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Almost 75 percent of your health and life expectancy is based on lifestyle, environment, and nutrition. Yet even if you follow a healthful diet, you are probably not getting all the nutrients you need to prevent disease. In What You Must Know About Vitamins, Minerals, Herbs and So Much More, Second Edition, Dr. Pamela Smith explains how you can restore and maintain health through the wise use of nutrients.

Part 1 of this easy-to-use guide provides the individual nutrients necessary for good health, including vitamins, minerals, herbs, fatty acids, amino acids, and beneficial substances such as CBD oil and cocoa. Part 2 then offers personalized nutritional programs for people with a wide variety of illnesses and disorders. Whether you want to maintain good health or you are trying to overcome a medical condition, What You Must Know About Vitamins, Minerals, Herbs and So Much More can help you make the best choices for the health and well-being of you and your family.

● Explains the need for and benefits of proper nutrition in easy-to-understand language

● Thoroughly describes the function and cautions of each recommended nutrient

● Offers the latest nutritional information for your most common health disorders

● Suggests optimum dosages and most effective supplement forms where appropriate

● Provides tips for increasing the body’s absorption of vitamins and minerals

● Includes practical and helpful advice for dealing with a variety of medical situations

Pamela Wartian Smith
Author Bio

Pamela Wartian Smith, MD, MPH, MS, is a diplomate of the American Academy of Anti-Aging Physicians and past co-director of the Master's Program in Medical Sciences, with a concentration in Metabolic and Nutritional Medicine, at the Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida. An authority on the subjects of wellness and functional medicine, she is also the founder of the Fellowship in Anti-Aging, Regenerative, and Functional Medicine. Dr. Smith is the best-selling author of ten books, including What You Must Know About Vitamins, Minerals, Herbs & So Much MoreWhat You Must Know About Women's Hormones; and What You Must Know About Memory Loss.

Table of contents


Introduction                                                                 000

The Purpose of this Book                                            000

Mixing Supplements, Drugs, and Food                       000


Part 1: Nutrients

1. Vitamins                                                                  000

2. Minerals                                                                  000

3. Fatty Acids                                                             

4. Amino Acids                                                          

Part 2: Health Conditions                                          



Adrenal Fatigue and Exhaustion

Alzheimer’s Disease

Anorexia Nervosa





Autoimmune Diseases

Benign Prostastic Hypertrophy




Cervical Cancer

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Closed Head Injury

Common Cold

Congestive Heart Failure

Crohn’s Disease


Diabetes Mellitus

Dry Eyes


Estrogen-Related Problems


Food Allergies

Gall Bladder Disorders


Hair Loss

Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

Hepatitis C

High Blood Pressue (Hypertension)

High Cholesterol





Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

Leaky Gut Syndrome

Leg Cramps


Macular Degeneration

Menopause-Related Problems

Migraine Headaches

Multiple Sclerosis

Myasthenia Gravis



Parkinson’s Disease

Periodontal Disease

Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)


Rheumatoid Arthritis

Scleroderma (Systemic Sclerosis)

Sjögren’s Syndrome


Ulcerative Colitis

Varicose Veins

Wound Healing


Part 3: Maintaining Health                                        

Bodybuilder’s Nutrition

Dieter’s Nutrition

Enhancing Detoxification

Enhancing Energy

Enhancing Immunity

Liver Health

Memory Enhancement

Men’s Health

Smoker’s Nutrition

Sports Nutrtion

Sun Tanner’s Nutrition

Surgery and Nutrition

Women’s Health







Introduction or preface


Do you need to take vitamins and other nutrients? In what amounts should you take them? Which supplements are the most effective? What should you take for a specific illness or chronic problem? Answering these questions is a fundamental aspect of good health and longevity--but there are so many countering viewpoints regarding nutrients and nutrient supplementation that it can be hard to know what to do. This book will provide you with the critical information necessary to find the answers that are right for you.

            Various health committees have attempted to provide nutritional guidelines. The Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Science, for example, developed its recommended daily allowance (RDA) and its reference daily intake (RDI). However, these dietary suggestions, which are often strictly adhered to by well-meaning individuals, are designed to prevent disease. They are not designed to help people achieve optimal wellness--which should be the goal.

            Furthermore, the RDA and RDI were developed without considering that each person requires a different amount of vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients. To fully promote your body's health, your nutritional intake must reflect such factors as medications, vitamin interactions, soil depletion, need for more antioxidants, stress, age, lifestyle, and genetics. Therefore, you cannot trust that your healthy friend's nutritional plan will necessarily work for you. Dr. Linus Pauling first described this phenomenon in 1968.

            Proper determination of what your body needs is imperative. Almost 75 percent of your health and life expectancy is based on lifestyle, environment, and nutrition. Just as importantly, these factors also greatly influence the number of years you spend healthy. This has been proven by studies which show that “not only do persons with better health habits survive longer, but in such persons, disability is postponed and compressed into fewer years at the end of life.” An article in the New England Journal of Medicine illustrated this point. After examining diet, lifestyle, and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women, the author concluded that the majority of type 2 diabetes cases are preventable with the adoption of a healthy lifestyle.

            Similarly, researchers in the Journal of the American Medical Association stated, “Suboptimal vitamin states are associated with many chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and osteoporosis. It is important for physicians to identify patients with poor nutrition or other reasons for increased vitamin needs.” They suggested that, “Most people do not consume an optimal amount of all vitamins by diet alone…it appears prudent for all adults to take vitamin supplements.”

                What You Must Know About Vitamins, Minerals, Herbs, and More provides the information you need to know about nutrients--including signs of deficiencies, how to treat various diseases and disorders, and the dangers of certain interactions. It will allow you to make informed decisions, optimize your health, and live your life well.




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Fletcher, R., et al., “Vitamins for chronic disease prevention in adults,” JAMA 2002; 287(23):3116.

Hardy, M., et al., “Multivitamin/multimineral supplements for cancer prevention: implications for primary care practice,” Postgrad Med 2015; 127(1):107-16.

Hu, F., et al., “Diet, lifestyle, and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women,” JAMA 2001; 345(11):790–97.

Murray, C., et al., “Alternative projections of mortality and disability by cause 1990–2020: global burden of disease study,” Lancet 1997; 349:1498–1504.

Vita, A., et al., “Aging, health risks, and cumulative disability,” NEJM 1998; 338:1035–41.

The Purpose of This Book

Angelo, G., et al., “Efficacy of multivitamin/mineral supplementation to reduce chronic disease risk: A critical review of the evidence from observational studies and randomized controlled trials,” Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2015; 55(14):1968-91.

Bender, D., Introduction to Nutrition and Metabolism. 5th Ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2014.

Bland, J., “Oxidants and antioxidants in clinical medicine: past, present, and future potential,” Jour Environ Med 1995; 5:255–80.

Challem, J., Syndrome X. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2000.

Colgan, M., The New Nutrition. Vancouver, BC: Apple Publishing, 1995.

Galland, L., “Person-centered diagnosis and chronic fatigue,” Metabolic Energy, Messenger Molecules, and Chronic Illness: The Functional Perspective. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 2000.

Lieberman, S., The Real Vitamin and Mineral Book. New York, NY: Avery Publishing Group, 1997.

Nord, E., et al., “Addressing nutritional gaps with multivitamin and mineral supplements,” Nutr Jour 2014; July 15; 13:72.

ixing Supplements, Drugs, and Food

Colgan, M., The New Nutrition.Vancouver, BC: Apple Publishing, 1995.

Fuhr, U., et al. “Drug interactions with grapefruit juice, extent, probable mechanism, and clinical relevance,” Drug Sci 1998; 18:251–72.

Lieberman, S., The Real Vitamin and Mineral Book. New York, NY: Avery Publishing Group, 1997.

Meletis, C., Interactions Between Drugs and Natural Medicines. Sandy, OR: Electric Medical Publications, 1999.

Sinatra, D., and Houston, M., Nutritional Integrative Strategies in Cardiovascular Health. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2015.

Taylor, L., The Healing Power of Rainforest Herbs. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers, 2005.

Ulene, A., Dr. Art Ulene’s Complete Guide to Vitamins, Minerals, and Herbs. New York, NY: Avery Publishing Group, 2000.




Bateman, J., “Possible toxicity of herbal remedies,” Scot Med Jour 1998; 4:7–15.

Bender, D., Introduction to Nutrition and Metabolism. 5th Ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2014.

Colgan, M., The New Nutrition.Vancouver, BC: Apple Publishing, 1995.

Hart, C., The Insulin-Resistance Diet. Chicago, IL: Contemporary Books, 2001.

Lieberman, S., The Real Vitamin and Mineral Book. New York, NY: Avery Publishing Group, 1997.


Vitamin A and the Carotenoids

Allen, L., et al., “Iron supplements: scientific issues concerning efficacy and implications for research and programs,” Jour Nutr 2002; 132 (4 Suppl):813S-819S.

Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group, The, “The effect of vitamin E and β-carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers,” NEJM 1994; 330(15):1029-35.

Aune, D., et al., “Dietary compared with blood concentrations of carotenoids and breast cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2012; 96(2):356-73.

Bellemere, G., et al., “Amazing actions of retinol from molecular to clinical,” Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2009; 22(4):200-09.

Berson, E., et al., “A randomized trial of vitamin A and vitamin E supplementation for retinitis pigmentosa,”Arch Ophthalmol 1993; 111(6):761-72.  

Bitteto, D., et al., “Vitamin A deficiency is associated with hepatitis C virus chronic infection and with unresponsiveness to interferon-based antiviral therapy,” Hepatology 2013; 57(3):925-33.

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.

Booij, M., et al., “Acitretin revisited in the era of biologics,” Jour Dermatol Treat 2011; 22(2):86-9.

Boucheron-Houston, C., et al., “Long-term vitamin A deficiency induces alteration of adult mouse spermatogenesis and spermatogonial differentiation: direct effect on spermatogonial gene expression and indirect effects via somatic cells,” Jour Nutr Biochem 2013; 24(6):1123-35.

Braun, L., and Cohen, M., (Eds.) Herbs and Natural Supplements. 4th Ed. Australia: Elsevier, 2015.

Brownstein, D., The Miracle of Natural Hormones. West Bloomfield, MI: Medical Alternatives Press, 1999.

Cerhan, J., et al., “A cohort study of diet and prostate cancer risk,” Cancer Epidem Biomark Preven 1998; 7:175.

Chew, E., et al, “Secondary analyses of the effects of lutein/zeaxanthin on age-related macular degeneration progression: AREDS2 report No. 3,” JAMA Ophthalmol 2014; 132(2):142-49. 

Chew, E., et al., “Effect of omega-3 fatty acids, lutein/zeaxanthin, or other nutrient supplementation on cognitive function: the AREDS2 randomized clinical trial,” JAMA 2015; 314:791-801.

Cho, E., et al., “Prospective study of intake of fruits, vegetables, vitamins, and carotenoids and risk of age-related maculopathy,” Arch Ophthalmol 2004; 122(6):883-92.

Christen, W., et al., “A randomized trial of β-carotene and age-related cataract in US physicians,” Arch Ophthalmol 2003; 121(3):372-78. 

Christian, P., et al., “Interactions between zinc and vitamin A: an update,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1998; 68(2 Suppl):435S-441S.

Clinton, S., et al., “Cis-trans isomers of lycopene in the human prostate: a role in cancer prevention?” FASEB Jour 1995; 9:A442.

Crook, T., The Memory Cure. New York, NY: Pocket Books, 1998.

Dai, Z., et al., “Protective effects of dietary carotenoids on risk of hip fracture in men: the Singapore Chinese Health Study,” Jour Bone Miner Res 2014; 29(2):408-17.

D'Odorico, A., et al., “High plasma levels of alpha- and β-carotene are associated with a lower risk of atherosclerosis: results from the Bruneck study,” Atherosclerosis 2000; 153(1):231-39. 

Durairajanayagam, D., et al., “Lycopene and male infertility,” Asian Jour Androl 2014; 16(3):420–25.

Dwyer, J., et al., “Progression of carotid intima-media thickness and plasma antioxidants: The Los Angeles Atherosclerosis Study,” Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2004; 24(2):313-19. 

Eliassen, A., et al., “Circulating carotenoids and risk of breast cancer: pooled analysis of eight prospective studies,” Jour Natl Cancer Inst 2012; 104(24):1905-16. 

Evans, J., “Antioxidant supplements to prevent or slow down the progression of AMD: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Eye 2008; 22(6):751-60.

Feskanich, D., et al. “Vitamin A intake and hip fracture among postmenopausal woman,” JAMA 2002; 287(1):47–54.

Friedman, L., “Saffron improves vision in aging humans,” Life Extension July 2016, p. 24-31.

Gale, C., et al., “Lutein and zeaxanthin status and risk of age-related macular degeneration,” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2003; 44(6):2461-65. 

Gann, P., et al., “A phase II randomized trial of lycopene-rich tomato extract among men with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia,” Nutr Cancer 2015; 67(7):1104-12. 

Gey, K., et al., “Low plasma retinol predicts coronary events in healthy middle-aged men: The PRIME Study,” Atherosclerosis 2010; 208(1):270-74.

Gontero, P., et al., “A randomized double-blind placebo controlled phase I-II study on clinical and molecular effects of dietary supplements in men with precancerous prostatic lesions,” Chemoprevention or "chemopromotion"? Prostate 2015; 75(11):1177-86.

Huk, D., et al., “Increased dietary intake of vitamin A promotes aortic valve calcifications in vivo,” Artherioscler Thromb Vas Biol 2013; 33(2):285-93.

Ito, Y., et al., “A population-based follow-up study on mortality from cancer or cardiovascular disease and serum carotenoids, retinol and tocopherols in Japanese inhabitants,” Asian Pac Jour Cancer Prev 2006; 136(7):533-46.

Jang, J., et al., “Kinetic analysis shows that iron deficiency decreases liver vitamin A mobilization in rats,” Jour Nutr 2000; 130(5):1291-96.

Johansson, S., et al., “Vitamin A antagonizes calcium response to vitamin D in man,” Jour Bone Miner Res 2001; 16(10):1899-1905.

Johnson, E., et al., “The role of carotenoids in human health,” Nutr Clin Care 2002; 5(2):56-65.

Kabat, G., et al., “Intake of antioxidant nutrients and risk of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in the women’s Health Initative,” Nutr Cancer 2012; 64(2):245-54.

Key, T., et al.  “Carotenoids, retinol, tocopherols, and prostate cancer risk: pooled analysis of 15 studies,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2015; 102(5):1142-57. 

Kim, E., et al., “A comparison of vitamin A and cyclosporine A 0.05% eye drops for treatment of dry eye syndrome,” Amer Jour Ophthamol 2009; 147(2):206-13.

Krinsky, N., et al., “Carotenoid actions and their relation to health and diseases,” Mol Aspects Med 2005; 26(6):459-516.

Krinsky, N., Vitamin A. Oregon: Linus Pauling Institute, 2002.

Kritchevsky, S., “β-Carotene, carotenoids and the prevention of coronary heart disease,” Jour Nutr 1999; 129(1):5-8. 

Kumar, N., et al., “Results of a randomized clinical trial of the action of several doses of lycopene in localized prostate cancer: administration prior to radical prostatectomy,” Clin Med Urol 2008; 1:1-14.

Leenders, M., et al., “Plasma and dietary carotenoids and vitamins A, C and E and risk of colon and rectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition,” Int Jour Cancer 2014; 135(12):2930-39. 

Leoncini, E., et al., “Carotenoid intake from natural sources and head and neck cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies,” Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2015; 24(7):1003-11.

Li, C., et al., “Serum alpha-carotene concentrations and risk of death among US adults: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Follow-up Study,” Arch Inter Med 2011; 171(6):507-15.

Li, Y., et al., “Lycopene, smoking and lung cancer,” Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res 1997; 38:113.

Lieber, C., “Relationships between nutrition, alcohol use, and liver disease,” Alcohol Res Health 2003; 27(3):220-31.

Lieberman, S., The Real Vitamin and Mineral Book. New York, NY: Avery Publishing Group, 1997.

Liu, R., et al., “Lutein and zeaxanthin supplementation and association with visual function in age-related macular degeneration,” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2015; 56(1):252-58.

Lo-Coco, F., et al., “Retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide for acute promyelocytic leukemia,” NEJM 2013; 369(2):111-21.

Ma, I., et al., “Effect of lutein and zeaxanthin on macular pigment and visual function in patients with early age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmolgy 2012; 119(11):2290-97.

Ma, I., et al., “Improvement of retinal function in early age-related macular degeneration after lutein and zeaxanthin supplementation: a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial,” Amer Jour Ophthalmol 2012; 154(4):625-34.

Ma, l., et al., “Effect of lutein and zeaxanthin on macular pigment and visual function in patients with early age-related macular degeneration,” Ophthalmology 2012; 119(11):2290-97.

Mares-Perlman, J., et al., “The body of evidence to support a protective role for lutein and zeaxanthin in delaying chronic disease. Overview,” Jour Nutr 2002; 132(3):518S-524S. 

Mason, J., “Vitamins, trace minerals, and other micronutrients.” Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th Ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders; 2011.

Min, K., et al., “Association between leukocyte telomere length and serum carotenoid in US adults,” Eur Jour Nutr 2016.

Mizuno, Y., et al., “Serum vitamin A concentrations in asthmatic children in Japan,” Pediatr Int 2006; 48(3):261-64.

Morris, M., et al., “Associations of vegetable and fruit consumption with age-related cognitive change,” Neurology 2006; 67(8):1370-76. 

Mu, L., et al., “Effects of lutein and zeaxanthin on aspects of eye health,” Jour Sci Food Agric 2010; 90(1):2-12.

Murray, I., et al., “Lutein supplementation over a one-year period in early AMD might have a mild beneficial effect on visual acuity: the CLEAR study,” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2013; 54(3):1781-88.

Neuhouser, M., et al., “Olestra is associated with slight reductions in serum carotenoids but does not markedly influence serum fat-soluble vitamin concentrations,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2006; 83(3):624-31.

Orfanos, C., et al., “Oral retinoids in the treatment of seborrhoea and acne,” Dermatology 1998; 196(1):140-47.

Osganian, S., et al., “Dietary carotenoids and risk of coronary artery disease in women,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2003; 77(6):1390-99.

Paran, E., et al., “Effect of lycopene on blood pressure, serum lipoproteins, plasma homocysteine, and oxidative stress markers in grade I hypertensive patients,” Amer Jour Hyperten 2001; 140–141A, Abstract P-333.

Paran, E., et al., “Effect of lycopene, an oral natural antioxidant, on blood pressure,” Jour Hyperten 2001; 19:S74, Abstract P-1.204.

Pietrizk, K., et al., “Antioxidant, vitamins, cancer, and cardiovascular disease,” NEJM Letter to the Editor 1996; 335(14):1065–66.

Pongeharosen, S., et al., “Protective effect of silk lutein on ultraviolet B-irradiated human keratinocytes,” Biol Res 2013; 46(1):39-45.

Qu, M., et al., “Lycopene prevents amyloid (beta)-Induced mitochondrial oxidative stress and dysfunctions in cultured rat cortical neurons,” Neurochem Res 2016; 41(6):1354-64.

Qu, M., et al., “Protective effects of lycopene against methylmercury-induced neurotoxicity in cultured rat cerebellar granule neurons,” Brain Res 2013; 1540:92-102.

Rao, A., et al., “Role of lycopene as antioxidant carotenoid in the prevention of chronic diseases: a review,” Nutri Res 1999; 19:305-23.

Richer, S., et al., “Double-masked place-controlled, randomized trial of lutein and antioxidant supplementation in the intervention of atrophic age-related macular degeneration: the Veterans LAST study (Lutein Antioxidant Supplementation Trial),” Optometry 2004; 75(4):216-30.

Rissanen, T., et al., “Low plasma lycopene concentration is associated with increased intima-media thickness of the carotid artery wall,” Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2000; 20(12):2677-81. 

Roberts, J., et al., “The photobiology of lutein and zeaxanthin in the eye,” Jour Ophthalmol 2015; 2015:687173.

Ross, A., “Vitamin A.” Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 11th Ed: Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2014, p.260-277.

Russell, R., “The vitamin A spectrum: from deficiency to toxicity,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2000; 71(4):878-84.

Sahni, S., et al., “Protective effect of total carotenoid and lycopene intake on the risk of hip fracture: a 17-year follow-up from the Framingham Osteoporosis Study,” Jour Bone Miner Res 2009; 24(6):1086-94. 

Sasamoto, Y., et al., “Effect of 1-year lutein supplementation on macular pigment optical density and visual function,” Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2011; 249(12):1847-54.

Semba, R., et al. “Vitamin A and immunity to viral, bacterial, and protozoan infections,” Proc Nutr Soc 1999; 58(3):719–27.

Semba, R., et al., “The anemia of vitamin A deficiency: epidemiology and pathogenesis,” Eur Jour Clin Nutr 2002; 56(4):271-81.

Sesso, H., et al., “Plasma lycopene, other carotenoids, and retinol and the risk of cardiovascular disease in women,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2004; 79(1):47-53.

Sibulesky, L., et al., “Safety of <7500 RE (<25000 IU) vitamin A daily in adults with retinitis pigmentosa,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1999; 69(4):656-63.

Sies, H., et al., “Vitamins E, C, beta-carotene, and other carotenoids as antioxidants,” Amer Jour Nutr 995; 62 (6 Supple):1315S-1321S.

Solomons, N. “Vitamin A.” Present Knowledge in Nutrition. 10th Ed, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2012, p.149-84. 

Sugiura, M., et al., “High serum carotenoids associated with lower risk for bone loss and osteoporosis in post-menopausal Japanese female subjects: prospective cohort study,” PLoS One 2012; 7(12):e52643.

Suharno, D., et al., “Supplementation with vitamin A and iron for nutritional anaemia in pregnant women in West Java, Indonesia,” Lancet 1993; 342(8883):1325-28.

Thielitz, A., et al., “Topical retinoids in acne vulgaris: update on efficacy and safety,” Amer Jour Clin Dermatol 2008; 9(6):369-81.

Tyrer, L., “Nutrition and the pill,” Jour Reprod Med 1984; 29(7):S547-S550.

Underwood, B., et al., “The contribution of vitamin A to public health,” Faseb Jour 1996; 10(9):1040-48.

van Poppel, G., et al., “Effect of β-carotene on immunological indexes in healthy male smokers,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 1993; 57(3):402-07. 

Voutilainen, S., et al., “Carotenoids and cardiovascular health,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2006; 83(6):1265-71. 

Weigert, G., et al., “Effects of lutein supplementation on macular pigment optical density and visual acuity in patients with age-related macular degeneration,” Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2011; 52(11):8174-78.

Wu, J., et al., “Intakes of lutein, zeaxanthin, and other carotenoids and age-related macular degeneration during 2 decades of prospective follow-up,” JAMA Ophthalmol 205; 133(12):1415-24.

Yang, H., et al., “Vitamin A for treating measles in children,” Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011; 2005.

Yilmaz, A., et al., “Adjuvant effect of vitamin A on recurrent lower urinary tract infections,” Pediatr Int 2007; 49(3):3110-13.


Vitamin D

Al Faraj, S., et al., “Vitamin D deficiency and chronic low back pain in Saudi Arabia,” Spine 2003; 28(2):177-9.

Ali, F., et al., “Loss of seizure control due to anticonvulsant-induced hypocalcemia,” Am Pharmacother 2004; 38(6):1002-5.

Armas, L., et al., “Vitamin D2 is much less effective than vitamin D3 in humans,” Jour Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004; 89:5387-391.

Ashtari, F., et al., “The relation between vitamin D status with fatigue and depressive symptoms of multiple sclerosis,” Jour Res Med Sci 2013; 18(3):193-97.

Baird, D., et al., “Vitamin D and risk of uterine fibroids,” Epidemiology 2013; 24(3):447-53.

Bischoff-Ferrari, H., et al., “Fracture prevention with vitamin D supplementation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials,” JAMA, 2005; 293(18):2257-64.

Bland, J., Clinical Nutrition: A Functional Approach. Gig Harbor, WA: Institute for Functional Medicine, 1999.

Borissova, A., et al., “The effect of vitamin D3 on insulin secretion and peripheral insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients,” Int J. Clin Pract 2003; 57(4):258-61.

Borkar, V. et al., “Low levels of vitamin D in North Indian children with newly diagnosed type I diabetes,” Horm Metab Res 2005; 37:680-83.

Bouilon, R., et al., “Vitamin D as potential baseline therapy for blood pressure control,” Amer Jour Hypertens 2009; 22:816.

Braun, L., et al., Herbs & Natural Supplements: An Evidence-Based Guide. 4th Ed. Volume 2. New York: Elsevier, 2015.

Busse, B., et al., “Vitamin D deficiency induces early signs of aging in human bone, increasing the risk of fracture,” Science Transl Med 2013; 5(192):ra88.

Cao, Y., et al., “Association between serum levels of 25(OH) vitamin D and osteoarthritis: a systemic review,” Rheumatology 2013; 52(7):1323-34.

Chiu, K., et al., “Hypovitaminosis D is associated with insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction,” Amer Jour Clin Nutr 2004; 79:820–25.

Christiansen, C., et al., “Anticonvulsant action of vitamin D in epileptic patients? A controlled pilot study,” Br. Med J. 1974; 2(913):258-9.

Collins, J., What’s Your Menopause Type? Roseville, CA: Prima Publishing, 2000.

Dawson-Hughes, B., et al., “Effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone density in men and women 65 years of age or older,” NEJM 1997; 337(10):670–76.

Dawson-Hughes, B., et al., “Effect of vitamin D supplementation on wintertime and overall bone loss in healthy postmenopausal women,” Ann Intern Med 1991; 115(7):505–12.

de Boer, I., et al., “25-hydroxyvitamin D levels inversely associated with risk for developing coronary artery calcification,” Jour Amer Soc Nephrol 2009; 20:1805-12.

Gagnon, C., et al., “Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, calcium intake, and risk of type 2 diabetes after 5 years: results from a national, population-based prospective study (the Australian Diabetes, Obesity, and Lifestyle study),” Diabetes Care 2011; 34:1133-38.

Garcia-Bailo, B., et al., “Plasma vitamin D and biomarkers of cardiometabolic disease risk in adult Canadians, 2007-2009,” Prev Chronic Dis 2013; June 6, 10:E91.

Garland, C., et al., “What is the dose-response relationship between vitamin D and cancer risk? Nutrition Reviews 2007; 65(8):S91-S95.

Ginde, A., et al., “Demographic differences and trends of vitamin D insufficiency in the U.S. population, 1988-2004,” Arch Intern Med 2008; 169(6):626-32.

Glendenning, P., et al., “Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in vitamin D-insufficient hip fracture patients after supplementation with ergocalciferol and cholecalciferol,” Bone 2009; 45(5):870-75.

Goldberg, P., et al., “Multiple sclerosis: decreased relapse rate through dietary supplementation with calcium, magnesium and vitamin D,” Med Hypotheses, 1986: 21(2):193-200.

Grant, W., et al., “An estimate of premature cancer mortality in the U.S. due to inadequate doses of solar ultraviolet-B radiation,” Cancer 2002; 94(6):1867-75. 

Heaney R., et al., “Vitamin D(3): is more potent than vitamin D(2) in humans,” Jour Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001; 96(3):E447-52.

Holick, M., et al., “Vitamin D and bone health,” Jour Nutr 1996; 126:1159S–1164S.

Holick, M., et al., “Calcium and vitamin D. Diagnostics and therapeutics,” Clin Lab Med 2000; 20(3):569-90. 

Huisman, A., et al., “Vitamin D levels in women with systemic lupus erythematosus and fibromyalgia,” J. Rheumatol 2001; 28(11)2535-9.

Kini, S., et al., “A reversible form of cardiomyopathy,” J. Postgrad Med 2003; 49(1):85-7.