Jour Endocrinol 2017; 232:R67–R81.


Varol, C., et al., “Macrophages: development and tissue specialization,” Annu Rev Immunol 2015; 33:643–75.


Vivier, E., et al., “Natural killer cells: from basic research to treatments,” Front Immunol 2011; 2:18.


Wartofsky, L., “Combination L-T3 and L-T4 therapy for hypothyroidism,” Curr Opin Endocrinology Diabetes Obes 1013; 20(5):460-66.


Wartofsky, L., et al., “The evidence for a narrower thyrotropin reference range is compelling,” Jour Clin Endo Met 2005; 90(9):5483-88.


Williams, G., et al., “Deiodinases: the balance of thyroid hormone: local control of thyroid hormone action: role of type 2 deiodinase,” Jour Endocrinol 2011; 209:261–72.


Woeber, K., “Levothyroxine therapy and serum free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine concentrations,” Jour Endocrinol Invest 2002; 25(2):106-09.


Worbs, T., et al., “Dendritic cell migration in health and disease,” Nat Rev Immunol 2017; 17:30–48.


Yatim, K., et al., “A brief journey through the immune system,” Clin Jour Amer Soc Nephrol 2015; 10:1274–81.


Chapter 14: Water


Armstrong, L., et al., “Distinguishing low and high water consumers--A paradigm of disease risk,” Nutrients 2020; 12(3):858.


Armstrong, L., et al., “Mild dehydration affects mood in healthy young women,” Jour Nutr 2012; 142(2):882-88.


Batmanghelidj, F., Water for Health, for Healing, for Life. New York: Warner Books, 2003.


Cohen, D., Bria, G., Quench: Beat Fatigue, Drop Weight, and Heal Your Body Through the Science of Optimum Hydration. New York: Hachette Books, 2018.


Ganio, M., et al., “Mild dehydration impairs cognitive performance and mood of men,” Brit Jour Nutr 2011; 106(10):1535-43.


Manz, F., “Hydration and disease,” Jour Amer Coll Nutr 2007; 26(5 Suppl):535S-541S.


Manz, F., et al., “The importance of good hydration for the prevention of chronic disease,” Nutr Rev 2005; 63(6 Pt 2):S2-S5.


Ritz, P., et al., “The importance of good hydration for day-to-day health,” Nutr Rev 2005; 63(6 Pt 2):S6-S13.






Calder, P., “Feeding the immune system,” Proc Nutr Soc 2013; 72(3):299-309.


Wu, D., et al., “Nutritional modulation of immune function: Analysis of evidence, mechanisms, and clinical relevance,” Front Immunol 2019; 9:3160.


Wintergerst, E., Contribution of selected vitamins and trace elements to immune function,” Ann Nutr Metab 2007; 51(4):301-23.






Chen, D., “Effects of JinShuiBao capsule on the quality of life of patients with heart failure,” Jour Admin Trad Chin Med 1995; 5:40–3.


Das, S., “Medicinal uses of the mushroom Cordyceps militaris: current state and prospects,” Fitoterapia 2010; 81:961–68.


Huang, B., et al., “Effects of Cordyceps sinensis on steroidogenesis in normal mouse Leydig cells,” Life Sci2001; 69:2593–2602.


Hyun, H., “Chemical ingredient of Cordyceps militaris,” Mycobiology 2008; 36:233–35.


Lee, E., et al., “Cordycepin suppresses TNF-alpha-induced invasion, migration and matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression in human bladder cancer cells,” Phytother Res2010; 24:1755–61.


Lee, J., et al., “Anti-cancer effects of cordycepin on oral squamous cell carcinoma proliferation and apoptosis in vitro,” Jour Cancer Ther2011; 2:224–34.


Lee, Y., et al., “Cordycepin inhibits UVB-induced matrix metalloproteinase expression by suppressing the NF-KB pathway in human dermal fibroblasts,” Exp Mol Med 2009; 41:548–54.


Ng, T., et al., Pharmacological actions of Cordyceps, a prized folk medicine,” Jour Pharm Pharmacol 2005; 57(12):1509-19.


Patel, S., et al., “Recent developments in mushrooms as anti-cancer therapeutics: a review,” 3 Biotech2012; 2:1–15.


Rao, Y., “Constituents isolated from Cordyceps militaris suppress enhanced inflammatory mediator’s production and human cancer cell proliferation,” Jour Ethnopharmacol2010; 131:363–67.


Rouse, J., “Herbal support for adrenal function,” Clin Nutri Insights 1998; 6(9):1-2.


Smith, P., What You Must Know About Vitamins, Minerals, Herbs and So Much More. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers, 2020.


Tuli, H., et al., “Pharmacological and therapeutic potential of Cordyceps with special reference to Cordycepin,” 3 Biotech 2014; 4(1):1-12.


Yue, K., “The genus Cordyceps: a chemical and pharmacological review,” Jour Pharm Pharmacol 2013; 65(4):474-93.


Zaidman, B., et al., “Medicinal mushroom modulators of molecular targets as cancer therapeutics,” Appl Microbiol Biotechnol2005; 67:453–68.


Zhang, G., “Hypoglycemic activity of the fungi Cordyceps militaris, Cordyceps sinensis, Triccholoma mongolicum, and Omphalia lapidescens in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats,” Appl Microbiol Biotechnol2006; 72:1152–56.


Zhang, H., et al., “Cordyceps sinensis (a traditional Chinese medicine) for treating chronic kidney disease,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014; Issue 12. No.: CD008353.


Zhou, J., et al., “The scientific rediscovery of an ancient Chinese herbal medicine: cordyceps sinensis,” Jour Altern Complem Med1998; 4:429–57.


Zhou, X., “Cordycepin is an immunoregulatory active ingredient of Cordyceps sinensis,” Amer Jour Chin Med 2008; 36:967–80.


Zhou, X., “Cordyceps fungi: natural products, pharmacological functions and developmental products,” Jour Pharm Pharmcol 2009; 61:279–91.


Zhu, J., “The scientific rediscovery of an ancient Chinese herbal medicine: cordyceps sinensis: part I,” Jour Altern Complem Med 1998; 4:289–303.




Ardjomand-Woelkart, K., et al., “Review and Assessment of Medicinal Safety Data of Orally Used Echinacea Preparations,” Planta Med 2016; 82(1-2):17-31.


Braun, L., and Cohen, M., (Eds.) Herbs and Natural Supplements. 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.


Brinkeborn, R., et al., “Echinaforce and other echinacea fresh plant preparations in the treatment of the common cold. A randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind clinical trial,” Phytomedicine 1999; 6:1–6.


Budzinski, J., et al., “An in vitro evaluation of human cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibition by selected commercial herbal extracts and tinctures,” Phytomedicine 2000; 7:273–82.


Dorn, M., et al., “Placebo-controlled, double-blind study of Echinaceae pallidae radix in upper respiratory tract infections,” Com Ther Med 1997; 3:40-42.


Dorn, M., et al., “Placebo-controlled, double-blind study of Echinaceae pallidae radix in upper respiratory infections,” Complement Ther Med 1997; 5:40–2.


Freeman, C., et al., “A critical evaluation of drug interactions with Echinacea spp.,” Mol Nutr Food Res 2008; 52(7):789-98.


Glesson, M., et al., “Nutritional strategies to minimize exercise-induced immunosuppression in athletes,” Can Jour Appl Physiol 2001; 26(Suppl): S23-S35.


Grimm, W., et al., “A randomized controlled trial of the effects of fluid extract of echinacea pur-pura on the frequency and severity of colds and respiratory infections,” Amer Jour Med 1999; 106:138–43.


Hoheisel, O., et al., “Echinagard treatment shortens the course of the common cold: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial,” Eur J Clin Res 1997; 9:261–69.


Melchart, D., et al., “Echinacea root extracts for the prevention of upper respiratory tract infections: a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial,” Arch Fam Med 1998; 7:541–45.


Mills, S., et al., Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy. London: Churchill Livingstone, 2000.

Nahas, R., et al., “Complementary and alternative medicine for prevention and treatment of the common cold,” Can Fam Physician 2011; 57(1):31-6.


Shah, S., et al., “Evaluation of echinacea for the prevention and treatment of the common cold: a meta-analysis,” Lancet Infect Dis 2007; 7(7):473-80.


Smith, P., What You Must Know About Vitamins, Minerals, Herbs and So Much More. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers, 2020.


Sterer, N., et al., “Oral malodor reduction via palatal mucoadhesive tablet containing herbal formulation,” Jour Dent 2008; 36(7):535-39.


Sucapowal, A., et al., “Echinacea/sage or chlorhexidine/lidocaine for treating acute sore throats: a randomized double-blind trial,” Eur Jour Med Res 2009; 14(9):406-12.


Tiralongo, E., et al., “Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of echinacea supplementation in air travellers,” Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2012; 20120:182.


Ulbright, C., et al., Natural Standard Herb and Supplement Reference. St. Louis: Mosby, 2005.


Werbach, M., Botanical Influences on Illness. Tarzana, CA: Third Line Press, Inc. 2000.


Woelkart, K., et al., “Echinacea for preventing and treating the common cold,” Planta Med 2008; 74(6):633-37.


Zhai, Z., et al., “Echinacea increases arginase activity and has anti-inflammatory properties in RAW264.7 macrophage cells, indicative of alternative macrophage activation,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 2009; 122(1):976-85.




Badescu, M., et al., “Effects of Sambucus nigra and Aronia melanocarpa extracts on immune system disorders within diabetes mellitus,” Pharm Biol 2015; 53:533–39.


Barak, V., et al., “The effect of Sambucol, a black Elderberry-based, natural product, on the production of human cytokines: I. Inflammatory cytokines,” Eur Cytokine Netw 2001; 12(2):290-96.


de Pascual-Teresa, S., et al., “Flavanols and anthocyanins in cardiovascular health: a review of current evidence,” Int Jour Mol Sci 2010; 11:1679–1703.


Gray, A., “The traditional plant treatment, Sambucus nigra (elder), exhibits insulin-like and insulin-releasing actions in vitro,” Jour Nutr 2000; 130:15–20.


Hawkins, J., et al., “Black elderberry (Sambucus Nigra) supplementation effectively treats upper respiratory symptoms: A meta-analysis of randomized, controlled clinical trials,” Complement Ther Med 2019; 42:361-65.


Hearst, C., et al., “Antibacterial activity of elder (Sambucus nigra L.) flower or berry against hospital pathogens,” Jour Med Plants Res 2010; 4:1805–09.


Kinoshita, E., et al., “Anti-influenza virus effects elderberry juice and its fractions,” Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2012; 76(9):1633-38.


Kong, F., “Pilot clinical study on a proprietary elderberry extract: Efficacy in addressing influenza symptoms,” Online Jour Pharmacol Pharmacokinet 2009; 5:32–43.


Krawitz, C., et al., “Inhibitory activity of a standardized elderberry liquid extract against clinically-relevant human respiratory bacterial pathogens and influenza A and B viruses,” BMC Complement Altern Med 2011; 11:16.


Krawitz, C., et al., “Inhibitory activity of a standardized elderberry liquid extract against clinically-relevant human respiratory bacterial pathogens and influenza A and B viruses,” BMC Complement Altern Med 2011; 11:182.


Mahmoudi, M., et al., “Antidepressant activities of Sambucus ebulus and Sambucus nigra,” Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2014; 18:3350–53.


Netzel, M., “The excretion and biological antioxidant activity of elderberry antioxidants in healthy humans,” Food Res Int 2005; 38:905–10.


Porter, R., et al., “A review of the antiviral properties of Black elder (Sambucus nigra L.) products,” Phytother Res 2017; 31(4):533-54.


Raus, K., et al., “Effect of an Echinacea-based hot drink versus Oseltamivir in influenza treatment: A randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, multicenter, noninferiority clinical trial,” Curr Ther Res Clin Exp 2015; 77:66–72.


Roschek, B., et al., “Elderberry flavonoids bind to and prevent H1NI infection in Vitro,” Phytochemistry 2009; 70(10):1255-61.


Roxas, M., et al., “Colds and influenza: A review of diagnosis and conventional, botanical, and nutritional considerations,” Altern Med Rev 2007; 12:25–48.


Tiralong, E., et al., “Elderberry supplementation reduces cold duration and symptoms in air-travelers: A randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial,” Nutrients 2016; 8(4):182.


Torabian, G., et al., “Anti-influenza activity of elderberry (Sambucus nigra),” Jour Functional Foods 2019; 54:353-60.


Vlachojannis, J., et al., “A systematic review on the Sambuci fructus effect and efficacy profiles,” Phytother Res 2010; 24(1):1-8.


Vlachojannis, J., et al., “A systematic review on the sambuci fructus effect and efficacy profiles,” Phytother Res 2010; 24:1–8.


Zafra-Stone, S., et al., “Berry anthocyanins as novel antioxidants in human health and disease prevention,” Mol Nutr Food Res 2007; 51:675–83.


Zakay-Rones, Z., et al., Randomized study of the efficacy and safety of oral elderberry extract in the treatment of influenza A and B virus infections,” Jour Inter Med Res 2004; 32(2):132-40.




Ackermann, R., et al., “Garlic shows promise for improving some cardiovascular risk factors,” Arch Inter Med 2001; 151:813-24.


Adler, A., et al., “Effect of garlic and fish-oil supplementation on serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in hypercholesterolemic men,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1997; 65(2):445-50. 


Arora, R., et al., “Comparative effects of clofibrate, garlic and onion on alimentary hyperlipemia,” Atherosclerosis 1981; 39: 447-52.


Arora, R., et al., “The long-term use of garlic in ischemic heart disease,” Atherosclerosis 1981; 40:175-79.


Asdaq, S., et al., “Potential of garlic and its active constituent, S-allyl cysteine, as antihypertensive and cardioprotective in presence of captopril,” Photomed 2010; 17:1016-26.


Banergiee, S., et al., “Effect of garlic on cardiovascular disorders: a review,” Nutr Jour 2002; 1:4.

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.


Bordia, A., et al., “Effect of essential oil of garlic on serum fibrinalytic activity in patients with coronary artery disease,” Atheroselerosis 1977; 28:155.


Bordia, A., et al., “Essential oil of garlic on blood lipids and fibribolytic activity in patients with coronary artery disease,” Jour Assoc Phys Ind 1978; 26:327-33.


Borek, C., “Antioxidant health effect of aged garlic extract,” Jour Nutr 2001; 131:1010S-1015S.

Boullin, D., “Garlic as a platelet inhibitor,” Lancet 1981; 1: 776-77.


Braun, L., and Cohen, M., Herbs and Natural Supplements, 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.


Burnham, B., “Garlic as a possible risk for postoperative bleeding,” Plast Recon Surg 1995; 95:213.


Chen, C., et al., “Induction of detoxifying enzymes by garlic organosulfur compounds through transcription factor Nrf2: effect of chemical structure and stress signals,” Free Radic Biol Med 2004; 37(10):1578-90.


Chi, M., et al., “Effect of garlic on lipid metabolism in rats fed cholesterol or lard,” Jour Nutr 1982; 112:41-48.


Chutani, s., et al., “The effect of fried versus Raw garlic on fibrinolytic activity in man,” Atherosclerosis 1988; 38:417-21.


Crayhon, R., Robert Crayhon’s Nutrition Made Simple New York, NY: M. Evans and Company, 1994.


Davis, L., et al., “In vitro synergism of concentrated Allium sativum extract and amphotericin B against Cryptococcus neoformans,” Planta Med 1994; 60(6):546-49.


Fugh-Berman, A., “Herb-drug interactions,” Lancet 2000; 355:134-38.


Gebhardt, R., et al., “Differential inhibitory effects of garlic-derived organosulfur compounds on cholesterol biosynthesis in primary rat hepatocyte culture,” Lipids 1996; 31:1269-76.


Harenberg, J., et al., “Effect of dried garlic on blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, platelet aggregation and serum cholesterol levels in patients with hyperlipoproteinemia,” Atherosclerosis 1988; 74:247-29.


Harris, J., et al., “Antimicrobial properties of Allium sativum (garlic),” Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2001; 57(3):282-86.


Hattori, A., eta l., “Antidiabetic effects of ajoene in genetically diabetic KK-A(y) mice,” Jour Nutr Sci Vitaminal 2005; 51(5):382-40.


Jarrell, S., et al., “Effects of wild garlic (allium ursinum) on blood pressure in systolic hypertension,” Jour Amer Coll Nur 1996; 15:532.


Josling, P., “Preventing the common cold with a garlic supplement: a double-blind, placebo-controlled survery,” Adv Ther 2001; 18(4):189-93.


Klatz, R., The New Anti-Aging Revolution. Laguna Beach, CA: Basic Health Publications, 2003.


Legnani, C., et al., “Effects of a dried garlic preparation on fibrinolysis and platelet aggregation in healthy subjects,” Arzneimittelforschung 1993; 43:119-22.


Lieberman, S., The Real Vitamin and Mineral Book. New York, NY: Avery Publishing Group, 1997.


McMahon, F., et al. “Can garlic lower blood pressure? A pilot study,” Pharmacotherapy 1993; 13:406–407.


Orckhov, A., et al., “Effects of garlic on atherosclerosis,” Nutrition 1997; 13:656–63.


Pedraza-Chaverri, J., et al. “Garlic prevents hypertension induced by chronic inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis,” Life Sci 1998; 62:71–7


Ried, K., et al., “Aged garlic extract reduces blood pressure in hypertensives: a dose-response trial,” Eur Jour Clin Nutr 2013; 67(1):64-70.


Ried, K., et al., “Effect of garlic on serum lipids: an updated meta-analysis,” Nutr Rev 2013; 71(5):282-99.


Rountree, R., Immunotics. New York, NY: Berkley Publishing Group, 2000.


Sendl, A., et al., “Inhibition of cholesterol synthesis in vitro by extracts and isolated compounds prepared from garlic and wild garlic,” Atherosclerosis 1992; 94:79–86


Silagy, C, et al. “A meta-analysis of the effect of garlic on blood pressure,” Jour Hypertens 1994; 12:463–68.


Srivsatava, K., “Evidence for the mechanism by which garlic inhibitors platelet aggregation,” Prostaglandin Leukot Med 1986; 22: 13-21.


Steiner, M., et al., “Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract,” Jour Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1998; 31:904-08.


Sunter, W., “Warfarin and garlic,” Pharm Jour 1991; 246:722.


Vanderhock, J., et al., “Inhibition of fatty acid oxygenases by onion and garlic acts. Evidence for the mechanism by which these oils inhibit platelet aggregation,” Biochem Pharmacol 1980; 29:3169-73.


Yang, C., et al., “Mechanisms of inhibition of chemical toxicity and carcinogenesis by diallyl sulfide (DAS) and related compounds from garlic,” Jour Nutr 2001; 13193):S1041-S1045.


You, W., et al., “Allium vegetables and reduced risk of stomach cancer,” Jour Natl Cancer Inst 1989; 81(2):162-64.


Youn, H., et al., “Garlic (Allium sativum) extract inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced Toll-like receptors for dimerization,” Bio Psy Bio Technol Bio Chem 2008; 72(2):368-75.


Yu-Yan, Y., et al., “Cholesterol lowering effect of garlic extracts and organosulfur compounds: human and animal studies,” Jour Nutr 2001; 131:989S-993S.




American Ginseng


Adams, L., et al., “Complementary and alternative medicine: applications and implications for cognitive functioning in elderly populations,” Alt Ther 2000; 7(2):52-61.


Andrade, A., et al., “Pharmacokinetic and metabolic effects of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) in healthy volunteers receiving the HIV protease inhibitor indinavir,” BMC Complement Altern Med 2008; 8:50.


Ang-Lee, M., et al., “Herbal medicines and perioperative care,” JAMA 2001; 286(2):208-26.


Barton, D., et al., “Pilot study of Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng) to improve cancer-related fatigue: a randomized, double-blind, dose-finding evaluation: NCCTG trial N03CA,” Support Care Cancer 2010;



Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.


Braun, L., and Cohen, M. Herbs and Natural Supplements, 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.


Carai, M., et al., “Potential use of medicinal plants in the treatment of alcoholism,” Fitoterapia 2000; 71:S38-S42.


Collins, J., What’s Your Menopause Type? Roseville, CA: Prima Publishing, 2000.


Dey, L., et al., “Anti-hyperglycemic effects of ginseng: comparison between root and berry,” Phytomedicine 2003; 10(6-7):600-05.


Dougherty, U., et al., “American ginseng suppresses Western diet-promoted tumorigenesis in model of inflammation-associated colon cancer: role of EGFR,” BMC Complement Altern Med 2011; 11:111.


Fu, Y., et al., “Chronic ginseng consumption attenuates age-associated oxidative stress in rats,” Jour Nutr 2003; 133(11):3603-09.


Heck, A., et al., “Potential interactions between alternative therapies and warfarin,” Amer Jour Health Syst Pharm 2000; 57(13):1221-27.


Hsu, C., et al., “American ginseng supplementation attenuates creatine kinase level induced by submaximal exercise in human beings,” World Jour Gastroenterol 2005; 11(34):5327-31.


Ichikawa, T., et al., “American ginseng preferentially suppresses STAT/iNOS signaling in activated macrophages,” Jour Ethnopharmocal 2009; 125(1):145-50.


Izzo, A., et al., “Interactions between herbal medicines and prescribed drugs: a systematic review,” Drugs 2001; 61(15):2163-75.


Karmazyn, M., et al., “Therapeutic potential of ginseng in the management of cardiovascular disorders,” Drugs 2011; 71(15):1989-2008.


King, M., et al., “Extraction-dependent effects of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium) on human breast cancer cell proliferation and estrogen receptor activation,” Integr Cancer Ther 2006; 5(3):236-43.


Klatz, R., The New Anti-Aging Revolution. Laguna Beach, CA: Basic Health Publications, 2003.


Lyon, M., et al., “Effect of the herbal extract combination Panax quinquefolius and Ginkgo biloba on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a pilot study,” Jour Psychiatry Neurosci 2001; 26(3):221-28.


Mantle, D., et al., “Medicinal plant extracts for the treatment of dementia: a review of their pharmacology, efficacy, and tolerability,” CNS Drugs 2000; 13:201-13.


Mantle, D., et al., “Therapeutic applications of medicinal plants in the treatment of breast cancer: a review of their pharmacology, efficacy and tolerability,” Adverse Drug React Toxicol Rev 2000; 19(3):2223-240.


McElhaney, J., et al. “Efficacy of COLD-fX in the prevention of respiratory symptoms in community-dwelling adults: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled trial,” Jour Altern Complement Med 2006; 12(2):153-57.


Mucalo, I., et al., “Effect of American ginseng (panax quinquefolius L.) on arterial stiffness in subjects with diabetes and concomitant hypertension,” Jour Ethnopharmaco. 2013; 150(1):148-53.


Ossoukhova, A., et al., “Improved working memory performance following administration of a single dose of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) to healthy middle-age adults,” Hum Psychopharmacol 2015 ;30(2):108-22.


Predy, G., et al., “Efficacy of an extract of North American ginseng containing poly-furanosyl-pyranosyl-saccharides for preventing upper respiratory tract infections: a randomized controlled trial,” CMAJ 2005; 173(9):1043-48.


Scholey, A., et al., “Effects of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) on neurocognitive function: an acute, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study,” Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2010; 212(3):345-56.


Sen, S., et al., “Preventative effects of North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium) on diabetic nephropathy.” Phytomedicine. 2012;19(6):494-505.


Sen, S., et al., “Preventative effects of North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium) on diabetic retinopathy and cardiomyopathy,” Phytother Res 2013; 27(2):290-98.


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O'Riordain, M., et al., “Effect of glutamine on immune function in the surgical patient,” Nutrition 1996; 12(11-12 Suppl):S82-S84.


Peng, X., et al., “Clinical and protein metabolic efficacy of glutamine granules-supplemented enteral nutrition in severely burned patients,” Burns 2005; 31(3):342-46.


Pitt, D., et al., “Glutamate excitotoxicity in a model of multiple sclerosis,” Nature Med 2000; 6(1):67-70.


Quan, Z., et al., “Effect of glutamine on change in early postoperative intestinal permeability and its relation to systemic inflammatory response,” World Jour Gastroenterol 2004; 10(13):1992-94.


Rogers, L., et al., “Voluntary alcohol consumption by rats following administration of glutamine,” Jour Biol Chem 1955; 214(2):503-06.


Sahley, B., Heal with Amino Acids and Nutrients. San Antonio, TX: Pain and Stress Publications, 2003.


Shabert, J., The Ultimate Nutrient Glutamine. New York: Avery Publishing Group, 1994.


Smith, P., What You Must Know About Vitamins, Minerals, Herbs, and So Much More. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers, 2020.


Souba, W., “Glutamine and cancer,” Ann Surgery 1993; 218(6):715-28.


Stubblefield, M., et al., “Glutamine as a neuroprotective agent in high-dose paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy: a clinical and electrophysiologic study,” Clin.Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 2005; 17(4):271-76.


Sun, J., et al., “Glutamine for chemotherapy induced diarrhea: a meta-analysis,” Asia Pacific Jour Clin Nutr 2012; 2193):380-85.


Thomas, R., et al., “Perturbation of the glutamate-glutamine system in alcohol dependence and remission,” Neuropsychopharmacol 2011; 36(7):1359-65.


Welbourne, T., et al.., “Increased plasma bicarbonate and growth hormone after an oral glutamine load,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1995; 61(5):1058-61.


Yoshida, S., et al., “Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients,” Nutrition 2001; 17(9):766-68.


Zhong, X., et al., “Intravenous glutamine for severe acute pancreatitis: a meta-analysis,” World Jour Crit Care Med 2013; 2(1):4-8.


Zhou, Y., et al., “The effect of supplemental enteral glutamine on plasma levels, gut function, and outcome in severe burns: a randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial,” JPEN Jour Parenter Enteral Nutr 2003; 27(4):241-45.


Ziegler TR, et al., “Safety and metabolic effects of l-glutamine administration in humans,” Jour Parenteral Enteral Nutr 1990; 14(4 supplement):137S-146S.




Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.


Bland, J., “Nutrients as Biological Response Modifiers,” Applying Functional Medicine in Clinical Practice. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 2002.


Gaby, A., Nutritional Therapy in Medical Practice. Carlisle, PA: Nutrition Seminars, 2003.


Takeda, A. “Manganese action in brain function,” Brain Res Rev 2003; 41(1): 79–87.




Berkson, B., The Alpha Lipoic Acid Breakthrough. Rocklin, CA: Prima Publishing, 1998. 


Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.


Brinkman, M., et al., “Are men with low selenium levels at increased risk of prostate cancer?” Eur Jour Cancer 2006; 42(15):2463-71.


Brown, K., et al., “Selenium, selenoproteins, and human health: a review,” Pub Health Nutr 2001; 4(2B):593-99.


Fillion, M., Natural Prostate Healers. Paramus, NJ: Prentice Hall Press, 1999.


Hurst, R., et al., “Selenium and prostate cancer: systemic review an mea-analysis,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2012; 96(1):111-22.


Packer, L., The Antioxidant Miracle. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1999.


Pelton, R. and LaValle, J., The Nutritional Cost of Drugs, 2nd Ed. Englewood, CO: Morton Publishing Company, 2004.


Rayman, M., “The argument for increased selenium intake,” Proc Nutr Soc 2002; 6192):203-15.


Rayman, M., “The importance of selenium to human health,” Lancet 2000; 356(9225):233-41.


Vitamin A


Allen, L., et al., “Iron supplements: scientific issues concerning efficacy and implications for research and programs,” Jour Nutr 2002; 132 (4 Suppl):813S-819S.


Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group, The, “The effect of vitamin E and β-carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers,” NEJM 1994; 330(15):1029-35.


Aune, D., et al., “Dietary compared with blood concentrations of carotenoids and breast cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2012; 96(2):356-73.


Bellemere, G., et al., “Amazing actions of retinol from molecular to clinical,” Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2009; 22(4):200-09.


Berson, E., et al., “A randomized trial of vitamin A and vitamin E supplementation for retinitis pigmentosa,”Arch Ophthalmol 1993; 111(6):761-72.  


Bitteto, D., et al., “Vitamin A deficiency is associated with hepatitis C virus chronic infection and with unresponsiveness to interferon-based antiviral therapy,” Hepatology 2013; 57(3):925-33.


Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.


Booij, M., et al., “Acitretin revisited in the era of biologics,” Jour Dermatol Treat 2011; 22(2):86-9.


Boucheron-Houston, C., et al., “Long-term vitamin A deficiency induces alteration of adult mouse spermatogenesis and spermatogonial differentiation: direct effect on spermatogonial gene expression and indirect effects via somatic cells,” Jour Nutr Biochem 2013; 24(6):1123-35.


Braun, L., and Cohen, M., (Eds.) Herbs and Natural Supplements. 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.


Brownstein, D., The Miracle of Natural Hormones. West Bloomfield, MI: Medical Alternatives Press, 1999.


Cerhan, J., et al., “A cohort study of diet and prostate cancer risk,” Cancer Epidem Biomark Preven 1998; 7:175.


Chew, E., et al, “Secondary analyses of the effects of lutein/zeaxanthin on age-related macular degeneration progression: AREDS2 report No. 3,” JAMA Ophthalmol 2014; 132(2):142-49. 


Chew, E., et al., “Effect of omega-3 fatty acids, lutein/zeaxanthin, or other nutrient supplementation on cognitive function: the AREDS2 randomized clinical trial,” JAMA 2015; 314:791-801.


Cho, E., et al., “Prospective study of intake of fruits, vegetables, vitamins, and carotenoids and risk of age-related maculopathy,” Arch Ophthalmol 2004; 122(6):883-92.


Christen, W., et al., “A randomized trial of β-carotene and age-related cataract in US physicians,” Arch Ophthalmol 2003; 121(3):372-78. 


Christian, P., et al., “Interactions between zinc and vitamin A: an update,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1998; 68(2 Suppl):435S-441S.


Clinton, S., et al., “Cis-trans isomers of lycopene in the human prostate: a role in cancer prevention?” FASEB Jour 1995; 9:A442.


Crook, T., The Memory Cure. New York, NY: Pocket Books, 1998.


Dai, Z., et al., “Protective effects of dietary carotenoids on risk of hip fracture in men: the Singapore Chinese Health Study,” Jour Bone Miner Res 2014; 29(2):408-17.


D'Odorico, A., et al., “High plasma levels of alpha- and β-carotene are associated with a lower risk of atherosclerosis: results from the Bruneck study,” Atherosclerosis 2000; 153(1):231-39.


Durairajanayagam, D., et al., “Lycopene and male infertility,” Asian Jour Androl 2014; 16(3):420–25.


Dwyer, J., et al., “Progression of carotid intima-media thickness and plasma antioxidants: The Los Angeles Atherosclerosis Study,” Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2004; 24(2):313-19. 


Eliassen, A., et al., “Circulating carotenoids and risk of breast cancer: pooled analysis of eight prospective studies,” Jour Natl Cancer Inst 2012; 104(24):1905-16. 


Evans, J., “Antioxidant supplements to prevent or slow down the progression of AMD: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Eye 2008; 22(6):751-60.


Feskanich, D., et al. “Vitamin A intake and hip fracture among postmenopausal woman,” JAMA 2002; 287(1):47–54.


Friedman, L., “Saffron improves vision in aging humans,” Life Extension July 2016, p. 24-31.

Gale, C., et al., “Lutein and zeaxanthin status and risk of age-related macular degeneration,” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2003; 44(6):2461-65. 


Gann, P., et al., “A phase II randomized trial of lycopene-rich tomato extract among men with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia,” Nutr Cancer 2015; 67(7):1104-12. 


Gey, K., et al., “Low plasma retinol predicts coronary events in healthy middle-aged men: The PRIME Study,” Atherosclerosis 2010; 208(1):270-74.


Gontero, P., et al., “A randomized double-blind placebo controlled phase I-II study on clinical and molecular effects of dietary supplements in men with precancerous prostatic lesions,” Chemoprevention or "chemopromotion"? Prostate 2015; 75(11):1177-86.


Huk, D., et al., “Increased dietary intake of vitamin A promotes aortic valve calcifications in vivo,” Artherioscler Thromb Vas Biol 2013; 33(2):285-93.


Ito, Y., et al., “A population-based follow-up study on mortality from cancer or cardiovascular disease and serum carotenoids, retinol and tocopherols in Japanese inhabitants,” Asian Pac Jour Cancer Prev 2006; 136(7):533-46.


Jang, J., et al., “Kinetic analysis shows that iron deficiency decreases liver vitamin A mobilization in rats,” Jour Nutr 2000; 130(5):1291-96.


Johansson, S., et al., “Vitamin A antagonizes calcium response to vitamin D in man,” Jour Bone Miner Res 2001; 16(10):1899-1905.


Johnson, E., et al., “The role of carotenoids in human health,” Nutr Clin Care 2002; 5(2):56-65.


Kabat, G., et al., “Intake of antioxidant nutrients and risk of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in the women’s Health Initative,” Nutr Cancer 2012; 64(2):245-54.


Key, T., et al.  “Carotenoids, retinol, tocopherols, and prostate cancer risk: pooled analysis of 15 studies,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2015; 102(5):1142-57. 


Kim, E., et al., “A comparison of vitamin A and cyclosporine A 0.05% eye drops for treatment of dry eye syndrome,” Amer Jour Ophthamol 2009; 147(2):206-13.


Krinsky, N., et al., “Carotenoid actions and their relation to health and diseases,” Mol Aspects Med 2005; 26(6):459-516.


Krinsky, N., Vitamin A. Oregon: Linus Pauling Institute, 2002.


Kritchevsky, S., “β-Carotene, carotenoids and the prevention of coronary heart disease,” Jour Nutr 1999; 129(1):5-8. 


Kumar, N., et al., “Results of a randomized clinical trial of the action of several doses of lycopene in localized prostate cancer: administration prior to radical prostatectomy,” Clin Med Urol 2008; 1:1-14.


Leenders, M., et al., “Plasma and dietary carotenoids and vitamins A, C and E and risk of colon and rectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition,” Int Jour Cancer 2014; 135(12):2930-39. 


Leoncini, E., et al., “Carotenoid intake from natural sources and head and neck cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies,” Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2015; 24(7):1003-11.


Li, C., et al., “Serum alpha-carotene concentrations and risk of death among US adults: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Follow-up Study,” Arch Inter Med 2011; 171(6):507-15.


Li, Y., et al., “Lycopene, smoking and lung cancer,” Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 1997; 38:113.

Lieber, C., “Relationships between nutrition, alcohol use, and liver disease,” Alcohol Res Health 2003; 27(3):220-31.


Lieberman, S., The Real Vitamin and Mineral Book. New York, NY: Avery Publishing Group, 1997.


Liu, R., et al., “Lutein and zeaxanthin supplementation and association with visual function in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2015; 56(1):252-58.


Lo-Coco, F., et al., “Retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide for acute promyelocytic leukemia,” NEJM 2013; 369(2):111-21.


Ma, I., et al., “Effect of lutein and zeaxanthin on macular pigment and visual function in patients with early age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmolgy 2012; 119(11):2290-97.


Ma, I., et al., “Improvement of retinal function in early age-related macular degeneration after lutein and zeaxanthin supplementation: a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial,” Amer Jour Ophthalmol 2012; 154(4):625-34.


Ma, l., et al., “Effect of lutein and zeaxanthin on macular pigment and visual function in patients with early age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 2012; 119(11):2290-97.


Mares-Perlman, J., et al., “The body of evidence to support a protective role for lutein and zeaxanthin in delaying chronic disease. Overview,” Jour Nutr 2002; 132(3):518S-524S.


Mason, J., “Vitamins, trace minerals, and other micronutrients.” Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th Ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders; 2011.


Min, K., et al., “Association between leukocyte telomere length and serum carotenoid in US adults,” Eur Jour Nutr 2016.


Mizuno, Y., et al., “Serum vitamin A concentrations in asthmatic children in Japan,” Pediatr Int 2006; 48(3):261-64.


Morris, M., et al., “Associations of vegetable and fruit consumption with age-related cognitive change,” Neurology 2006; 67(8):1370-76. 


Mu, L., et al., “Effects of lutein and zeaxanthin on aspects of eye health,” Jour Sci Food Agric 2010; 90(1):2-12.


Murray, I., et al., “Lutein supplementation over a one-year period in early AMD might have a mild beneficial effect on visual acuity: the CLEAR study,” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2013; 54(3):1781-88.


Neuhouser, M., et al., “Olestra is associated with slight reductions in serum carotenoids but does not markedly influence serum fat-soluble vitamin concentrations,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2006; 83(3):624-31.


Orfanos, C., et al., “Oral retinoids in the treatment of seborrhoea and acne,” Dermatology 1998; 196(1):140-47.


Osganian, S., et al., “Dietary carotenoids and risk of coronary artery disease in women,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2003; 77(6):1390-99.


Paran, E., et al., “Effect of lycopene on blood pressure, serum lipoproteins, plasma homocysteine, and oxidative stress markers in grade I hypertensive patients,” Amer Jour Hyperten 2001; 140–141A, Abstract P-333.


Paran, E., et al., “Effect of lycopene, an oral natural antioxidant, on blood pressure,” Jour Hyperten 2001; 19:S74, Abstract P-1.204.


Pietrizk, K., et al., “Antioxidant, vitamins, cancer, and cardiovascular disease,” NEJM Letter to the Editor 1996; 335(14):1065–66.


Pongeharosen, S., et al., “Protective effect of silk lutein on ultraviolet B-irradiated human keratinocytes,” Biol Res 2013; 46(1):39-45.


Qu, M., et al., “Lycopene prevents amyloid (beta)-Induced mitochondrial oxidative stress and dysfunctions in cultured rat cortical neurons,” Neurochem Res 2016; 41(6):1354-64.


Qu, M., et al., “Protective effects of lycopene against methylmercury-induced neurotoxicity in cultured rat cerebellar granule neurons,” Brain Res 2013; 1540:92-102.


Rao, A., et al., “Role of lycopene as antioxidant carotenoid in the prevention of chronic diseases: a review,” Nutri Res 1999; 19:305-23.


Richer, S., et al., “Double-masked place-controlled, randomized trial of lutein and antioxidant supplementation in the intervention of atrophic age-related macular degeneration: the Veterans LAST study (Lutein Antioxidant Supplementation Trial),” Optometry 2004; 75(4):216-30.


Rissanen, T., et al., “Low plasma lycopene concentration is associated with increased intima-media thickness of the carotid artery wall,” Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2000; 20(12):2677-81. 


Roberts, J., et al., “The photobiology of lutein and zeaxanthin in the eye,” Jour Ophthalmol 2015; 2015:687173.


Ross, A., “Vitamin A.” Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 11th Ed: Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2014, p.260-277.


Russell, R., “The vitamin A spectrum: from deficiency to toxicity,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2000; 71(4):878-84.


Sahni, S., et al., “Protective effect of total carotenoid and lycopene intake on the risk of hip fracture: a 17-year follow-up from the Framingham Osteoporosis Study,” Jour Bone Miner Res 2009; 24(6):1086-94. 


Sasamoto, Y., et al., “Effect of 1-year lutein supplementation on macular pigment optical density and visual function,” Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2011; 249(12):1847-54.


Semba, R., et al. “Vitamin A and immunity to viral, bacterial, and protozoan infections,” Proc Nutr Soc 1999; 58(3):719–27.


Semba, R., et al., “The anemia of vitamin A deficiency: epidemiology and pathogenesis,” Eur Jour Clin Nutr 2002; 56(4):271-81.


Sesso, H., et al., “Plasma lycopene, other carotenoids, and retinol and the risk of cardiovascular disease in women,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2004; 79(1):47-53.


Sibulesky, L., et al., “Safety of <7500 RE (<25000 IU) vitamin A daily in adults with retinitis pigmentosa,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1999; 69(4):656-63.


Sies, H., et al., “Vitamins E, C, beta-carotene, and other carotenoids as antioxidants,” Amer Jour Nutr 995; 62 (6 Supple):1315S-1321S.


Solomons, N. “Vitamin A.” Present Knowledge in Nutrition. 10th Ed, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2012, p.149-84. 


Sugiura, M., et al., “High serum carotenoids associated with lower risk for bone loss and osteoporosis in post-menopausal Japanese female subjects: prospective cohort study,” PLoS One 2012; 7(12):e52643.


Suharno, D., et al., “Supplementation with vitamin A and iron for nutritional anaemia in pregnant women in West Java, Indonesia,” Lancet 1993; 342(8883):1325-28.


Thielitz, A., et al., “Topical retinoids in acne vulgaris: update on efficacy and safety,” Amer Jour Clin Dermatol 2008; 9(6):369-81.


Tyrer, L., “Nutrition and the pill,” Jour Reprod Med 1984; 29(7):S547-S550.


Underwood, B., et al., “The contribution of vitamin A to public health,” Faseb Jour 1996; 10(9):1040-48.


van Poppel, G., et al., “Effect of β-carotene on immunological indexes in healthy male smokers,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1993; 57(3):402-07.


Voutilainen, S., et al., “Carotenoids and cardiovascular health,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2006; 83(6):1265-71. 


Weigert, G., et al., “Effects of lutein supplementation on macular pigment optical density and visual acuity in patients with age-related macular degeneration,” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2011; 52(11):8174-78.


Wu, J., et al., “Intakes of lutein, zeaxanthin, and other carotenoids and age-related macular degeneration during 2 decades of prospective follow-up,” JAMA Ophthalmol 205; 133(12):1415-24.


Yang, H., et al., “Vitamin A for treating measles in children,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011; 2005.


Yilmaz, A., et al., “Adjuvant effect of vitamin A on recurrent lower urinary tract infections,” Pediatr Int 2007; 49(3):3110-13.


Vitamin D


Al Faraj, S., et al., “Vitamin D deficiency and chronic low back pain in Saudi Arabia,” Spine 2003; 28(2):177-9.


Ali, F., et al., “Loss of seizure control due to anticonvulsant-induced hypocalcemia,” Am Pharmacother 2004; 38(6):1002-5.


Armas, L., et al., “Vitamin D2 is much less effective than vitamin D3 in humans,” Jour Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004; 89:5387-391.


Ashtari, F., et al., “The relation between vitamin D status with fatigue and depressive symptoms of multiple sclerosis,” Jour Res Med Sci 2013; 18(3):193-97.


Baird, D., et al., “Vitamin D and risk of uterine fibroids,” Epidemiology 2013; 24(3):447-53.


Bischoff-Ferrari, H., et al., “Fracture prevention with vitamin D supplementation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials,” JAMA, 2005; 293(18):2257-64.


Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.


Borissova, A., et al., “The effect of vitamin D3 on insulin secretion and peripheral insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients,” Int J. Clin Pract 2003; 57(4):258-61.


Borkar, V. et al., “Low levels of vitamin D in North Indian children with newly diagnosed type I diabetes,” Horm Metab Res 2005; 37:680-83.


Bouilon, R., et al., “Vitamin D as potential baseline therapy for blood pressure control,” Amer Jour Hypertens 2009; 22:816.


Braun, L., et al., Herbs & Natural Supplements: An Evidence-Based Guide. 4th Ed. Volume 2. New York: Elsevier, 2015.


Busse, B., et al., “Vitamin D deficiency induces early signs of aging in human bone, increasing the risk of fracture,” Science Transl Med 2013; 5(192):ra88.


Cao, Y., et al., “Association between serum levels of 25(OH) vitamin D and osteoarthritis: a systemic review,” Rheumatology 2013; 52(7):1323-34.


Chiu, K., et al., “Hypovitaminosis D is associated with insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2004; 79:820–25.


Christiansen, C., et al., “Anticonvulsant action of vitamin D in epileptic patients? A controlled pilot study,” Br. Med J. 1974; 2(913):258-9.


Collins, J., What’s Your Menopause Type? Roseville, CA: Prima Publishing, 2000.


Dawson-Hughes, B., et al., “Effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone density in men and women 65 years of age or older,” NEJM 1997; 337(10):670–76.


Dawson-Hughes, B., et al., “Effect of vitamin D supplementation on wintertime and overall bone loss in healthy postmenopausal women,” Ann Intern Med 1991; 115(7):505–12.


de Boer, I., et al., “25-hydroxyvitamin D levels inversely associated with risk for developing coronary artery calcification,” Jour Amer Soc Nephrol 2009; 20:1805-12.


Gagnon, C., et al., “Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, calcium intake, and risk of type 2 diabetes after 5 years: results from a national, population-based prospective study (the Australian Diabetes, Obesity, and Lifestyle study),” Diabetes Care 2011; 34:1133-38.


Garcia-Bailo, B., et al., “Plasma vitamin D and biomarkers of cardiometabolic disease risk in adult Canadians, 2007-2009,” Prev Chronic Dis 2013; June 6, 10:E91.


Garland, C., et al., “What is the dose-response relationship between vitamin D and cancer risk? Nutrition Reviews 2007; 65(8):S91-S95.


Ginde, A., et al., “Demographic differences and trends of vitamin D insufficiency in the U.S. population, 1988-2004,” Arch Intern Med 2008; 169(6):626-32.


Glendenning, P., et al., “Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in vitamin D-insufficient hip fracture patients after supplementation with ergocalciferol and cholecalciferol,” Bone 2009; 45(5):870-75.


Goldberg, P., et al., “Multiple sclerosis: decreased relapse rate through dietary supplementation with calcium, magnesium and vitamin D,” Med Hypotheses, 1986: 21(2):193-200.


Grant, W., et al., “An estimate of premature cancer mortality in the U.S. due to inadequate doses of solar ultraviolet-B radiation,” Cancer 2002; 94(6):1867-75. 


Heaney R., et al., “Vitamin D(3): is more potent than vitamin D(2) in humans,” Jour Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001; 96(3):E447-52.


Holick, M., et al., “Vitamin D and bone health,” Jour Nutr 1996; 126:1159S–1164S.


Holick, M., et al., “Calcium and vitamin D. Diagnostics and therapeutics,” Clin Lab Med 2000; 20(3):569-90. 


Huisman, A., et al., “Vitamin D levels in women with systemic lupus erythematosus and fibromyalgia,” J. Rheumatol 2001; 28(11)2535-9.


Kini, S., et al., “A reversible form of cardiomyopathy,” J. Postgrad Med 2003; 49(1):85-7. 

Lansdown, A., et al., “Vitamin D3 enhances mood in healthy subjects during winter,” Psychopharm 1998; 135(4):319-23.


Lee, J., et al., “Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in patients with acute myocardial infarction,” Amer Jour Cardiol 2011; 107:1636-38.


Leroith, D., “How vitamin D works on bone,” Endocrinol and Metabol Clinics of North Amer 2012; 41(3):567-69.


Littorin, B., et al., “Lower levels of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D among young adults at diagnosis of autoimmune type I diabetes compared with control subjects: results from the nationwide Diabetes Incidence Study in Sweden (DISS),” Diabetologia 22006; 49:2847-52.


Llewellyn, D., et al., “Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentration and cognitive impairment,” Jour Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 2009; 22(3):188-95.


Llewellyn, D., et al., “Vitamin D and cognitive impairment in the elderly U.S. population,” Jour Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 2011; 66A(1):59-65.


Maddock, J., et al., “Vitamin D and common mental disorders in mid-life: cross-sectional and prospective findings,” Clin Nutr 2013; 32(5):758-64.


Matsuoka, L., et al., “Chronic sunscreen use decreases the concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D: a preliminary study,” Arch Dermatol 1988; 124:1802-804.


McAlindon., T., et al., “Relation of dietary intake and serum levels of vitamin D to progression of osteoarthritis of the knee among participants in the Framingham study,” Ann Int Med 1996; 125(5):353-9.


Papadimitropoulos, E., et al., “Meta-analyses of therapies for postmenopausal osteoporosis. VIII: Meta-analysis of the efficacy of vitamin D treatment in preventing osteoporosis in postmenopausal women,” Endocrine Rev 2002; 23(4):560-60.


Pelton, R. and LaValle, J., The Nutritional Cost of Drugs. 2nd Ed. Englewood, CO: Morton Publishing Company, 2004.


Pittas, A., et al., “The role of vitamin D and calcium in type 2 diabetes. A systematic review and meta-analysis.” Jour Cllin Endocrino Metab 2007; 92:2017-29.


Plotnikoff, G., et al., “Prevalence of severe hypovitaminosis D in patients with persistent, nonspecific musculoskeletal pain,” May Clin Proc 2003; 78(12):1463-70.


Romagnoli, E., et al., “Short and long-term variations in serum calciotropic hormones after a single very large dose of ergocalaciferol (vitamin D2) or cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) in the elderly,” Jour Clin Endocrinol Metabol 2008; 93(8):3015-20.


Sabry, M., et al., “Serum vitamin D3 level inversely correlates with uterine fibroid volume in different ethnic groups: a cross-sectional observational study,” Int Jour Women’s Health 2013; 5:93-100.


Schottker, B., et al., “Strong association of 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentrations with all-cause, cardiovascular, cancer, and respiratory disease mortality in a large cohort study,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2013; 97(4):782-93.


Scragg, R., et al., “Myocardial infarction is inversely associated with plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels: a community-based study,” Int J. Epidemiol 1990; 19(3):559-63.


Shahbeigi, S., et al., “Vitamin D3 concentration correlates with the severity of multiple sclerosis,” Int Jour Prev Med 2013; 4(5):585-91.


Sorensen, O., et al., “Myopathy in bone loss of ageing improvement by treatment with 1 alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol and calcium,” Clin Sci (London) 1979; 56(2):157-61.


Thomas, G., et al., “Vitamin D levels predict all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in subjects with the metabolic syndrome: the Ludwigshafen Risk and Cardiovascular Health (LURIC) study,” Diabetes Care 2012; 35:1158-64.


Thys-Jacob S., Vitamin D and calcium in menstrual migraine,” Headache 1994; 34(9):544-


Thys-Jacobs, S., et al., “Vitamin D and calcium dysregulation in the polycystic ovarian syndrome,” Steroids 1999; 64(6):430-5.


Toffanello, E., et al., “Vitamin D deficiency predicts cognitive decline in older men and women: The Pro.V.A. Study,” Neurology 2014; 83(24):2292-98.


Trang, H., et al., “Evidence that vitamin D3 increases serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D more efficiently than does vitamin D2.” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1998; 68:854-58.


Van de Berge, G., et a., “Bone turnover in prolonged critical illness: effect of vitamin D,” J. Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003; 88(10):4623-32. 


Vasquez, A., et al., “The clinical importance of vitamin D (cholecalciferol): a paradigm shift with implications for all healthcare providers,” Alternative Therapies 2004; 10(5):35.


Woeckel, V., et al., “1alpha,25(OH)2D3 acts in the early phase of osteoblast differentiation to enhance mineralization via accelerated production of mature matrix vesicles,” Jour Cell Physiol 2010; 225(2):593-600.


Wolden-Kirk, H., et al., “Extraskeletal Effects of Vitamin D.” Osteoporosis: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics 2012; 41(3):571-94.


Yoshida, T., et al., “How Vitamin D Works on Bone.” Osteoporosis: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics 2012; 41(3):557-69.


Yousef, F., et al., “Vitamin D status and breast cancer in Saudi Arabian Women: case control study,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2013; 9(1):105-10.


Zempleni, J., et al. Handbook of Vitamins, 5th Edition. New York: CRC Press, 2014.


Zittermann, A., et al., “Low vitamin D status: a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of congestive heart failure?” J. Am Coll Cardiol, 2003; 41:105-12.




Anderson, R., et al., “Potential antioxidant effects of zinc and chromium supplementation in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Jour Amer Coll Nutr 2001; 20(3):212-18.


Baum, M., et al., “Zinc status in human immunodeficiency virus infection,” Jour Nutr 2000; 130(5S Suppl):1421S-1423S. 


Bland, J., “Nutrients as Biological Response Modifiers.” Applying Functional Medicine in Clinical Practice. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 2002.


Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.


Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. “Zinc.” In Dietary reference intakes for vitamin A, vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium, and zinc. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press; 2001:442-501.


Gaby, A., Nutritional Therapy in Medical Practice. Carlisle, PA: Nutrition Seminars, 2003.

Jackson, J., et al., “Zinc and the common cold: a meta-analysis revisited,” Jour Nutr 2000; 130(5S Suppl):1512S-1515S.


Jyawardena, R., et al., “Effects of zinc supplementation on diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and metanalysis,” Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome 2012; 4:13. 


Mocchegiani, E., et al., “Therapeutic application of zinc in human immunodeficiency virus against opportunistic infections,” Jour Nutr 2000; 130(5S Suppl):1424S-1431S. 


O'Dell, B., “Role of zinc in plasma membrane function,” Jour Nutr 2000; 130(5S Suppl):1432S-1436S. 


Pelton, R. and LaValle, J., The Nutritional Cost of Drugs, 2nd Ed. Englewood, CO: Morton Publishing Company, 2004.


Prasad, A., “Clinical, immunological, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant roles of zinc,” Exp Gerontol 2008; 43(5):370-77. 


Prasad, A., “Duration of symptoms and plasma cytokine levels in patients with the common cold treated with zinc acetate. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,” Ann Intern Med 2000; 133(4):245-52.


Prasad, A., “Zinc deficiency in humans: a neglected problem,” Jour Amer Coll Nutr 1998; 17(6):542-43.


Prasad, A., “Zinc in human health: effect of zinc on immune cells,” Mol Med 2008; 14(5-6):353-57. 


Schulman, R., Solve It With Supplements. New York: Rodale, Inc. 2007.


Smith, W., et al., “Dietary antioxidants and age-related maculopathy: the Blue Mountains Eye Study,” Ophthalmology 1999; 106(4):761-67.


Tan, J., et al., “Dietary antioxidants and the long-term incidence of age-related macular degeneration: the Blue Mountains Eye Study,” Ophthalmology 2008; 115(2):334-41. 


van Leeuwen, R., et al., “Dietary intake of antioxidants and risk of age-related macular degeneration,” JAMA 2005; 294(24):3101-07. 


VandenLangenberg, G., et al., “Associations between antioxidant and zinc intake and the 5-year incidence of early age-related maculopathy in the Beaver Dam Eye Study,” Amer Jour Epidemiol 1998; 148(2):204-14. 


Wapnir, R., “Zinc deficiency, malnutrition and the gastrointestinal tract,” Jour Nutr 2000; 130(5S Suppl):1388S-1392S. 



Beta Glucans


Akramiene, D., et al., “Effects of beta-glucans on the immune system,” Medicina (Kaunas) 2007; 43(8):597-606.


Albeituni, S., et al., “The effects of B-glucans on dendritic cells and implications for cancer therapy,” Anticancer Agents Med Chem 2013; 13(5):689-98.


Bowe, W., “Cosmetic benefits of natural ingredients: Mushrooms, feverfew, tea, and wheat complex,” Jour Drugs Dermatol 2013; 12(9 Suppl):S133-S136.


Bowe, W., et al., “Cosmetic benefits of natural ingredients,” Jour Drugs Dermatol 2014; 13(9):1021-25.


Chan, G., et al., “The effects of beta-glucan on human immune and cancer cells,” Jour Hematol Oncol 2009; 2:25.


Du, B., et al., “Skin health promotion effects of natural beta-glucan derived from cereals and microorganisms: A review,” Phytother Res 2014; 28(2):159-66.


Kogan, G., et al., “Yeast cell wall polysaccharides and antioxidants and antimutagens: Can they fight cancer?” Neoplasma 2008; 55(5):387-93.


Murphy, E., et al., “Immune modulating effect of B-glucan,” Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2010; 13(6):656-61.


Pan, P., et al., “The immunomodulatory potential of natural compounds in tumor-bearing mice and humans,” Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2019; 59(6):992-1007.


Volman, J., et al., “Dietary modulation of immune function by beta-glucans,” Physiol Behav 2008; 94(2):276-84.


Whitehead, A., et al., “Cholesterol-lowering effects of oat B-glucan: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2014; 100(6):1413-21.


Xiang, D., et al., “Anti-tumor monoclonal antibodies in conjunction with B-glucans: A novel anti-cancer immunotherapy,” Curr Med Chem 2012; 19(25):4298-305.




“The anti-aging effects of carnosine,” Life Extensions 2003; January.


Babizhayev, M., et al., “Efficacy of n-acetylcysteine in the treatment of cataracts,” Drugs RD 2002; 3(2):87-103.


Babizhayev, M., et al., “L-carnosine modulates respiratory burst and reactive oxygen species production in neutrophil biochemistry and function: May oral dosage form of non-hydrolized dipeptide L-carnosine complement anti-infective anti-influenza flu treatment, prevention and self-care as an alternative to the conventional vaccination,” Curr Clin Pharmacol 2014; 9(2):93-115.


Babizhayev, M., et al., “Lipid peroxidation and cataracts: n-acetyl-carnosine as a therapeutic tool to manage age-related cataracts in human and canine eyes,” Drugs RD 2004; 5(3):125-39.


Babizhayev, M., et al., “Management of the virulent influenza virus infection by oral formulation of nonhydrolyzed carnosine and isopeptide of carnosine-attenuating proinflammatory cytokine-induced nitric oxide production,” Amer Jour Ther 2012; 1991):e25-47.


Babizhayev, M., et al., “Non-hydrolyzed in digestive tract and blood natural L-carnosine peptide (“Bioactivated Jewish Penicillin’) as a panacea of tomorrow for various flu ailments: Signaling activity attenuating nitric oxide (NO) production, cytostasis, and NO-dependent inhibition of influenza virus replication in macrophages in the human body infected with the virulent swine influenza A (HINI) virus,” Jour Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 2013; 24(1):1-26.


Boldynev, A., et al., “The antioxidative properties of carnosine, a natural histidine containing dipeptide,” Biochem Int 1987; 15:1105-13.


Boldyrev, A., et al., “Biochemical and physiological evidence that carnosine is an endogenous neuroprotector against free radicals,” Cell Mol Neurobiol 1997; 17(2):259-71.


Boldyrev, A., et al., “Carnosine protects against excitotoxic cell death independently of effects on reactive oxygen species,” Neuroscience 1999; 94(2):571-77.


Brownson, C., et al., “Carnosine reacts with a glycated protein,” Free Radic Biol Med 2000; 28(10):1564-70.


Bulygina, E., et al., “Effect of carnosine on age-induced changes in senescence-accelerated mice,” Jour Anti-Aging Med 1999; 2(4):337-42.


Gulyaeva, N., “Superoxide-scavenging activity of carnosine in the presence of copper and zinc ions,” Biochemistry (Moscow) 1987; 52(7 Part 2):1051-54.


Hipkiss, A., et al., “Carnosine protects proteins against methylglyoxal-mediated modifications,” Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1998; 248(1):28-32.


Hipkiss, A., et al., “Non-enzymatic glycosylation of the dipeptide L-carnosine, a potential anti-protein-cross-linking agent,” FEBS Lett 1995; 371(1):81-5.


Hipkiss, A., et al., “Pluripotent protective effects of carnosine, a naturally occurring dipeptide,” Ann NY Acad Sci 1998; 854:37-53.


Hipkiss, A., et al., “Protective effects of carnosine against malondialdehyde-induced toxicity towards cultured rat brain endothelial cells,” Neurosci Lett 1997; 238(3):135-38.


Horning, M., et al., “Endogenous mechanisms of neuroprotection: role of zinc, copper, and carnosine,” Brain Res 2000; 852(1):56-61.


Nagai, K., et al., “Action of carnosine and beta-alanine on wound healing,” Surgery 1986; 100(5):815-21.


Preston, J., et al., “Toxic effects of beta-amyloid (25-35) on immortalised rat brain endothelial cell: protection by carnosine, homocarnosine and beta-alanine,” Neurosci Lett 1998; 242(2):105-08.


Price, D., et al., “Chelating activity of advanced glycation end-product inhibitors,” Jour Bio Chem 2001; 276:48967-72.


Quinn, P., et al., “Carnosine: its properties, functions, and potential therapeutic applications,” Mol Aspects Med 1992; 13:379-44.


Ririe, D., et al., “Vasodilatory actions of the dietary peptide carnosine,” Nutrition 2000; 16:168-72.


Roberts, O., “Dietary peptides improve wound healing following surgery,” Nutrition 1998; 14:266-69.


Sahley, B., Heal with Amino Acids and Nutrients. San Antonio, TX: Pain and Stress Publications, 2000.


Stvolinsky, S., et al., “Anti-ischemic activity of carnosine,” Biochem (Masc) 2000; 65:849-55.


Stvolinsky, S., et al., “Carnosine: an endogenous neuroprotector in the ischemic brain,” Cell Mol Neurobiol 1999; 19(1):45-56.


Wang, A., et al., “Use of carnosine as a natural anti-senescence drug for human beings,” Biochem (Masc) 2000; 65:869-71.




Braun, L., Colostrum. In Herbs and Natural Supplements. 4th Ed., Australia: Churchill Livingstone, 2015.


Brinkworth, G., et al., “Concentrated bovine colostrum protein supplementation reduces the incidence of self-reported symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection in adult males,” Eur Jour Nutr 2003; 42:228-32.


Cesarone, M., et al., “Prevention of influenza episodes with colostrum compared with vaccination in healthy and high-risk cardiovascular subjects: the epidemiologic study in San Valentino,” Clin Appl Thromb Hemost 2007; 13(2):130-36.


Choi, H., et al., “Antioxidant activity of a bovine colostrum in intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injured rat model,” Jour Emerg Med 2007; 33(3):337-38.


Choi, H., et al., “Bovine colostrum prevents bacterial translocation in an intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injured rat model,” Jour Med Food 2009; 12(1):37.


Crooks, C., et al., “Effect of bovine colostrum supplementation salivary IgA in distance runners,” Int Jour Sport Nutri & Exerc Metab 2006; 16:47-64.


Davidson, G., et al., “Passive immunization of children with bovine colostrum containing antibodies to human rotavirus,” Lancet 1989; 2:709-12.


Doillon, C., et al., “Modulatory effect of a complex fraction derived from colostrum on fibroblast contractility and consequences on tissue,” Int Wound Jour 2011; 8:280-90.


Floren, C., et al., “ColoPlus, a new product based on bovine colostrum, alleviates HIV-associated diarrhea,” Scand Jour Gastroenterol 2006; 41:682-86.


Hammon, H., et al., “Lactation biology symposium: Role of colostrum and colostrum components on glucose metabolism in neonatal calves,” Jour Anim Sci 2013; 91:685-95.


Jensen, G., et al., “A novel extract from bovine colostrum whey supports innate immune functions. II. Rapid changes in cellular immune function in humans,” Prev Med 2012; 54:5124-29.


Kim, J., et al., “Combined effects of bovine colostrum and glutamine in diclofenac-induced bacterial translocation in rat,” Clin Nutr 2005a; 24:785-93.


Kim, J., et al., “Protective effects of bovine colostrum on non-steroidal and anti-inflammatory drug induced intestinal damage in rats,” Asia Pac Jour Clin Nutr 2005b; 14:103-07.


Klatz, R., The New Anti-Aging Revolution. Laguna Beach, CA: Basic Health Publications, 2003.

Korhomen, H., et al., “Bovine milk antibodies for health,” Brit jour Nutr 2000; 84(Suppl 1):S136-S146.


Marcuzzi, A., et al., “Presence of Il-9 in paired samples of human colostrum and transitional milk,” Jour Hum Lact 2013; 29(1):26-31.


Mir, R., et al., “Structural and binding studies of C-terminal half (C-lobe) of lactoferrin protein with COX-2 specific non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs),” Arch Biochem Biophys 2010; 5:196-202.


Pacyna, J., et al., “Survival of rotavirus antibody activity derived from bovine colostrum after portage through the human gastrointestinal tract,” Jour Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2001; 32:162-67.


Playford, R., et al., “Co-administration of the health food supplement bovine colostrum, reduces the acute non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced increase intestinal permeability,” Clin Sci (Lond) 2001; 100:627-33.


Playford, R., et al., “Colostrum and mild-derived peptide growth factors for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2000; 72(3):5-14.


Plettenberg, A., et al., “A preparation from bovine colostrum in the treatment of IV-positive patients with chronic diarrhea,” Clin Invest 1993; 71:42-45.


Rathe, M., et al., “Clinical application of bovine colostrum therapy: a systematic review,” Nutr Rev 2014; 72(4):237-54.


Rump, J., et al., “Treatment of diarrhea in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with immunoglobulin from bovine colostrum” Clin Investig 1992; 79:388-94.


Sarker, S., et al., “Successful treatment of rotavirus diarrhea in children with immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with immunoglobulins from bovine colostrum,” Pediatr Infect Dis Jour 1998; 17:1149-54.


Shing, C., et al., “The influence of bovine colostrum supplementation on exercise performance in highly trained cyclists,” Brit Jour Sports Med 2006; 40(9):97-801.


Smith, P., What You Must Know About Vitamins, Minerals, Herbs and So Much More. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers, 2020.


Tacker, C., et al., “Efficacy of bovine milk immunoglobulin concentrate in preventing illness after Shigella flexneri challenge,” Amer Jour Trop Med Hyg 1992; 47:276-83.


Ylitalo, S., et al., “Rotaviral antibodies in the treatment of acute rotaviral gastroenteritis,” Acta Paediatr 1998; 87:264-67.




Asher, B., et al., “Oxidative stress and low glutathione in common ear, nose, and throat conditions: A systemic review,” Altern Therp Health Med 2016; 22(5):44-50.


Burnham, E., et al., “The relationship between airway antioxidant levels, alcohol use disorders,, and cigarette smoking,” Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2016; Sept 14 (Epub ahead of print).


Choi, I., et al., “Longitudinal changes of cerebral glutathione (GSH) levels associated with clinical course of disease progression in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis,” Multiple Sclerosis 2016.


James, S., et al., “Metabolic biomarkers of increased oxidative stress and impaired methylation capacity in children with autism,” Amer Jour Clin Nutri 2004; 80(6):1611-17.


Kern, J., et al., "A clinical trial of glutathione supplementation in autism spectrum disorders." Med Sci Monit 2011; 17(12):CR677-82.


Klatz, R., The New Anti-Aging Revolution. North Bergen, New Jersey: Basic Health Publications, 2003.


Lang, C., et al., “Low blood glutathione levels in healthy aging adults,” Jour Lab Clin Med 1992; 20(5):720-25.


Loguercio, C., et al., “Glutathione supplementation improves oxidative damage in experimental colitis," Dig Liver Dis 2003; 35(9):635-41.


Misckley, L., et al., “Central nervous system uptake of intranasal glutathione in Parkinson’s disease,” NPJ Parkinson’s Disease 2016; 2:16002.


Pastore, A., et al., “Analysis of glutathione: implication in redox and detoxification,” Clin Chim Acta 2003; 333(1):19-39.


Perlmutter, D., Naples, Florida: The Perlmutter Health Center, 2000.


Pierce, S, et al., Multiple Sclerosis in Rakel, D., Integrative Medicine, 24th Ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier, 2012.


Rahman, I., et al., “Oxidative stress and regulation of glutathione in lung inflammation,” Eur Respir Jour 2000; 16(3):534-54.


Ramires, P., et al., "Glutathione supplementation and training increases myocardial resistance to ischemia-reperfusion in vivo,” Amer Jour Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2001; 281(2):H679-88.


Sahley, B., Heal with Amino Acids and Nutrients. San Antonio, TX: Pain and Stress Publications, 2003.


Sinha, S., et al., “Improvement of glutathione and total antioxidant status with yoga,” Jour Altern Complement Med 2007; 13910):1085-90.


Wu, G., et al., "Glutathione metabolism and its implications for health," Jour Nutr 2004; 134(3):489-92.




Alumkal, J., et al., “A phase II study of sulforaphane-rich broccoli sprout extracts in men with recurrent prostate cancer,” Invest New Drugs 2015; 33(2):480-89.


Bahadoran, Z., et al., “Broccoli sprouts reduce oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes: A randomized double-blind clinical trial,” Eur Jour Clin Nutr 2011, 65, 972–977.


Bahadoran, Z., et al., “Effect of broccoli sprouts on insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients: A randomized double-blind clinical trial,” Int Jour Food Sci Nutr 2012; 63:767–71.


Brown, R., et al., “Sulforaphane improves the bronchoprotective response in asthmatics through Nrf2-mediated gene pathways,” Respir Res 2015; 16:106.


Chang, Y, et al., “The effects of broccoli sprout extract containing sulforaphane on lipid peroxidation and helicobacter pylori infection in the gastric mucosa,” Gut Liver 2015; 9: 486–93.


Durham, A., et al., “The anti-inflammatory effects of sulforaphane are not mediated by the Nrf2 pathway,” Eur Resp Jour 2014; 44:P3332.


Fahey J., et al., “Sulforaphane bioavailability from glucoraphanin-rich broccoli: Control by active endogenous myrosinase,” PLoS One 2015; 10(11):e0140963.


Fahey, J., et al., “Bioavailability of sulforaphane following ingestion of glucoraphanin-rich broccoli sprout and seed extracts with active myrosinase: A pilot study of the effects of proton pump inhibitor administration,” Nutrients 2019; 11(7):E1489.


Ferreira, P., et al., “Cruciferous vegetables as antioxidative, chemopreventive and antineoplastic functional foods: Preclinical and clinical evidences of sulforaphane against prostate cancers,” Curr Pharm Des 2018; 24(40):4779-93.


Furuya, A., et al., “Sulforaphane inhibits HIV infection of macrophages through Nrf2,” PLoS Pathog 2016; 12(4):e1005581.


Galan, M., et al., “Oral broccoli sprouts for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection: A preliminary report,” Dig Dis Sci 2004; 49:1088–90.


Haristoy, X., et al., “Efficacy of sulforaphane in eradicating helicobacter pylori in human gastric xenografts implanted in nude mice,” Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2002; 47(12):3982-84.


Heiss, E., et al., “Nuclear factor kappa B is a molecular target for sulforaphane-mediated anti-inflammatory mechanisms,” Jour Biol Chem 2001; 276:32008-015.


Houghton, C., “Sulforaphane: Its ‘coming of age’ as a clinically relevant nutraceutical in the prevention and treatment of chronic Disease,” Oxid Med Cell Longev 2019: 2716870.


Houghton, C., et al., “Sulforaphane: Transitional research from laboratory bench to clinic,” Nutr Rev 2013; 71(11):709-26.


Hyun, T., “A recent overview on sulforaphane as a dietary epigenetic modulator,” EXCLI Jour 2020; 19:131-34.


James, D., et al., “Novel concepts of broccoli sulforaphanes and disease: Induction of phase II antioxidant and detoxification enzymes by enhanced-glucoraphanin broccoli,” Nutr Rev 2012; 70(11):654-65.


Kensler, T., et al., “Modulation of the metabolism of airborne pollutants by glucoraphanin-rich and sulforaphane-rich broccoli sprout beverages in Qidong, China,” Carcinogenesis 2012; 33:101-07.


Kikuchi, M., et al., “Sulforaphane-rich broccoli sprout extract improves hepatic abnormalities in male subjects,” World Jour Gastroenterol 2015; 21(43):12457-67.


Kim, H., et al., “Nrf2 activation by sulforaphane restores the age-related decrease of T(H)1 immunity: role of dendritic cells,” Jour Allergy Clin Immunol 2008; 121:1255-61.


Li, Y., et al., “Sulforaphane, a dietary component of broccoli/broccoli sprouts, inhibits breast cancer stem cells,” Clin Cancer Res 2010; 16(9):2580-90.


Li, Z., et al., “Natural sulforaphane from broccoli seeds against influenza A Virus replication in MDCK Cells,” Natural Product Comm 2019; 1-8.


Lynch, R., et al., “Sulforaphane from broccoli reduces symptoms of autism: A follow-up case series from a randomized double-blind study.,” Glob Adv Health Med 2017; 6:2164957X17735826.


Miller, L., et al., “Effect of broccoli sprouts and live attenuated influenza virus on peripheral blood natural killer cells: A randomized, double-blind study,” PLoS One 2016; 11(1):e0147742.


Murashima, M., et al., “Phase 1 study of multiple biomarkers for metabolism and oxidative stress after one-week intake of broccoli sprouts,” Biofactors 2004; 22:271–75.


Noah, T., et al., “Effect of broccoli sprouts on nasal response to live attenuated influenza virus in smokers: a randomized, double-blind study,” PLoS One 2014; 9(6):e98671.


Patel, V., et al., “Dietary antioxidants significantly attenuate hyperoxia-induced acute inflammatory lung injury by enhancing macrophage function via reducing the accumulation of airway HMGB1,” Int Jour Mol Sci 2020; 21(3).


Sun, Y., et al., “Protective effects of sulforaphane on type 2 diabetes-induced cardiomyopathy via AMPK-mediated activation of lipid metabolic pathways and NRF2 function,” Metabolism 2020; 102:154002.


Sun, Z., et al., “Protective mechanism of sulforaphane in Nrf2 and anti-lung injury in ARDS rabbits,” Exp Ther Med 2018; 15:4911-15.


Tsan, M., et al., “Heat shock proteins and immune system,” Jour Leukoc Biol 2009; 85:905-10.


Vanduchova, A., et al., “Isothiocyanate from broccoli, sulforaphane, and its properties,” Jour Med Food 2019; 22(2):121-26.


Wyler, E., et al., “Single-cell RNA-sequencing of herpes simplex virus 1-infected cells connects NRF2 activation to an antiviral program,” Nat Commun 2019; 10:4878.


Yagishita, Y., et al., “Broccoli or sulforaphane: Is it the source or dose that matters?” Molecules 2019; 24(19):3593.


Yanaka, A., et al., “Dietary sulforaphane-rich broccoli sprouts reduce colonization and attenuate gastritis in Helicobacter pylori-infected mice and humans,” Cancer Prev Res 2009; 2:353–60.


Yu, J., et al., “Sulforaphane suppresses hepatitis C virus replication by up-regulating heme oxygenase-1 expression through PI3K/Nrf2 pathway,” PLoS One 2016; 11(3):e0152236.



Aloe Vera


Atherton, P., “Aloe vera revisited,” Brit Jour Phytother1998; 4:76–83.


Bosley, C., et al., “A phase III trial comparing an anionic phospholipid-based (APP) cream and aloe vera-based gel in the prevention and treatment of radiation dermatitis,” Int Jour Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2003; 57:S4–S38.


Braun, L., and Cohen, M. Herbs and Natural Supplements, 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.


Chalaprawat, M., et al., “The hypoglycemic effects of aloe vera in Thai diabetic patients.” Jour Clin Epidemiol 1997; 50(1):3S–45S.


Chithra, R., et al., “Influence of aloe vera on collagen characteristics in healing dermal wounds in rats,” Mol Cell Biochem1998; 181:71–6.


Choonhakarn, C., et al., “A perspective, randomized clinical trial comparing topical aloe vera with 0.1% triamcinolone acetonide in mild to moderate plaque psoriasis,” Jour Eur Acad Derm Venereol 2010; 24(2):168-72.


Davis, K., et al., “Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of aloe vera for irritable bowel syndrome,” Int Jour Clin Pract 2006; 60(9):1080-86.


Fulton, J., “The stimulation of postdermabrasion wound healing with stabilized aloe vera gel-polyethylene oxide dressing,” Jour Dermatol Surg Oncol 1990; 16:460–67.


Furukawa, F., et al., “Chemopreventive effects of Aloe arborescens on N-nitrosobis (2-oxopropyl) amine-induced pancreatic carcinogenesis in hamsters,” Cancer Lett2002; 178:117–22.


Grover, J., et al., “Medicinal plants of India with anti-diabetic potential,” Jour Ethnopharmacol 2002; 81(1):81-100.


Haggers, J., et al., “Beneficial effects of Aloe in wound healing,” Phytother Res 1993; 7:S48-S52.


Hajheydari, Z., et al., “Effect of Aloe vera topical gel combined with tretinoin in treatment of mild and moderate acne vulgaris: a randomized, double-blind, prospective trail,” Jour Dermatol Treat 2014; 25(2):123-29.


Hayes, S., “Lichen planus: A report of successful treatment with aloe,” Gen Dent1999; 47:268–72.


Heggers, J., et al., “Beneficial effect of aloe on wound healing in an excisional wound model,” Jour Altern Complement Med1996; 2:271–77.


Heggers, J., et al., “Beneficial effects of Aloe in wound healing,” Phytoher Res 1993, 7:S48–S52.


Hutter, J., et al. “Anti-inflammatory C-glucosyl chromone from Aloe barbadensis,” Jour Nat Prod 1996; 59:541–43.


Im, S., et al., “In vivo evidence of the immunomodulatory activity of orally administered aloe vera gel,” Arch Pharm Res 2010; 33(3):451-56.


Ishii, Y., et al., “Studies of aloe. V: Mechanism of cathartic effect,” Biol Pharm Bull1994; 17:651–53.


Kirshnon, P., “The scientific study of herbal wound healing therapies: Current state of play,” Curr Anaes Crit Care 2006; 17(1-2):21-27.



Klatz, R., The New Anti-Aging Revolution. Laguna Beach, CA: Basic Health Publications, 2003.


Langmead, L., et al. “Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of oral aloe vera gel for active ulcerative colitis,” Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2004; 19:739–47.


Maddock-Jennings, W., et al., “Novel approaches to radiotherapy-induced skin reactions: a literature review,” Complement Ther Clin Pract 2005; 11(4):224-31.


Maenthalsong, R., et al., “The efficacy of aloe vera used for burn wound healing. A systemic review,” Burns 2007; 33(6):713-18.


McCarty, M., “Glucomannan minimizes the postprandial insulin surge: a potential adjuvant for hepatothermic therapy,” Med Hypothesis 2002; 58(6):487-90.


McCauley, R., “Frostbite: Methods to minimize tissue loss,” Postgrad Med 1990; 88:67–8.


Montaner, J., et al., “Double-blind placebo-controlled pilot trial of acemannan in advanced human immunodeficiency virus disease,” Jour Acquir Immune Defic Syn Hum Retrovirol1996; 12:153–57.


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American Skullcap


Awad, R., et al., “Phytochemical and biological analysis of skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora L.): a medicinal plant with anxiolytic properties,” Phytomed 2003; 10(8):640-49.


Brock, C., et al., “American Skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora): a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study of its effects on mood in healthy volunteers,” Phytother Res 2014; 28(5):692-98.


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Zhang, Z., et al., “Characterization of chemical ingredients and anticonvulsant activity of American skullcap,” Phytomedicine 2009; 16:485-93.





Abdel-Tawab, M., “Boswellia serrata: an overall assessment of in vitro, preclinical, pharmacokinetic and clinical data,” Clin Pharmacokinet 2011; 50(6):349-69.


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Cayenne Pepper


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Yoshioka, M., et al., “Effects of red pepper added to high-fat and high-carbohydrate meals on energy metabolism and substrate utilization in Japanese women,” Brit Jour Nutr 1998; 80(6):503–10.


Chinese Skullcap


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Hui, K., et al., “Anxiolytic effect of wogonin, a benzodiazepine receptor ligand isolated from Scutellaria baicalensis Gorgi,” Biochem Pharmacol 2002; 64(9):1415-24.


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Kubo, M., et al., “Scutellaria radix. X: Inhibitory effects of various flavonoids on histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells in vitro,” Chem Pharm Bull 1984; 32(12):5051-54.


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Lin, C., et al., “In vivo hepatoprotective effect of baicalin, balcalein and wogonin from Scutellaria rivularis,” Phytother Res 1996; 10(8):451-64.


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Narita, Y., et al., “Treatment of epileptic patients with the Chinese herbal medicine ‘Saiko-Keishi-To’ SK,” IRCS Sci 1982; 10(2):88-9.


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Sarris, J., et al., “Herbal medicine for depression, anxiety and insomnia: a review of psychopharmacology and clinical evidence,” Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2011; 21(12):841-60.


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Shen, Y., et al., “Mechanisms in mediating the anti-inflammatory effects of baicalin and balcalein in human leukocytes,” Eur Jour Pharmacol 2003; 465(1-2):171-81.


Takizawa, H., et al., “Prostaglandin 12 contributes to the vasodepressor effect of baicalein in hypertensive rats,” Hypertension 1998; 31(3):866-71.


Yamashiki, M., et al., “Herbal medicine sho-saiko-to induces in vitro granulocytes colony-stimulating factor production on peripheral blood mononuclear cells,” Jour Clin Lab Immunol 1992; 3792):83-90.




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Aggarwal, B., et al., “Curcumin suppresses the paclitaxel-induced nuclear factor kappaB pathway in breast cancer cells and inhibits lung metastasis of human breast cancer in nude mice,” Clin Cancer Res 2005; 11: 7490-98.


Aggarwal, B., et al., “Curcumin: The Indian solid gold,” Adv Exp Med Biol 2007; 595:1-75.


Aggarwal, B., et al., “Potential therapeutic effects of curcumin, the anti-inflammatory agent, against neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, pulmonary, metabolic, autoimmune and neoplastic diseases,” Int Jour Biochem Cell Biol 2009; 41:40-59.


Aggarwal, S., et al., “Inhibition of growth and survival of human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells by curcumin via modulation of nuclear factor-kB signaling,” Int Jour Cancer 2004; 111: 679-92.


Aravindan, N., et al., “Curcumin inhibits NF-kappa B mediated radioprotection and modulates apoptosis related genes in human neuroblastoma cells,” Cancer Biol Ther 2008, 7: 569-76.


Baum, L., et al., “Curcumin effects on blood lipid profile in a 6-month human study,” Pharmacol Res 2007; 56:509-14.


Bengmark, D., “Curcumin, a toxic antioxidant and natural NFkappa B, cyclooxygenase-2, lipoxygenase, and inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor: a shield against acute and chronic disease,” Jour Paenter Enteral Nutr 2006; 31(1):45-51.


Bharti, A., et al., “Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) down-regulates the constitutive activation of nuclear factor-kappa B and IkappaBalpha kinase in human multiple myeloma cells, leading to suppression of proliferation and induction of apoptosis,” Blood 2003; 101:1053-62.


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Bundy, R., et al., “Tumeric extract may improve irritable bowel syndrome symptomology in otherwise healthy adults: a pilot study,” Jour Altern Complement Med 2004; 10(66):1015-18.


Cao, Y., et al., “Therapeutic targets of multiple angiogenic factors for the treatment of cancer and metastasis,” Adv Cancer Res 2007; 97: 203-24.


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Chan, M., et al., “In vivo inhibition of nitric oxide synthase gene expression by curcumin, a cancer preventive natural product with anti-inflammatory properties,” Biochem Pharmacol 1998; 55:1955-62.


Chattopadhyay, I., et al., “Turmeric and curcumin: Biological actions and medicinal applications,” Curr Sci 2004; 87:44-50.


Chiu, J., et al., “Curcumin prevents diabetes associated abnormalities in the kidneys by inhibiting p300 and nuclear factor-kappaB,” Nutrition 2009; 25:964-72.


Chuang, S., et al., “Basal levels and patterns of anticancer drug-induced activation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB), and its attenuation by tamoxifen, dexamethasone, and curcumin in carcinoma cells,” Biochem Pharmacol 2002; 63: 709-16.


Elattar, T., et al., “The inhibitory effect of curcumin, genistein, quercetin and cisplatin on the growth of oral cancer cells in-vitro,” Anticancer Res 2000; 20:1733-38.


Fiorillo, C., et al., “Curcumin protects cardiac cells against ischemia reperfusion injury: effects on oxidative stress, NF-kappaB and JNK pathways,” Free Radic Biol Med 2008; 45: 839-46.


Garg, S., et al., “Curcumin for maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012; 10:CD008424.


Gilliams, T., et al., “Managing chronic inflammation: natural solutions,” The Standard 2006; 7(2):1-8.


Gururaj, A., et al., “Molecular mechanisms of anti-angiogenic effect of curcumin,” Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2002; 297: 934-42.


Hanai, H., et al., “Curcumin maintenance therapy for ulcerative colitis: randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,” Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2006; 4:1502-06.


He, L., et al., “Curcumin protects pre-oligodendrocytes from activated microglia in vitro and in vivo,” Brain Res 2010; 1339:60-9.


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Holt, P., et al., “Curcumin therapy in inflammatory bowel disease: a pilot study,” Dig Dis Sci 2005; 50(11):2191-93.


Jagetia, G., et al., “’Spicing up’ of the immune system by curcumin,” Jour Clin Immunol 2007; 27:19-35.


Jobin, C., et al., “Curcumin blocks cytokine-mediated NF-kappa B activation and proinflammatory gene expression by inhibiting inhibitory factor I-kappa B kinase activity,” Jour Immunol 1999; 163:3474-83.


Jurenka, J., “Anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin, a major constituent of Curcima longa: A review of preclinical and clinical research,” Altern Med Rev 2009; 14:141-53.


Kapakos, G., et al., “Cardiovascular protection by curcumin: molecular aspects,” Indian Jour Biochem Biophys 2012; 49:306-15.


Kim, D., et al., “Curcuminoids in neurodegenerative diseases,” Recent Pat CNS Drug Discov 2012; 7:184-204.


Krishnaswamy, K., “Traditional Indian spices and their health significance,” Asia Pac Jour Clin Nutr 2008; 17(Suppl 1):265-68.


Li, L., et al., “Liposome-encapsulated curcumin: in vitro and in vivo effects on proliferation, apoptosis, signaling, and angiogenesis,” Cancer 2005; 104:1322-31.


Lim, G., et al., “The curry spice curcumin reduces oxidative damage and amyloid pathology in an Alzheimer transgenic mouse,” Jour Neurosci 2001; 21(21):8370-77.


Lin, Y., et al., “Curcumin inhibits tumor growth and angiogenesis in ovarian carcinoma by targeting the nuclear factor-kappaB pathway,” Clin Cancer Res 2007; 13:3423-30.


LoTempio, M., et al., “Curcumin suppresses growth of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma,” Clin Cancer Res 2005, 11:6994-7002.


Masuda, T., et al., “Chemical studies on antioxidant mechanisms of curcumin: analysis of oxidative coupling products from curcumin and linoleate,” Jour Agric Food Chem 2001; 49:2539-47.


Mehta, K., et al., “Antiproliferative effect of curcumin (diferuloylmethane) against human breast tumor cell lines,” Anticancer Drugs 1997; 8:470-81.


Mukhopadhyay, A., et al., “Curcumin downregulates cell survival mechanisms in human prostate cancer cell lines,” Oncogene 2001; 20: 7597-7609.


Nakamura, K., et al., “Curcumin downregulates AR gene expression and activation in prostate cancer cell lines,” Int Jour Oncol 2002; 21:825-30.


Ng, T., et al., “Curry consumption and cognitive function in the elderly,” Amer Jour Epidemiol 2006; 164(9):898-906.


Parodi, F., et al., “Oral administration of difenuloylmethane (curcumin) suppresses proinflammatory cytokines and destructive connective tissue remodeling in experimental abdominal aortic aneurysms,” Ann Vas Surg 2006; 20(3):360-68.


Prucksunand, C., et al., “Phase II clinical trial on effect of the long turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn) on healing of peptic ulcer,” Asian Jour Trop Med Pubic Health 2001; 32(1):208-15.


Rao, C., “Regulation of COX and LOX by curcumin,” Adv Exp Med Bio 2007; 595:213-26.


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Sahebkar, A., “Are curcuminoids effective C-reactive protein-lowering agents in clinical practice? Evidence from a meta-analysis,” Phytotherapy Res 2014; 28(5):633-42.


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Green Tea


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Rahbardar, M., et al., “Anti-inflammatory effects of ethanolic extract of Rosmarinus officinalis L. and rosmarinic acid in a rat model of neuropathic pain,” Biomed Pharmacother 2017; 86:441-49.


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White Willow Bark Extract


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Introduction or preface

Introduction Most people have become more interested in their health and even specifically in their immune system with the advent of the COVID-19 virus into the world. How can you build your immune system so that you do not develop this or other infectious diseases? If you do catch COVID19, how do you maximize your immune system so that hopefully you do not have as severe a case of this potentially lethal illness? The immune system is composed of specific cells and organs that ward off invaders. Normally it does a wonderful job of keeping you healthy and preventing infections and illnesses by guarding the body against everyday germs and microbes. Unlike many other parts of your body, where cells of various functions are located in areas that can be easily defined, the distribution of immune cells into various organs is more complicated. A great deal of research has recently focused on understanding the individual cell types within the immune system and identifying interacting cells and the messengers they use to communicate. In this book, Max Your Immunity, you will learn proven therapies to increase your body’s ability to fight off disease. In addition, you will discover how to restore and increase your immunity without developing an overactive immune system. Part 1 of this book discusses the role your immune system plays. How does the immune system work? What are the innate and adaptive parts of the immune system? What are T cells, B cells, natural killer cells, and other cell lines you may not have heard of? What is an autoimmune disease? How is your immune system measured? Does you immune system change with age? All of these questions will be discussed at length in this section of the book. It may surprise you that currently the number-one cause of disease in the United States and most industrialized countries is your immune system trying to protect you. It is all about balance. An overactive immune system leads to an autoimmune disease process. An underactive immune system leads to an increase in infection rate and risk of developing cancer. Furthermore, a varietyof changes are observed in the immune system, which translate into less effective innate and adaptive immune responses and increased susceptibility to infections. The capability to cope with infectious agents and cancer cells resides not only in adaptive immune responses against specific antigens, mediated by T and B lymphocytes, but also in innate immune reactions. Moreover, an age-related decline in immune functions, referred to as immunosenescence, is partially responsible for the increased prevalence and severity of infectious diseases, and the low efficacy of vaccination in older individuals. In short, this section of the book provides a comprehensive reference map defining the organization and balance of the immune system. Part 2 examines lifestyle changes and other considerations that can strengthen your immunity; from managing your stress, to optimizing gastrointestinal health, to minimizing sugar intake and alcohol intake, and a great deal more. Many of the ten keys discussed in this section can be employed on your own without a healthcare provider’s input. It is always best, however, to keep your doctor, or other healthcare professional, updated on changes in diet and other factors that you may implement to help heal and build your immune system. Part 3 reviews herbal and nutritional therapies for building immunity. Research has shown repeatedly that nutritional deficiencies or inadequacies can cause your immune system not to function perfectly. Insufficient intake of micronutrients occurs for many reasons. In addition, new studies have shown that for certain nutrients higher doses may be needed to optimize immune functions, including improving immune defense and resistance to infection. Likewise, many of these nutrients and herbal remedies help to maintain or improve immune function through different modalities of action; for example, inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators, alteration of antigen-presenting cell function, anti-inflammatory action, modulation of cell-mediated immunity, as well as communication between the innate and adaptive immune systems. To be specific, micronutrient deficiencies suppress immune functions by affecting the innate T cell-mediated immune response and adaptive antibody response, which leads to an imbalance of the immune system. This increases your susceptibility to infections, along with an escalation in morbidity and mortality. Consequently, adequate intake of vitamins and minerals are required for the immune system to function efficiently. Last, extensive sources of scientific studies, academic papers, and books have been used in writing Max Your Immunity. Therefore, you can review the medical literature on your own and also give a copy of this book to your healthcare provider in order to aid all in the worthwhile goal of optimizing your immune system.